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policies, or practices. 

AD- 33 Boolplat* 


U. S. Forest Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 

Vol. VBLlfoJ, 

Washington, Do C. 

By Wit'l Q'« Barnes, Washington 

At th3 recent annual meeting of the officers and members hf the 
Government Employees' Mutual Belief Association, the showing made by our 
little association was remarkably good. The reserve funds invested in 
interest-paying securities now amount to about $$,500, the interest on 
which pays nearly all the annual costs of running the association. Ther 
will bo a surplus from the income for 1922 which will add $500 or $600 
to this reserve. Thus, in time-, the association, if it has no backoets, 
will become more than self-supporting. 

It is interesting to look back over our record and realize what 
can bj clon^ through such cooperative methods in assuring ourselves and 
each other of some reimbursement for those accidents and sicknesses which 
overtake the best of us, no matter how careful we may be. Take the case 
of Tbrest Supervisor Goddard, whose recent death cast a gloom over the 
entire service. Goddard joined the association in its early years, but 
let his membership lapse. In 1917 he was reinstatad and kept up his due 
regularly after that. 'For hospital, doctors' bills and funeral expenses 
his widow received more than $650, which paid every debt incurred in his 
long sickn.iss. The amount Goddard had paid into the association was noth- 
ing whatever when compared with the total returned to his widow at his 

We frequently hear of instances where men have allowed their mem- 
bership with the organization to lapse, and then find themselves sick or : 
the victims of an accident and can not secure reimbursement. Take the 
case of Chapline, for instance. Two or three years ago he ran a sliver 
in his hand (probably from scratching his head), which brought about a 
very serious case of blood poisoning. He was obliged to go to the hos- 
pital and had to pay hospital and surgeon bills, all of which would have 
been borne by the association had he kept up his membership. The joke 
was on him in this case* It is needless to say that as soon as Chap re- 
covered from this accident and could legitimately ask for a restoration 
to the association he did so. No sooner did he find himself restored to 
the rolls than he took advantage of the situation to contract a serious 
case of sicknass, which cost the association quite a sum, although he had 
paid in only th3 first year's fees amounting to $12, The joke was on the 
association that time. 

If you have any interest in your family, want your widow to wear 
decent clothes to your funeral, or don't want to dodge your doctor when 
you see him coming, for goodiiess sake don't neglect this matter. Sit right 
down at your desk and write a check for $7, one dollar of which is the 
initiation fee and $6 of which will pay your dues in the association for 
six months. Send it to Secretary H. B. Herms, care the \7ashington Office, 
and get into the organization before something happens to you. 2o it How! 
You may fall over a cliff next week and sprain your neck. If you have a 
wife tell her to koep you reminded to keep the payments up right along. 
She'll do it all right. If you haven't a -wife get one, they are a good 
thing to have round the house. 


Mrs stodi^s fifgrax,. mass poacraagiME LiGgpmiai storms 

By Ho T. Gisborne, Priest River Exp. Station 

The recent, study of lightning storms and their relation to forest 
fires in District 1 has shown that there were noticeable differences be- 
tween the storms whion started fires and those which did not. The data 
are based on 1,300 detailed thunderstorm reports obtained from nearly 150 
observers daring the fire season of 1922. 

Tor the District as a whole approximately one lightning storm out of 
four was found to cause fires which were reported, by lookouts. As would 
naturally be supposed, storms with V3ry numerous flashes of lightning 
largely directed toward the ground caused fires more often than storms 
With only a few flashes which were largely from cloud to cloud. Rating the 
storms as heavy, medium and light, according to the number of flashes, it 
appears that about one-third of the heavy, one-fourth of the medium and only 
on:— tenth of the light storms caused fires. Furthermore, over half the 
storms causirg fires were heavy, one- third medium, and one-tenth light. 
From wfcich it is evident that the heavy storm is by far the most dangerous. 

It was also found that the fire-starting storms were characterized by 
having over half of their flashes directed toward the ground, while the non- 
dangerous storms had considerably more than half of their flashes occurring 
only as cloud to cloud lightning. The fact that there were 526 reports sub- 
mitted by over IOC different lookouts and rangers giving complete informa- 
tion on this phase of the investigation shows that such observations are pos- 
sible in practice. 

There were also 664 reports giving a complete record of tho rainfall 
in storms causing or not causing fires. A rather unexpected result was ob- 
tained in this connection. For storms not causing fires it was found that 
on the average rain fell for 12 minutes before and 42 minutes following the 
lightning. For storms causing fires the averages were 10 and 12C minutes 
respectively. In other words, the average rainfall following fire-starting 
lightning storms continued nearly three times as long as that of lightning 
storms which did not set fires. Moreover, it was found that the rainfall 
was heavier during the lightning of the fire-starting storms <, The explana- 
tion for this rather interesting condition seems to lie in the known mete- 
orological fact that heavy lightning goes. with heavy rain during the light- 
ning season. The reason that so many fires are started despite this greater 
amount of rain is to be found in another known fact, viz., that a much greater 
percentage of lightning reaches the ground in the heavier storms than in the 
lighter and relatively "dry" storms. 

This study of the characteristics of lightning storms is to be con- 
tinued and rounded out with the records of a series of years, so that the 
findings can be utilised for predicting the relative danger to bs expected 
from electrical storms. 

By Wm, R. Kreutzer, D~2 

Y/e raoasure a man's height in inches or centimeters. Pounds and ounces 
or grams and centigrams offer us exact standards for measuring his weight, 
but there are no absolute standards for measuring the man himself, and prob- 
ably there never can be. V/e certainly can not put a man on the scales end 
ascertain that he has so many liters of good sense or so many cubic inches 
of executive ability or so many kilowatts of disposition to industry. Hamas 
values, therefore, can be standardised only relatively. 

We are now endeavoring to ascertain approximately the average or nor- 
mal by the study of groups of men in the 'Forest Service of the same or sim- 
ilar grades of service work or occupation. We must agree that some men, by 
reason of the nature, position and requirements of the work to which they 
have been assigned, are a misfit - a square peg in a round hole - so to speak. 
Some men are not fitted for city life; others are not fitted for country life, 
and it is possible that some are not fitted for either. 

Only recently while on a forest fire, some of the Forestry students 
stated that they had had enough of the profession of Forestry, if fighting 
fire was considered Forestry. S-affice it to say that they were g-v.n to un- 
derstand that fighting forest fires was an exceedingly important factor in 
thu, practice of Forestry on the National Forests. 


More careful attention should be gi?en .the employee while he is 
serving., his. probational period.' failure "to- determine .the ability of the 
appointee, to perform the duties of his position during the probational 
period has been the chief cause cf most of the. personnel casss,.- , 

•After men are once permanently appointed, other methods must be re-'- 
sorted to in order to qualify them for the various lines of BOrest Service 
work, The 'perstnaii ties of the Supervisors , Deputies, ibr'est Assistants 
and . Pt>re-s-t.,:'i5xaminei'sr'and. the effect of such -■•personalities upon rangers,,. -- 
for instance:', undoub te'dly .is .a." very'- important- fac tor in the development of 
these men. The same, possibly,, is .true of-the-men higher up in the. scale'- ' ; - 
of positions. "■ \ t < '"'•'■ ". » v f . " ■ ..''•" ,. . . ■ .>.<'■>% 

A certain 'typp- of .Supervisor will' got good results .with', a. .per, tain 
type o..f men in his organization, but only a .'certain type.. 1 ' It should,, be^.. : 
remembered in this connection that' e'er tain men,- 'harmonize and work ..well to- • 
gether. . Others • are antagonistic •' and discordant. \, By their very nature .they 
can not work In the harmqny which -is essential '■ to> efficiency. .. -. ■ ■;, -.. 

..We have a pore one 3l. rating system. It would], ..seem /that' wo,, should i ' 
classify the various'' items o-f information needed in rating cur men' with 
reference to- t-h$ : if" work' and environment, These, it is believed/ are health;- 
oharac ter T intollige'ncc, ^d ispos i tion t o.. ' indust ry . natural aptitudes a<nfl ex- 
^rie.noe ^ ■ • •'_ ..^ - ,' • '''•'" '..'• - ,. * . < 

Under;, health, ' ail "a, man, 1 s physical attributes should be included.,". 
It would seem that 'a man., should be considered as- to-his size,' strength, en- 
durance, -o ond it ion of body, predisposition to health, as to disease, as to 
his moral and mental health and as to his sobriety. 

Character embraces -honesty, truthful nes.s ^ Royalty , discretion and 
prudenc a , e nthus iasm t c ourage , stead fasxno^'3'V' dc^en'dab ility and a numb er 
of other related factors. A man who is deficient in honesty, in truthful- 
ness, in loyalty will find half a dozen ways, tq^-eat: every possible kind 
of check upon his reliability.-;.; v, ' - • • t "' ; '\. ':..."■{: \ :. A - - 

Intelligence, of course prelates "to thV. : man' s mental ability, his 
ability to learn and his ability to understand and follow instructions. 
This is a very important element in Service work, since instructions alone 
will not bring results if they. are not f olloxved or ^.if. they are misunderstood. 
Among the qualities which are ;included -under ' intelligence are. judgment and 
memory, the powers of observation, and esxpre.s.s/ion. speaking or in writing, 
imagination, reasoning' 'power £nd 'all otfyer qualities., which are purely in- 
tellectual. ' ..".' vy\ .<"'*} J ,. : , 

Disposition to industry is a very important element ahd one in which 
we are very liable to misjudge others. ■ & man 'once .•said.:-- ** Ail 5 men ara lazy, 
but some are lazier than others.;..'?' -It 4 might be* 'jbstfcer to' put "it this way: 
"All men are industrious, but; sours* -a re morb industrious than others." 

The element of experience plays a very important part in the quali- 
fications of a Merest Officer.- A man might fit into our organization in so 
far as all of the other points" that I have . enumerated,. ^re concerned and yet 
not have either education or the training for the particular position to 
which he has been assigned. What should- bV: done .vvith'hi.m? It is a ques- 
tion of either taking the man with apti Wdos : ancT educating hitij for the par- 
ticular line of work he is expected to undertake in- the Service-Through our 
educational- sections, or ■ eliminating him-aiid taking' some one- who'' has perhaps 
less natural aptitude but more experi ence and* graining 1 ..' A successful splur 
tion of this phase of the personnel .problem might, be ^brought about,, by .a 
more careful selection of newsmen and. then take, -this iraw material,, if.l may -. 
use the term, and mould it into, fch ?■ District 'Bangers-,. Deputy Supervisors and 
Supervisors of the future by proper- training and education' in the Service.. 
If we can select men with natural aptitudes, stability of character^ good 
health and all other fundamentals and' 'then train them for the.' work they are 
to do, we get -the very best results «» Thorpe can be no question about this, 

A. training section for: the" purpose of ascertaining ; the' ; cause for 
the unsatisfactory 'service-. of . employees and the education' and development 
for these that show any inclination "to advance undoubtedly would be of con- 
siderable value in cur Service. ?or instance, if the officer fails to 
fight forest fires satisfactorily, here is a case for the training section, 
since he may do satisfactory work in many other lines. 

The practice of selecting Supervisors and filling the vacancies of 
higher Forest officers from the ranks has done much to build up and strength- 
en the general personnel of the Service* The practice of having a "waiting 
list" of previous employees and reinstating them, if they left the Service 
in good standing, is a good one/ 

Personal contact with the men in the field has done more to improve 
our personnel than any other factor. Credit for good work should always be 
given and this should be used as a foundation upon which to build our 
larger superstructure which will gradually fill in and crowd out the weak 
places caused by poor work. • 

We should find in every man as many of- his good points as possible, 
stress those and use them as stepping- stones upon> which to raise the lower 
points to a higher level. 

Superior officers should stand behind their men in order to overcome 
failure in the execution of their duties. It is the oneness, the merging 
of personality, that has made the Forest Service what it is to-day. Hence, 
the success of the Service, to a considerable degree, is shared by every 
member and each should feel proud that he has taken part in the develop- 
ment of this great organization, 

Ifeiny ins tances in personnel cases might be recalled but v/hen we sim- 
mer it all down, the final result depends ( \j?Dn our sus ta i ne d .indiy i dual ef- 
forts . The word "think" should be the first letter of our alphabet and the 
remainder of our success in this big service is contained in the second 
letter, which is spelled "W-O-R-K." 

By S« D. Fletcher, 1-7 

Old Hanger Bill has' drifted West 
To wear his chaps and a velvet vest, 
To wield a rope and wrangle sheep 
His pen is stop't; he's gone to sleep. 

His sayings ."Pat" are quoted still 
Who's who and why? Says Hanger Bill 
That says "six pencils thou shalt use,'* 
Cut out cards - drop the booze. 

QM where is he that rolled his quid 
From left to right without a skid 
Shouldered his pen like a peavy stock 
And hit who it. -might, John on the spot. 


New Moving Pictures 

The- Igreat-' Iftaflff j frjr* s Job: This is an old film made new. It shows the Ranger 
fighting fires, maintaining telephone lines, appraising and scaling- timber, 
inspecting range, building roads, trails, bridges, dams, and ranger sta- 
tions, supervising recreational uses, and acting as mayor for summer home 
communities. The Ranger's wife is also 'shown as an important part of the 
organization, even though she isn't on the pay roll. 

Crop s and Kilo watt s: This is a new one-reel picture, showing the influence 
of the National Forests on streamflows. There is shown a great hydro- 
electric development on the Siarra Forest and canals for irrigation. Che 
irrigation scenes were largely taken in the Colorado River valley near Grand 
Junction, Colo., the water coming from the Unccmpahgre, Gunnison, and Bat- 
tlement Forests. 



Seats in Yale Stadium -of Douglas _ Fir ; When the famous Yale Bowl was built 
in 1915 and 1914, the permanent seats were built of Douglas fir. Accord- 
ing to inform t ion received, the material has proved excellent for the 
purpose, and satisfactory in every respects The seats have been painted 
twice and will be painted again this year. The maintenance cost of the 
Douglas fir seats has been comparatively small. It is estimated that the 
original seats will be good for at least seven or eight years more if kept 
painted. These seats are very substantial and undergo a good deal of rough 
treatment, as they are often walked upon and in a few instances repairs 
ha-7e been necessary due to some unusually enthusiastic display of college 

This information is : interesting in connection with the zeal for 
huge stadiums now being, manifested by universities. 

Former Laboratory Member Auth or, of Foreign Bulletin; Nils B. Eckbo, once a 
Laboratory member, and now in- charge of Timber Investigations, Forest De- 
partment, Pretoria,: Union of South Africa, has written a Forest Department 
publication entitled, "The Seasoning of South African Woods. " 

Very little,. has been done On the seasoning of these woods and Mr. 
Eckbo is on the way to become an authority in this field. 'One, of the spe- 
cies o.n which work was done is- karri gum ('Eucalyptus diversicolor ) , which 
in one splendid plantation reached a diameter of two feet and a height of 
110 f ee.t at thirty .years. 


Study Courses Grow in Favor: The study course work has grown to such propor- 
tions that two men '.will "be detailed to the District Office this winter to 
assist Mr." Keplinger in handling it. Two hundred and twenty-four members 
of the field force have enrolled in from one to four of the eleven courses 
offered; this is 87 per cent of the entire personnel in the field. In ad- 
dition,,- twenty-seven members of the District Office have enrolled. 

A Record Year: With the recent award of the Squirrel Creek unit to Stroup 
and Sheppard, and the Muddy Creek unit on the Medicine Bow to the Wyoming 
Timber Company, the sale of timber for the year totaled 1,600,000 railroad 
ties,, 12,128,000 feet of sawlogs and 26,500,000 feet of mine prop material. 
This makes a total of six units sold during the calendar year.. The record 
for the Forest in the amount s"o Id in any year had been' broken in September 
with the sale of the Lake Creek unit. The value of timber sold to date, 
exclusive of. mine prop material, whose removal is optional, totals over 
$271,0 00.— Med. Bow. . , ; 

Game Legislation: The -Legislative Committee of the Colorado Game and Fish 
Protective Association has begun a series of sessions to consider game and 
fish matters and any bearing the subject might have on proposed state legis- 
lation. Th3 cons3nsus of opinion of the sportsmen of the state appears to 
be for better enforcement of . the present law T s and the creation of more state 
game refuges, and giving them adequate protection, instead of an entirely 
closed season on deer. The present open season of four days in October is, 
therefore, recommended for continuance and stress laid on law enforcement 
and refuges. 


Wh en , Elk ..Pome, D own ; "This picture is undoubtedly the most popular so far 
shov.i locally in the interest of game protection. The picture is very clear 
and topical of the game region. 

I made it a point to study the attitude of the audience during the 
exhibition and many were the favorable comments expressed by several rela- 
tive to the government's policy toward game protection.. .The climax came 
v/hen the two Forest Rangers caught the "Poacher" (tooth hunter) » At this 
incident the crowd cheered loudly thereby manifesting their full sympathy 
and approval of the idea of game preservation and protection." — Carson. 


DISTRICT 5 (Oont. ) 

Grass Exhibit; Supervisor Wales of ths Prescott and his forest force gath- 
ered and prepared an excellent collection of southwestern grasses and 
browses for display at the Northern Arizona State Fair at Prescott* About 
a dozen or fifteen complete plants- of each of the grass specimens were put 
in a bunch and the bunches attractively arranged on two panels each about 
4x8 feet. The exhibit drew a great deal of att3ntion. At the close of 
that fair, it was taken with the other Department of Agriculture exhibit 
materials to the big fair at Phoenix, where it met with the same success 
and later was shown at the State Convention of the New Mexico Educational 
Association in Albuquerque. The panels are now on display for a few days 
in the corridor of the district office. 

Admi nistrat ive S ites- . The Forest Service has frequently been criticized 
for holding too large an acreage r of administrative sites. In this con- 
nection, the following facts are illuminating: there are 286 administra- 
tive sites in District 3 having a total acreage of 49,591 acres or 002.5 
per cent of the. total area or an average of 173 acres per site. Of the 
total acreage 5,997 acres are agricultural land, which if divided into 
160. acre homesteads, would only make 37 units. Dividing the agricultural 
area contained in the administrative sites among the 266 stations, the 
average amount pjr station would amount to only 2o acres or 12 per cent 
of the total area so held. The remaining 88 per cent is rough 1 pas tare land 
unsuitable for cultivation* Certainly, one station of 173 acres for each 
65,818 acres having on an average 20 acres of agricultural land is not an 
excessive amount to be retained for administrative purposes. The above fig- 
ures show that the Forest Service has been very conservative in its reten- 
tion of agricultural lands for administrative use. 


Recreati on De velopment: Mr. R. - E. Gery returned last night with V/. S, 
Basinger, General Passenger Agent of the Union' Pac if ic , P. W. Gentsch, 
Superintendent of the Dining Car; Service, J. Pc I.Iack, Locating' Engineer 
of the Los Angeles Lines, William M« Barr, Assistant Water Engineer for 
the U. P. Lines; George E. Goodman, Chief Engineer for the National Park 
Service, and, Supervisors W. M. Mace and W. M= Riddle, from a visit to 
Cedar Breaks, Bryce Canyon and 2 ion National Park. 

?any points were visited, Mr. Gery said, in connection with the ex- 
amination of the Cedar Breaks and Bryce Canyon areas. The railroad offi- 
cials will recommend the construction of a lunch house at Cedar Breaks and 
a hotel at Bryce Canyon. The lunch house will cost the company in the 
neighborhood, of f 5,000, and the hotel at Bryce approximately $150,000. 
If conditions warrant, the company may also construct a hotel at either 
Strawberry Point, Navajo Lake, or Duck Springs. The \7ylie camp in Zion 
National Park will possibly be taken over by the U« P. System, and more 
complete accommodations provided for the tourists. 

It is generally understood that an investigation will be made on 
the Kaibab National Forest next summer for the purpose of locating a hotel 
on that Forest, preferably on National Forest land and not on the brink. 
The most serious question considered was the available water supply. 

tarid ' fefoaacp* Qutl p ok-: Br ig ht ; District forester R- H. frfr sledge and Assistant 
District Forester R. E. irery returned December 1 from Boise, where they at- 
tended a meeting of the State Land Board, regarding land exchange. Repre- 
sentatives of stockmen from Bancroft and Malad were present to protest 
against the exchange, which affects range used by them, (Port Neuf Division 
and part of the Weston Division of the Cache Forest). Their arguments 
against the exchange were that the state did not furnish the protection 
that the Forest Service did, and that if the exchange went through they 
might find themselves driven from their range and out of business within a 
few years. Nevertheless the exchange was approved by the State Land Board 
by a 4 to 1 vote. The man who voted against the exchange did so, realizing 
that it was a good thing for the state, but he rather agreed with the pro- 
testing stockm3n that their rights to the range should be better protected 
before the exchange was consummated. 


This Rspor t's Full ox Meat', We D* Cruise, of Bishop, Calif,, was arrested 
for leaving camp fire unextinguished on the Inyo at Long Lake. He deisand'ed 
a jury trial o Iho case looked very slim at first - all on circumstantial 
evidence - even the District Attorney being doubtful of the outcome » Gruise 
got an ■ attorney, and there seemed to be a' general feeling that he would 
walk away with the, case. By persistence and diligence of local Bbrest offi- , 
cors in getting affidavits and witnesses to the effect that Cruise was the 
only possible man who could have left that particular fire burning, Cruise 
finally thought it best to plead guilty when he found that the Pores t Serv- 
ice was in earnest, A jury trial was set for a certain date in the local 
justice" s office , then postponed to a later date because Cruise did not show 
up. He learned that we intended to make his case a Federal one if the case 
was not brought to a close. He suddenly 'pleaded guilty, was fined $ 50 {and 
a 30-day sentence suspended on good behavior) by Justice Yaney of Bishop. 
The local effect is good. 

Anothexj^u^uet: The Ianager of the Los Angeles Tenth Annual Automobile Show 
told me that he visited the Riverside Fair in order to size up the exhibits 
and sec which of them they wanted at the Auto Show. 

After looking over everything he decided that the Forest Service had 
far the best exhibit there and the only one that he wanted at the Auto Show.— 
L o A .-.Be 

Some_Flre_Leto^tion: One day last week a tent house at Auberry caught fir© 
and a small crew of men were busily engaged in extinguishing it when Super- 
visor Benedict came driving along on his way to Big Creek. One of the men 
looked up in surprise and said; "How the dickens did you know about this 
fire?" Without batting an eye, Benedict replied: "Why, Shuteye Lookout 
picked it up and notified me." The fellow scratched his head in a puzzled 
sort of way. "But it's only been burning about five minutes.". "I know it," 
replies Benedict. "How far is it to North fork?" asks the fire fighter, ' 
"Thirteen miles," is the prompt reply. "Well, how did you get here," he asks : 
looking around. "In this machine," says Benedict', and then the guy tumbles 
to the joke.— Sierra. 

Bl^IOT_6^I^H.PA<2.ira G DISTRICT ,. i<: 

gimber Sale feiasine ss 4gti^a« At the present time over one billion feet of 
timber is being advertised for sale in D-6, on the Olympic Forest two ad- 
vertisements are running totaling 160 million feet, and a third of thirty 
million feet is about ready for publication. The receipts for the first 
quarter Were over $200,000. A large number of informal applications are on 

^ttin£_it_Across : The Annual Edition of the Oregonian to be issued about 
January 1 will probably carry several FPrest Service stories, about 6,000 
words. The editors have asked for illustrated articles on timber produc- 
tion, road construction, range appraisal, and forest protection; also a 
large number of fillers. The annual edition of the Portland Telegram also 
carried several Service stories, submitted at the request of this paper, 
xhe xacoma Ledger is featuring a series of Forest Service stories, one on 
the kiln drying study having appeared and probably several to appear later 
fro- Dr. J . T. Hofmann and Deputy Supervisor Griffith. :1th has made a 

complete "sale" of the Service to the Sunday editor of ti. Vdger, 

PIS trig a? 7 r msggiHw .^TCTgKVP 

P pR , gS _T3R , ii Mr. H. S. Gr aves., a nd Mr. Austin Gary are among the many Big 
.roes who will attend the 20th annual meeting of the Massachusetts Forestry 
Association to be held in Boston at the end of December. 

The Massachusetts Association is one of the oldest forestry associa- 
tions in the country being founded in 1902 by Mr , Joseph Nowell of Winchester, 
Massachusetts . During these 20 years much has been accomplished in forestry 
and the Massachusetts Association as a body has been responsible for auch 
wise lorestry legislation, both national and state, having fought for nearly 
ten years to bring about what is now known as the Weeks Lav;. Those who can 
attend this auspicious meeting are fortunate, since no doubt there will be 
many John Bunyon stories told of what -/as - and what is - and what ought to 
be m forestry. — 3.D.F. 

I ... 

A. PHY P5HI0D is the F orec ast for the Florida during t he coming Pira Saason . 
the celebrated "licker" and "chink" smuggling industry which has beeh car- 
ried on pertly within fche National Fbrest boundary /during tho past two years 
by the far-famed auxiliary schooner "Success" having come to an abrupt end 
in th3 November tern of th3 Federal court at Pensaco'la. The chief straggler 
was given a jail sentence and a heavy fine and a heavy fine was also im- 
posed upon one of hi3 assistants. ' • 

A Tempting O ffer from Middlebury Collsge, Vermont', has led to the resigna- 
tion of forest Supervisor J. J. Fritz of the 'Thite fountain Rarest, -.'ho 
leaves to take up his new work on January 1. Mr. Fritz will manage a 
30,000 acre forest tract donated to the college- some years ago and will also 
fill teaching assignments during the college year. Ira To Yarnall-, formerly 
Supervisor of the-Tusayan Forest, District 3, and who for the past three,, 
years has been assistant supervisor of the Pisgah Forest in North Carolina, 
will succeed Supervisor Fritz on the V/hite Mountain* A change in the super- 
visorship of the Ozark Forest in Arkansas is also announced, Forest Ranger 
Henry H. Koen being promoted and assigned^ to the Ozark to succeed Mr. K..3. 
Kimball. Mr. Kimball left, the Service on December 15 to engage in private 

^J^^.Talbott, Nation al Forest .Exam iner f rom Dis'tr i ct 6, Headq uarters- at 
Po rt Ian d,„ is on detail to Dis trict 7 for the purpose of producing a district 

law enforcement manual .and in other ways stimulating 'the law enforcement 
activities on the eastern Forests, •■ . 


.Brota Alaaka* Chas. T . Gardner,' Supervisor of the Tongas s for many years, has 
resigned to go into the logging business with Sawyer & McKay. ■ Mr •■••Gardner 
will therefore still have considerable business on the National Forests. He 
will be located in Juneau. Mr, and Mrs. Gardner were in the States in October. 
Robt, A. Zeller succeeds Gardner at Ketchikan. 

L ouis King 1 , fiscal agent, has transferred to D-2 on account of his health.- 
He is succeeded by Paul P. Redlingshafer of D-l. - J - 


By B. I. Shannon, D-3 

The Bard of Avon wotted not of Fbrest Service methods when he opined 
that we "rather bear the ills we have than fly to those we knoi? not of" - 
for the average Forest officer's avocation seams to be thinking up ways 
of "doing it different" from the orthodox manner. 

In the Bulletin of November 20, Supervisor Tinker observes that 
"the records of the Angers and Supervisors are not only inadequate but 
unwieldy, in spits of the pages of typewritten material gotten out annus- 
ally," Then he proceeds to correct the situation by getting out another 
volume of instructions and forms. Apparently he figures that our records 
will be inadequate and unwieldy no matter how much typewritten matter is 
put out each year, therefore "another little drink won't do us any harm." 

The average Forest officer will echo Mr. Tinker's complaint. Take 
the filing scheme, for instance; clerks included, they all complain that 
it is complax and almost impossible. What bothers me is, how did they 
find it out? There is usually little to indicate that many of them ever 
tried it out thoroughly. This is true, possibly in a less degree, of many 
other schemes that have been promulgated. When instructions are received 
on the JOrest, or in the District office in case they emanate from. Washing- 
ton, they are usually accepted with the mental reservation "well, alright, 
that may fit some forests, but v/hatcha gonna do about a case like that on 
Squeedunk Hill?" Then the instructions are put into effect with a few 
modifications or embellishments to meet the "conditions peculiar to this 
forest." When the District office inspector happens around, the modifica- 
tions are justified on the ground that "they worked," regardless of the 
fact that the original instructions might have worked just as well had they 
been given a try-out. 

Mr, Tinker sets forth six paragraphs of advantages that will follow 
from his new plan, not to mention a sheaf of new ranger-notebook and let- 
ter-size forms. One of the advantages is the cutting "down of the amount 
of required field inspection," It seems to me this is just the reverse 
of the logical tendency, which should be to cut down on office work, re- 
ports, etc., in order to provide more time for field inspection. With 
this exception, the .advantages given are also claimed practically in toto 
in the ins true t ions and literature covering the Annual Working Plan and 
Monthly Plans of Work, which were issued by the Forester a year or so 'ago. 
These instructions, together with the filing scheme and manual, provide 
amply for the results Mr. Tinker claims for his scheme. Why not try 'em 
out? If the Hangers of Mr. Tinker's acquaintance are having the difficul- 
ties he enumerates in his articles, it is evident that they are not making 
a success of the Monthly Plan of work idea. If tool box IJo. 4 needs a can 
of oil, if th^re are several special uses that should be reported upon in 
the near future, etc., why can not notebook memos of these facts be placed 
in the Monthly Plan file or folder as the need becomes known? Surely 
there will not be so many of them accumulate but what a Sanger can readily 
go through them and select the ones that can be attended to on a contem- 
plated field trip. If upon inspection he finds that the Squaw Greek 


telephone line needs only a new bracket near the Thomas ranch, why shouldn't, 
a simpla notebook memo to that effect filed with his Monthly Plan of 7ork 
data bring the required results';, rather than getting out a prepared list 
of "well thought out" inspection questions and answering all of them even 
though the answers may be largely "yes" or "no"? Why provide an elaborate 
method of doing something that is already amply provided for in a more 
simple way? Why burden the force with more forms and instructions when 
we already have more than we have time to got even slightly acquainted 
with? If a Supervisor goes to the file of a given permittee, or improve- 
ment project, or what not, and fails to find detailed memoranda or informa- 
tion as to the status of the case, is it necessarily the fault of the sys- 
tem? Svon a 3brd won* t run unless some one winds it up. 

By S. 3c Garter, Washington 

We had been discussing sales work, especially marking, for nearly a 
week. We had b3en on four or five ranger districts, and had tried to point 
out what was wrong or what could be improved. We had learned a lot about 
local conditions, both silvicultural and economic, from the Hangers. We 
had tried especially to got the Hangers to see why certain marking was good 
under those conditions and why some was - well, not so good. It rarely was 
positivoly bad. 

Then we came to a now district. The man on it v/as a local product, 
without special training. He and the Supervisor had a lot of grazing mat- 
ters to thresh out as we went along. We looked over a sale, marked chiefly 
by a former Hanger, and found lots of room for improvement. We pointed out 
mistakes, -and areas where things were right, and the Hanger listened grave- 
ly. We could not jump on him for another man's work, but we could try to 
give him some ideas about marking. 

Than we went on to another sale handled wholly by this Hanger. Per- 
haps we were tired. Anyhow, there was no great enthusiasm on display while 
on the road. One glance at that sale area, however, and every man was on 
his toes. Here was a new standard of performance. Here v/as a sale area 
marked right . Of course we squabbled over individual border line trees, 
but that was all there was to squabble over. Oh such a grand and glorious 

There was no mystery about it. This Hanger had absorbed the basic 
idea of leaving that patch of timber in the best possible condition for 
future growth, and then used his common sense and the silvicultural rudi- 
ments he had picked up from the Supervisor and members of his staff. He 
had used his marking hatchet with the dominant idea of leaving- that stand 
in a growing condition. He did. 

To keep Mr. Hanger from getting too chesty, there had to be a gnat, 
if not a fly, in the ointment. He had just finished telling us that he had 
had no trouble with the purchaser when we happened on a cut unmarked tree 
lying on the ground, and it was the right kind of tree to leave and badly 
needed in its place. It is a safe bet that that kind of contract violation 
Has not occurred again on that sale. 

Jan a Hanger be a forester? The ayes have it, unanimously. 


Ye of the field are not the only ones. The forester, who has a 
certain way about him, suggested that if working plans were found on the 
virgin loaf that was turned over this New Year, he would be pleased, and 

if not, . As a consequence, all branch offices hava prepared 

complete plans for 1923. The Public Relations plan is tho best one we 
have seen so far. — Ed. 


N A710 HAL FOR r ST F/f?£S 

Per Cent- of Total number of fires by cau&^ 

Tea/ No. e> 

c - <\J 
o r nras 

i iqhtnino 

Railroads I'y 



Brush burn - 

Sawmills Vnir^W/ 

1 * 

Unknown w// 

' ■ if 

ecus ILLd 
Year § 

Besearch on the Pencil Question 
By H. H. Weidaan, Priest aiver SXp. Sta. 

One can not read Major Kelley' s recent art icle Service Bullet in 
on t„a eno^oua lisiribution of lead F enc ^^faf S 

lKv.*L.: &*«o« tno article led raany readers, as it «" *° o 5°*' r 
foi a on the possible reasons for such an ,-normous disposition o. 

^^oortainly a »U cut appreciate portion of this great 

2^ S^ b KS^i, It another W 


M3-m>J j,23!Zl.. PBMS1L (Oont . ) 

?L??! illustrating a point on pape? when th 3 ether bo; rov;s our pencil to 
amplify ^ pfcEt, and m the course of th« dUwu'oa unconsciously Places . 
the pencil ya his pockvt. In my *m experience of -:be last ~ix months, I ' 
c n ..-..<;; .net., y rjcall three pencils about half u^d wMcn were takSi in 
U3S , " ay ' i - v ^ 3 U ' SG of a little pleasantry, I recovered t-.vo before it 

XCl y - aT *' th3 othjr got away despite my asua",. habit of'observacioav in 
sue, c5u:-« I bolyve it world be conservative to estimate that, at least ' 
two per person are lost &s*ch year -n this way. 

. - r ' 3 tho,:, f- h ' wl$ slr.\Ks» be nvos-t tfore c fu? ly . however , is that a very 
°?ff, ?? rt ' 3on . of thQ P^Mla issued can be accounted for by absolute 

vas-,e. I'he s-«and--rd wocoen lead pe«c i.l porJlrrips seven inches of lead. Most 
per cons do roe nee a h;-Jder ink as a Ms,ul| they use only about four 
IV**?* r;f %* aa riM tjfsroiv ti.3 remainder Into the "As to backet. To use 

,b* ;/-;icU wiithop a' holder jvheti it is less than two and a half or three 
ij&fte's ?on£ is to use it with difficulty and inefficiently. Ey the use of 
the pr.;:i holder supplied fi^orr.- Pores t Service stock,- it impossible to use 
all ywc one i|ich of lead. Thus by not using the bolder two inches of lead 
are wasted per person. At 27 pencils per person, -54 -inches of J.eai or 7,7 
pencils per person are wasted in this way. Major Eelley's query as to what 
each of us can do toward reducing this waste might well be answered with 
the advice that each of us use penci] holders when our pencils get down to 
two and a half or three inches long. 

It is interesting to - note that a waste of 7,7 pencils per capita per 
year amounts to the quite impressive total of 20,020 pencils, or 26 per cent 
of all the pencils issued. If we ass air 3 now that half of the pencils which 
are loot through being taken uncor -v; * ously by visitors to our desks, are 
taken J.y people •Outside the Sorest SerPtca, the total loss and waste amounts 
to 8.7 pencils per person or approximately 32 per cent of all the pencils. 
In te--,--. --ay goes a part of the 27 pencils per person. Assuming that 6 to 
8 pe:,' Vl? represents an adequate number for actual use - and in this Major 
Kelley's estimate seems liberal - there still remain unaccounted for 10 pen- 
cils per person per. year. 7here, indeed, go the pencils? 

STOP TH3 sight: 

To end the lead pencil controversy, the Madison Laboratory is hereby 
requested to discover an easy method of removing the lead from pencils. This 
will make lead pencils useless and thus not only effect the economy so dear 
to Major Kelloy, but cut down the paper work lamented by the anonymous Bul- 
letin poet. The reclaimed graphite could be used to smooth the future for 
our amateur economists and poets. --Querulous . 

Be quies e at in Pace. 

The Editor has watched this controversy alertly, keen to see that no 
bitterness should crop out, as it is so apt to do when -."eighty subjects and 
brilliant minds ccme together. 

The subject is closed forever. And yet, as we lay it to rest, we 
can not but feel that injustice has 'been done and that .they have merely 
scratched the surface. V/e refer to the skads of paper on which the pencils 
were used. 

Ij2-lbe,SexvAce_Bulletin of October .16 we ran an article without credit being 
given the author.' The article was "Hidaen Bole Injuries Caused by are," 
and the author'was H. G. Lachmund of tne Office of FOrcst Pathology, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, San STancisco. V/e apologize. 

MTju-^^rge^H^Lautz, Assistant Chief Engineer, Toft cn January 2 to make the 
rounds of the Districts and discuss with them all engineering work, partic- 
ularly maps and surveys. This trip is expected to cover a period of fefix 
weeks . 


Santa O l aus paid a visit to tha members of the Washington Office and that* 
families and distributed presents to t.'ie youncstc-rs and a few oldsters ltko 
a yourg apeiyi ^Urif'^ 

The pr -ication was mad 3 in the Sunday School room of the First Con- 
gregational Ohvrch. He got stuck: in the cl.5.^.:ev and dropped his pick, but 
nothing was injured. Santa explained that if he kept on eating, and Christ- 
mas kept on coning, they'd have to have a bigger chimney next time. Below 
is his note of thanks blown to the Editor on the Christmas winds. 

"To all who contributed so much to the success of the annual Christ- 
mas festivities of the Service, Santa. Claus wants to r 3 turn thanks and deep 
appreciation of their efforts to make this year's program more interesting 
and satisfy: ng than ever before. To the ladies who made purchases, helped 
dress the tree and distribute the presents at the tree; to the sweet singers 
who helped so much with their voices, and to the rest of the bunch who con- 
tributed their time and labor in erecting the platform and carrying out all 
the real hard work of the job, the sincere thanks of everybody interested in 
the affair are due. — Santa Claus." 


President Harding; Favors Research: A paragraph from the President's recent 
special message to Congress is of interest.' 

.. . "Thar 3 is, however, another field of government - a rapidly broaden- 
ing.' fie Id of government. ..expenditure - which may be' discussed with profit to 
us all. refer to expenditures which are- being made from appropriations for 
Federal aid in lines of research, improvement , and development which, while 
having no 'direct connect ion with the operations of the business of govern- 
ment, have grown to become a recognized part of its activities. The extrane- 
ous activities have flowed from the laws enacted pursuant to popular demand, 
and I. take this occasion to refer to them for the purpose of showing that 
the taxation -which necessarily results in providing funds to meet them is a 
necessary incident to the fulfillment- of the popular demand.," 

it will be recalled that the Chamber of Commerce of the United States 
estimates that American industry is spending $70,000,000 annually ,on . scien- 
tific research. .< 1 ' . 

Keeping Fit at. the Laboratory; That the need for some form, of physical exer- 
cise is 'realised at the Laboratory is indicated by the number of those inter- 
ested in the various kinds r of physical development. 

The nest popular form is bowling to which an average of 4C men and 10 
girls 'demote 'two hours each Friday. The Forest Service 'has been represented 
on the lecaP alleys .X or a. number of years, and includes .some of the best 
bowlers in Jladison.,;,, . •' 3 ,.. , 

At the city yV M. C. A.,- almost a dozen men gather twice a, week for 
a strenuous round of exercises topped off by several games or 'so of Volley 
ball, basket ball, or indoor baseball. 

The Laboratory is also represented in a city basket ball league by a 
five which can' be se.l3c.te4. from a dozen* or so players, a number of whom have 
piaye'd on college teams. ' • i\ 

Ano ther- form of 'exercise is pitching horseshoes , which is represented 
by a. number of participants - their standing is indicated by the 14 games 
won out of IS played thus far with other leading iladison teams. 


parage to 'Yellow P ine b y the Mou ntain P ine Beetle: A rather interesting 
check has been cade on"the' extent of damage to yellow pine by the ^mountain 
pine beetle in the Big Blackfoot drainage near ilissoula. - The. A - , C . I£. Co. 
has recently had a second cruise made on a large erea. of. their holdings in 
this region.' Part of these lands had been previously cruised in 1902 by the 
same cruiser who had .charge of the second cruise. 5,260. acres in various 
sized, tracts were selected from four townships for comparison. These selec- 
tions were made because the 1902 estimate on tham was known to be reliable. 
The areas selected are representative of about four townships. The net loss 
in twenty years, as shown by -the new. estimate, averages 26 per cent. Only 
two tracts out of all those selected show any increase in volume since 1902.. 

E.K. - = ' ■ • 

Ba ssaiaa? s - a&^ Y mAssvais d istrict ^ . 

Delta 6onnty •>iyes:ftoc'.lc ^eating* on June 3, the District Forester attended 
the annual nesting of the Del-a County Livestock Association of which Sta 
Senator Eocipell is president. There has 'bean considerable antagonism 
toward the Service among the members of this association during . the past 
ye&:< on ac ?••:•• *.:at of the alleged neglect by the Service of the r-ecoTunenda- 
tions of the ..advisory Board of this association, and of the smaller. asSoel^ 
tic&s if/ jirlated with it. opportunity was given in the committee meetings 
foi 'various meiaboz'S to air their views, and it is believed a pretty good 
under:, tana hx-~ .'./as asgj ved at without any unpleasantness on the floor of the 
meeting, A r lest^u 4 ion was , However,., passed to the effect that the local 
forest officers and .he Li strict office had failed to cooperate with the 
Advisory Board in Delta Ccuncy asfe-that* this failure should be brought to 
'the attention of the State representative in Congress. -The whole difficulty 
arose from our action in certain trespass cases' which were handled, as usual 
Without being referred to the Advisory Board, for their suggestions. Since 
men prominent locally were involved, the matter immediately became one of iro. 
portanco to the association. ' ..'•', t • 1 

Other resolutions passed by the Delta County Association endorsed tha 
splitting of grazing fees, and requested that this plan be made permanent; 
opposed the transfer, of the Forest Service to the Department of the Interior 
and urged that sheep grazing be prohibited on the elk range on the Gunnison 
Forest on the north fork of the Gunnison jUyer.. 

The ; . Supervisors \ . Meeting, will be held in Denver from February 5 to 10: Super- 
visors only in attendance. In addition to the discussion by ^ the 
Supervisors and other members of 'the Service, talks -will be made 'by J. W. 
Johnson, Listrict Dngineor of the Bureau of Public Hoads, Major Blauvelt, 
State Highway i3ngin*or • of -the State of Colorado o .V/. J. Morrill, Colorado 
State Forester, and 'Lou . ■ D, Sweet, President of the Colorado State Forestry 
Association. Some, representative to be chosen from a local lumber concern 
will also discuss the relation' of the National Forests to-day to the lumber 
Indus try , 

Planting on Minnesota Natio nal Forest : A total of &00 acres was planted^on 
the Minnesota Forest during the month of tctober at an .-.average cost of $4.47 
per acre. Two and three-year seedlings and transplants, all Norway pine, 
were used. The two-year seedlings formed the largest plantation of 540 
acres which cost only C 3 . 90 per acre. 

The past season was the driest growing season that has been experi- 
enced in Minnesota for many years. This culminated in the disastrous fires 
throughout the northern part of the State from August to October. Conse- 
quently, the survivals in the plantations established last fall and- spring 
are below the average, but none of them are absolute failures. 


He cognizance: Perhaps it's a new Forest Service activity. A local item in a 
newspaper published in D-3 says that, 11 - - - a -member of the United States 
Forest Service's recognizance party has left the Service temporarily I 

The lo r es t . Service, Blazai Supervisor V/inn of the Gila, in an initialed brief 
tribute to former Supervisor Goddard of the Tonte, in the Gila Bulletin, con- 
cludes with "He has now taken the last long trail (blazed to the last with 
the Forest Service blaze)." It is doubtful whether words may be found that 
can be made to express a' finer tribute to a man' s official career than to say 
that the trail he traveled was "blazed to the last with the Forest Service- . 
blaze." ■ , ■ r - . • ' - ' . ' " • 

Comforting: The following is an extract from a letter received from a per- 
mittee on the Chevalon Distriot who has been a Forest user for many moons, 
in reply to our letter notifying him' of a meeting at 7inslow : 

"I will be unable to attend, but I still have my old time faith in 
the T*>rest Service. I feel that the Service y; ill not do anything but what 
seems best for all parties concerned, so I will abide by what you determine 
as best action to take. 


Busy Men; Clipping of a local item froia Magdalena news says "Supervisor j?6ug- 
las of the Datil National Fere 'it ./as in the last of the week on official 
business." in these <u3\s of heavy field travel it seems jto be gratifying to 
catch a Supervisor in his office oven Occasionally. , ■ K . • . ' '•" - 

X. More I tarn 'for the Ca nti^at A county agent in a Missouri county attached 
to tola automobile a model poultry house recommended by the State college 'of 
ag.?^.cui>U3?a and carried it with him for several months on his demonstration 
trips, special demonstrations were given at fourteen community fairs, and 
as a result twenty-one new poultry houses are under construction and twenty- 
seven were remodeled during the year. 

Heaven forbid that exhibit materials may be added to the already bulg- 
ing car.t.,na, butt the success the county agent achieved is, another indication 
of what taay be expected from concentration on' important things in opposition 
to scattered efforts. ■'">'■ , : ' 


Murder Will Out* It has just come to light that the Assistant to the Solicitor 
gave a practical demonstration last summer of how to keep out of the clutches 
of the law, and it was while he was' attending 'a guard training camp for the 
purpose of demonstrating hdw to make the ; arm's/ o f t he lav/ Clutch. Rumor has it 
■this way* ■ ' ; '• . '■ "• ' \ { 1 

He Was using a certain Ranger' s'ear 'of common make and drove into' a 
certain town v/hose main street is 'several per ce,nt from being level. 'As he 
swung over toward the .sidewalk, he applied the brake, but to little -avail.- 
By rental and physical contortions he stopped his" vehicle, but notuuntil • he ' 
ha gexiiJLy bunted another vehicle of the same common make, and started' ii\ 
d:..\; the street minus a driver. In due course of time it was stopped by a 
lumber wagon loaded with women and children, while its owner raced out- from a 
garment store shouting and waving his hands' and uttering accusations. And 
here :ls where the .master hand came in: It* is claimed that he proved that since 
neither vehicle had any marks or abrasions showing .'physical contact'^ there 
must have been a very slight earthquake; and even the people in the wagon 
testified to the shock.- He and 'the' Ranger then' returned to the training camp. 

.gores t_S_oryice. Telephone Line_Tappe_d ; Last year Hugh Smith and his daughter 
Hula! connected their ranch to the Forest Service line on the Teton. They 
refused to remove, -their telephone and dared any Sorest officer to enter the 
premised The matte.:- was turned over* to the Department of Justice', and yes- 
terday a let tor w&£ reeved- by the- 'Assistant 'to 'the Solicitor from the 
United States Attorney at Cheyenne to " the effect that oh August 1922> a 
feuit had beer fHed./in equity in the Federal court seeking to enjoin continu- 
ance of the trespass. • ■ 


Ti^ber_Cruisers Return to Civilization: Bronzed by sun and wind, blessed with 
enormous appetites and presenting the very picture of health, thirteen Forest 
Service timber cruisers who have been working in the woods since last April 
returned to' civilization yesterday. Under the direction, of Forest Examiner 
0. M. Evans of the San • Franc isco forestry headquarters, the -party cruised and 
mapped 93.400 acres in the California, Plumas and. Stanislaus National Fore'sts, 
containing over 1,000,000,000 'board f eet of lumber. The purpose of the work 
was to obtain estimates and maps of logging chances on which future sales of 
Government timber can be made. Cruising was done according to the latest im- 
proved Forest Service methods of timber survey, in which the diameter and 
height of 10 per cent of the standing trees are measured on regularly laid 
out strips running through the forest. Map data were also secured with Abney 
hand levels and chained distances. 

"V/e had a wonderful trip and lots of hard work," said Mr. Evans. "The 
boys of our crew were a specially fine bunch of men, being forest students 
recruited from the State universities of California, Washington, Montana and 
Minnesota, the Oregon Agricultural College and the Forest School of Syracuse 


g»er Cruisers Heti^n, t n Gi villzat ^ n (Jorito) 

University, N. Y. 7e traveled with a peck tsrain. of fivj nrales when on or\o 
job and moved from forest to Forest by motor trucke A real old-tidier cook 
furnished the gastronomical features so assential to outdoor life, while 
thj mules supplied the music and inoontive for our morning •sotting up' enc- 
ore is os." 

I7e ve Got '3m On Our List ; Ton casos from tho Klamath National Fbrost were 
submitted to the United States Attorney on December 1 by Assistant to tho 
Solicitor X ?, Dochant. Throe' of those casos involve violations of Sec- 
tion 52 for. wilfully setting firo, four involve a violation of Regulation 
1 (.Til) for building a camp firo. without a permit, one covers a violation 
of Regulation T r 7 ..for . killing a bear out of season, and one covers the 
larceny of Government ' property c All those were criminal casos. The tenth 
case involves an injunction to restrain grazing trespass. ( From the Weekly 
Hows Letter D-5 of December 8.) 


Lj.t_the_Lavr' Take I ts ., .Course-. Comps['now P t A Thompson, Fire Assistant on tho 
Malheur, .5iid recasts District, '6 to show cause why he should not bo consid- 
ered the/best big game huntor in the plumb entire Fbrost Service. He sots 
forth as his reason, to wi't; Grant County produces tho biggest deer in the 
United States.. Said A, Thompson won first prize, a powerful rifle of- 
fered, bv .the Grant C ounty Percent ilo Company for the "largest spread" 
killed in Grant County in. 1922, In fact, the largest spread recorded in 
Grant -County for any year was. this spread. 

Said buck was Supr. 0, C. Reid's especially trained, especially tamod 
buck. ranging on Murderers Crook, where he was used last February in making 
State game motion picture films. Said Supervisor represents that this buck 
posed for a picture in all his proud beauty and was shot down in cold blood 
, in premeditation and malice aforethought by a gun' in ths hands of said 
■ Thompson with intent to wound, cripple, injure, slay, and kill against the 
poacp and dignity of Murderers Crook, Malheur National Forest, so help me 
.God!. •• ' : 

The Bjg. S h ow ;: The great indoor sport of' fighting fires on paper is the chief 
diversion in tho Rainier office those days. That with the " "A-to-Izzard" 
Firo Report, the D-6 Statistical Fire Summary, the Fbrm 926 ?ire Report, 
and so on ad infinitum, we are reminded of the pup ■ who concluded that he 
had boon blessed with floas so that ho would forgot his other troubles. 
Jostling "Sire" for tho center of the stage, wo find Grazing "Re-co- 
nuisanco"; while tho wings are impatiently crowded tyy other acts anxious 
for their turn, - Property Inventory, famous juggler of pots, pans, and 
kettles; Annual Statistics, the mental marvel; Roads and' Trails, with some 
new fancy stops; and numerous other minor stars. 

An Dd ib le Insect : The Colorado Pandora Moth has tired of tho yellow pine on 
the Klamath Indian, Reservation and has moved westward into the north end of 
the .Crater Fbrest. Thousands of the moth wero flying in July and August in 
the yellow pine in the Fort Klamath vicinity, where they were busily laying 
eggs on the yellow pine needles. The caterpillars which hatched this sum- 
mer will be edible pupae in 1924 - at least the Klamath Indians think they 
are good eating. On tho Reservation those insects have defoliated many 
thousands of acres, of yellow pine, but so far' but little timber has boon 
killed by them.— A.J.J. 


^evbit? Bulletin 

U. S. Forest Service: 1 

(Contents Confidential) 

?ol. 711, No. 3. Washington, D. C. January 15, 1923. 

By L. ?. Kneipp, Washington 

Lou Barrott, gonial Chief of Lands in District Five, plays by ear 
the entire Hscreatx&Si symphony, from Aviation to Pater Sports, but his pot 
sol action is Municipal Gamps and municipal coopc-ration in camp ground im- 
provement. To him, the day that passes without the initiation of a new 
municipal camp project or a substantial donation by some thriving metrop- 
olis to the improvement of a Bbrost camp ground, is a total loss. Last 
spring h2 added the city of Stockton to the bright galaxy, and last fall 
thj manager of the camp told the playground commission what he thought of 
the season's work. Some parts of his report are as follows: 

A noteworthy thing has been happening the past few years in Stockton 
and all over our country. Business men and women are discovering a new con- 
tinuing element in life - or rather, a new application of an old element. 
The element of play or a "good time." 

Members of the Stockton Playground and Recreation Commission have been 
proclaiming persistently the importance and necessity in life of recreation 
and play for the adult as well as th„- child and have been steadily and gradu- 
ally creating more opportunities for the leisure time of the citizen. 

The Municipal Camp has been a new municipal enterprise and was re- 
ceived with splendid enthusiasm throughout the sv.mmer. Stockton's Recrea- 
tion Camp at Silver Lake, on the scenic Alpine Highway, 100 miles from Stock- 
ton, was dedicated July 29, 1922. to the future health and enjoyment of the 
people of Stockton. 

The Mayor and the City others are to be congratulated on their pro- 
gressive action in making possible this great outdoor institution - a Munici- 
pal Camp - which is not a luxury but a necessary part of education and life. 
These men realize that in risking it easy for people to go to the mountains 
and enjoy the pure air and sunshine and glorious scenery of God's out-of-doors, 
they and their coworkers are making it easier for the people to be more use- 
ful c it ir ens, 

Jo*hn Muir has well put this thought, "Christianity and Mountainanity 
are streams from the same fountain. " 

One object of the camp was to provide the people of Stockton an op- 
portunity for a two weeks* vacation in the health-giving atmosphere of the 
High Sierre.? at a minimum cost. A two "weeks' outing including Board, Lodging 
and Transportation to and from Camp was provided for £25.00. 

Stockton's Municipal Camp was a real democratic camp, a large commu- 
nity horns with a wonderful camp spirit. In reality the camp was a little 
world, but the folks at camp learned a hoap that will serve them in the big 

From the hundreds of expressions of enthusiastic campers the need for 
just such a camp is apparent. Por some, camp was a place for rest, sleep, 
regular habits and the joy of living. j?or the more ambitious, there was the 
"joy of cold water, strong winds , long roads, brown earth, open fires, friends 
on the hike, swimming, rowing, the trail up the mountain and round the lake." 

aCEKXJlPAL O^VtS (Gont. ) 

Thj city of Stockton is grateful to the United States Forest Service 
for permitting the citizens to have a Municipal Camp in the SI Dorado Na- 
tional Forest and the 3 amp Management tried at all times to observe the 
rules, regulations and laws as laid down by the Forest Service Department. 
The splendid cooperation of the Government's representatives, Edwin P. Smith, 
the Sorest Supervisor, 31 Dorado National Forest, and Ranger J. W« Hughes, 
was of material assistance in starting the Municipal Camp, Their suggestions 
and advice were always very constructive and valuable . It is indeed a great 
privilege for the People of California to obtain tracts of land in the Na- 
tional Forest for recreation purposes, and the citizens at the Stockton 
iViunicipal Camp were indeed very appreciative and tried to carry out the Gov- 
ernment ' s policy. 

By Cc G« Bates, Fremont Exp. Station 

In "Applied Forestry Notes" for December (the Research publication of 
District 1), R. H, Weidman, Director of the Driest River Experiment Station, 
makes the altogether unwarranted claim that his "Station is unique compared 
with the other experiment stations of the Forest Service in that it possesses 
an experimental forest." 

The Fremont Experiment Station has a demonstration or experimental 
forest - has had it since 19c 9, though, like many another good thing, the mak- 
ing of a coordinated plan for it has had to be put off until recently, when a 
good beginning has been made by Forest Examiner Roeser. This Forest is only 
16C acres in 3xtont, but its size is quite in keeping with my personal pref- 
erence for small and very intensive experimental areas. The whole comprises 
a neat natural logging unit, drained by three streams, and all tributary to 
the Station .;ood pile. Cutting on the area is done almost entirely for fuel, 
although incidentally soma railroad tiis have be^n made. As this cutting is 
done by Forest officers the work may be carried out in an ideal manner, safe- t 
guarding an ideal plan and ideal marking. Within the area, the unit is an 
acra. Every operation in any manner affecting the forest conditions of an 
acre v/ill eventually be a part of the record of that acre. Also, as soon as 
any acre is raached for cutting, it is expected to start an individual growth 
record of every tree. Of course, this recording and mapping takes time, but 
Otherwise the intensive management will cost very little. Forestation ex- 
periments can usually be located on areas which have not reproduced naturally, 
or where, because of serious disease infections, clear cutting is desirable. 

The fuel demands of the Station require the cleaning up of four or 
five acres annually, each being left, as nearly as present knowledge permits, 
in perfect silvicultural condition. Thus the 160 acres will be cut over in 
35 to 40 years. Meanwhile the areas which have been put in good condition 
should serve visiting Forest officers as an inspiring example of the goals 
toward which all management should be directed - thorough utilization, elimi- 
nation of disease, certain natural reproduction or immediate replanting, and 
sustained yield. To my mind, the experimental forest serves also a very use- 
ful purpose within the Research organization by permitting the wildest of 
theories to be put to practical test, if only on a small scale. 

By 0 C M. Granger, 1-2 

Lock:.-, in a recent book, speaks through one of his characters thus; 

"In England you keep your ideals hidden until some great catastrophe 
happens, then you bring them out to help you along. Otherwise it is immod- 
est to expose them. In Russia ideals are exposed all the time, so that when 
the time for their application comes they're worn so thin they're useless. " 

SQfllS U llJ^Txt,:^ ; 'A, Q3.naCIVa3 (Oont. ) 

In the Service to-day there is a restless urge to sat down our -ob- 
jectivas - major objectives and minor, Service objectives and District, sor- 
est, Ranger District and personal objectives. We must know the precise po*v> 
v;e are heading for so that we may lay our course and stock our hold accord- 
ingly. ... q 

What do we mean by all these terms - major objectives, minor objec- 
tives, Service, District and forest objectives? What do we mean by "limited" 
objectives, 'by "jobo?'"' One man talks of minor objectives and visualizes the 
saui.v thing that mother calls jobs. It' is much like the fog that envelopes 
the use of our "s tardards" .and "guides." 

But this confusion causes 'me- no' great alarm. It will right itself, 
and we will come cut of the fog with a list, of perfectly tangible, under- 
standable jobs that we want to get done. Speed that day I .: . 

Ihere is one tendency that does arouse many misgivings - the apparent 
desire to set down in one, two, three order the great major objectives of 
the Service, which 1 translate as the Service ideals. There seems to be a 
fee ling that, after seventeen years, we must now catalogue the big things 
for which the 'Service is working, that all, who run may read. .Do we really 
want to do this? Do we want to reduce to print the big vis ions : which cre- 
ated the Service and held it together and, vastly developed it in face of open 
and secret opposition? Are there not certain, great "goals . toward which we are 
striving which are too obvious, too much now. a .matter of tradition, to need 
writii: b down? - Do we not all .of us instinctively know for what fundamental 
things we - the Service - are striving, and is not the binding strength of 
those things far great ;-r unwritten? Is there not danger of wearing them 
thin and even of making them ridiculous by placing, .them categorically before 
each man in print? 

The strength of the Service is in its ideals. We want each newcomer 
to know those ideals and, each. older member to work toward them undeviatingly. 
But let the new man get them by contact* by seeing his mentor do each job 
well. A job wall done is the" surest pVoof of a sound ideal. We do not 
parad 3 our own personal ideals, - we h.Q^d them too closely in our hearts for 
that. Why, then, should we parade bur Service ''ideals, ..which are. nothing 
more nor less than the collective ideals of the Service 'men and women? "., 
Let us , set d own the many .'jobs' vi$ have got to do, and then do them. 

But let us not Russianize our ideals';" ' l ' ,' ." 

1™^ . ■ • v V IS : ?<gr ■'„•■■ if' (If. .. '-' 

By Ernest Winkler, Washington 

A recent letter from Senator Borah o f Idaho indicates that he has re- 
ceived considerable criticism to "the effect, that the large outfits are crowd- 
ing the small outfits out of tlie 'Nat ional Surest ranges in his State. 

The following show's the percentage increase and decrease : in the num- 
ber of individual permittees by grades and 'number of stock controlled by the 
respective grades for the period 1916 to 1921 in Idaho; 

■ 0 A t' tie 

Grade Number of permi ts Number stock 

• ' pfer .-, c ejit T : ' ' . pe r.-, 'geflt 'r 

1 to 40 head 9.5 inc. if ' inc. 

41 " 100 ". ' ' 16'. 5 18.8 " 

101 » 2Cu M; ' 9.5 " ; 15. ' deer., 

tver 200 " 5 deer.. ' lc 

She a n ... r . 

1 to 1C0G bead 70 inc; 45.9 inc .' 

1.00'i " 2500 « 39 " . ' ' ' "• Oll.t ■ deer. j 

2501 M 4000 •» 27' dec-'. * : ' : 2o ' ' » ; 

Over 40lA H 44. " 4 2.4 



BIG .JQ LITTLj CL^ ^LjuLJl (Jont. ) 

For tits s ix-yoar t'-r'ol I h-re has been a marked increase in the num- 
ber of s:ml I owners in £daho and' -tliq cf stock controlled by them. On 
the otb...r Lan& r> the opposite is true if the larger owners . 

■!:'--Ge f uuros do not indicate that our policy has been favoring the 
large owners as is often charged. 

■ H TY IK E H) 05;'QHINBE I 

' It seems like a far cry from the abundance of our timber supply to the 
absolute cleric Nation of China. The following interesting excerpt js &&h a 
latter just received from Wl C Lowdermilk, formerly investigative officer 
in listrict 1 a&a now teaching forestry at the University of ITankirg: 

"As one might suspect," the Chinese type of civilization has not made 
provision for forest perpetuation. The forest cover on the hills has been 
repeatedly removed and at the. present time forests are not permitted to re- 
gain their plac^, because the grass end every other vegetative cover is an- 
nually cut J literally shaved off - bound into bundles and carried by coolies 
into the city for fuel. This grass fuel 'is used for cooking only. Fuel for. 
heating is practically unlm own among the Chinese. Thus is home life and com- 
fort curtailed by the absence of sufficient fuel, not to ••mention the absence 
of a sufficient supply of wood for the needs of ' industry and dwellings. The , 
shortage of wood has it's baneful effects upon all the people." I ' 

By 3. % Kelley, Washington 

The. figures given in the, following table .may be -of interest to 'prospec- 
tive purchasers of steel towers. Thj difference, between prices as quoted by 
on:, company of single towers of given heights 1 and lot purchases of similar 
towers is striking, it argues strongly for' consolidated District or Forest 
purchases as far as practicable. 

Lots . 

Description of tower 

■i i 



15 , 

30 or 

30 ft. tower 

$600 » 



I $314 

45 " - '" " 


• .525 

' 426 


60 « " 


; . 640 



80 « •• 

. 760 




The 3ivil Service Commission has been requested to hold the Forest Assistant | 
and Gracing Assistant examinations on March 13-14 and 15-16, respectively i 
This is given at this time so as to allow any members of the Service 
planning on taking either to have ample time for preparation. 

By having one examination follow immediately after the other, it is 
thought that it will make it more readily possible for those --/ho have to trave 
to a place of examination to take both if they desire. 

Inspector Ilellet jr began the New Year by leaving Washington for a two months' 
visit to the Western Districts and the Madison Laboratory. P. R. supplied him 
before leaving with a sheaf of interviews in which are delicately twined vari- 
ous forceful thoughts. '.7e 'expect he will make good use of them. 

The rj m'o gr Q r o p Report is practically finished, and if one can judge by the 
effect it has produced on those who worked so hard to complete it, it is ex- 
haustive, .^ight of them are home recuperating. 


ypc K Tort arrived in Wash.* hgtoii .Tatruary 2 frpjri Juneau and Ketchikan, Alaska. 
He r *vj bsen studying t he. fta : ..-er power rsjfinvoei of s out hear? tern Alaska, having 
spent the field seasons*, :pf 19-U 1 9 22 in thi£ work. I7e hope for an &rti- 
•cle. for- the Bulletin .irotn him in the near' frtu-re. 

Sh e pruise -of -the '^IBlZ^j A. piece, of wood, -a white oak pipe stave, sent the 
.Lahi >•.•*". '..:•••-/• mil li* .' \u -il tiers ..has a history as' interesting as 'any wood y 
sample we ha>?3 had' in Ears months . This stave was one of a cargo shipped to 
Portugal, fj.of; Mnfr'ii&, < Alabama r by. a. Georgia i hardwoods manufae -turer. \7hen the 
staves were shipped they were' apparently in- first class shape, but about a 
year later when examined in. a warehouse in Lisbon they were found so badly in- 
, feci ted by fungi that they were unless for tight cooper" age purposes. Between 

the time of shipment and- reach. ij'ig -the ir destination, however, there elapsed 
. eleven 'months - and thereby hangs a. story;/' 

"The schooner •X.U-i^A' 1 sank .-at. her berth at Mobile while loading staves 
in January, 1920c The vessel-was raised, the' staves removed,.' the damages re- 
paired* the staves reloaded, and. she finally -sailed' from 'Mobile Jbbruary 4. 
.On February 11 she put' into Havana in distress . and, after remaining there un- 
til April- 20 for ' temporary -repairs, started back to Mobile for permanent ones. 
She went aground 'outside .of Mobile but was towed into port on May 6. At Mo- 
bile' the staves* remained in the vessel for about a month and then, on June 9, 
the caigo of staves was removed and she went to the ways for repairs. The 
staves were placed in storage* ■ and. a;i, that t ime our Mobile agent wrote us that 
the staves ' we^re asoldy but' 1 other wise ail right,* On September 15 the "LUIZA" 
again left from Mobile,. and..f inal-ly; on Uovember 18, 1920, she arrived off Lis- 
. ban with six; feet; (>f . water in her hold.. " . ' ' 

Pr ogress in Min e 'Timber Utilization; Mine-timber 'utilization and mine timber 
preservation have received more attention during the past 12 months than for 
many years. This is partly due to mounting costs' of material,- ?and partly be- 

. caus'e -of the efforts of the Forest Service, and the' Bureau' o;f Mines to inter- 
est mine owners in timber preservation. The need- for preservation is easily 
recognized. ''A thorough study, of timber purcTiase-, storage, and use at any 
large mining operation can scarcely fail t'o convince anyone' that considerable 
savings are possible in timbering costs. Sufficient experiments have now been 
made to show definitely how to select ; store,, .treat, and- use t imbe'r satisfac- 
torily, and ail the operator needs to do is to acquaint himself with what is 
known now, and to make the best use qf this knowledge by applying it to his 

. local : e ondit : ons. * '.'.'". '■•"! • ' , . ,.'. ; \&\ 

■ The 'activity of agents • selling preservatives-is' responsible for some of 
the : increae :- in the use of treated material. Many of the preservatives, sold 
are good, 2nd, if properly used, .bring excellent returns On the investment. 
Others are not so desirable,!, or more frequently are good preservatives but are 
improperly used. It'is hard at .,t i ^es. to convince users that under practically 
all 'conditions thorough methods of treatment are best, 

• A difficulty in ' the . w£.y of more -.extensive use- of treated material is 
that Open-tank treating equipment is not available in stock sizes and designs, 
like other mining machinery. The apparatus is very simple and easily designed, 
however, end this need not de ter anyone . The 1 . fact that, it is- so simple and is 
not paten fc'abSfe , as well as be pause it is. in little demand"', : ' has no!' doubt made 
the matte?' of J it tie interest to equipment manuf ac turers. It is hoped, how- 
ever, that 'something can be done toward ;making : ready-made- equi;pm'ent r ,avallabl e. 

. "• On the 'whole the progress in mine timber- preservation' during 1922 has 
been quite satisfactory, and a good groundwork has been laid for much ssore 
rapid progress in the future. . 


DISEaiGg .L_-„iL( 'RTK^r: TIS'TRICT 

Ilr . R. P. Il eLaurhlj n^ Stat 3 ?or>_ster of Montana, is out for a number of 
changes in fchfe Montana Forest Law this winter. The timber sale procedure 
as outlined by lav;, he thinks, is cumbersome and indirect. The law says 
only "timber which is ever eight inches in diameter, 20 feet from the 
ground 1 ' should be cut. "This should be repealed," says Mr. McLaughlin, 
since no one but Paul Bunyan can execute such a law." 

Changes in laws relative to slash disposal, brush burning, and vari- 
ous phases of State forestry work --./ill be sought from the coming legislature. 

pa rhart Re signs « Arthur H. Carhart, the first and only Recreation "Engineer 
of the Rarest Service, engaged exclusively upon National Sores is, has de- 
cided tc hang out a private shingle and start a business of his own simul- 
taneously with the Now Year. 

Though never responsible to "Research," he has often been referred 
to as a Service Experiment , In the four years .he has been employed, he has 
demonstrated there is a field for the trained landscape architect, a defi- 
nite need for the systematic planning of recreation development. The ex- 
periment has. been concluded, but the full results can not yet be announced. 
This much is certain, - he has justified the expenditure made on the experi- 
ment and has left behind accomplishment which will b e : invaluable to the for- 
est forces in carrying the responsibilities of the activity. The Fbrest 
Service extends genuine Good '/7i,ehes for a Prosperous Now Year. 


grain .,<# feanfeff ,f • The Hubbell lambs, numbering 13,314, many of which were 
grown on the Datil National Bferest, were recently shipped from iiagdalena. 
They made a train of 67 cars, the longest train that has left Magdalena. 
They were destined for Colorado points. 

Ten- to. H07.e; Supervisor T. T . Swift of the Crook has accepted the supervisor- 
ship of the Tonto as successor' to the late W.. H. Goddard, and the" headquar- 
ters will be moved from Roosevelt to Phoenix. The actual date 'move, is to 
be made has been left with Supervisor Swift. Successor to Swift on the 
•Crook has not been named. ..' I 

UlC_^t^£r^M^iyg^ilska: The 'Survey, the news letter of the Biological 
Survey,, announces that J, Stbklay Ligon, Government Hunter, who was .quite 
well- known t hr'oughout the Southwest, is organizing and prosecuting a v:olf 
campaign in Alaska. Ligon reports that climatic and soil conditions' make 
work in Alaska quite different from that in the rest of the United States. 

y .[\ th ■ Eve.r'y. Suc'c ess a Sacr i fic e : '*Mr, Rex King was the subject of a rather 
peculiar accident- la-fit! week. T/hile working at his desk surrounded by range 
apprpisal data, it ?uddenly caved in on him and it was several hours 'before 
he could be extricated. ' He was somewhat bruised by an accessibility map 
falling across him and 'barely escaped suffocation from a heavy invpstment 
in water development. 

I ia rj c i ng i n 7e s 1 0 rn Ye 1 1 0 w Pi ne_: Here is a situation that confronted a cer- 
tain forest officer in Arizona and what he made out of it : - Area, -600. .acres. 
3Tet stand cf timber after 25 per cent deduction for defect (determined by 
actual scale). ; 2,24-5,121 feet B.M. Stand, overmature. Mistletoe 'infection, 
bad. In Handling the job there was left 968 board feet per acre, -his is 
25.6 per c^nt of the original stand. The number of trees 6" in diameter and 
up. that were left made an average of 13 per acre. Seed trees above 2o" in 
diameter made an average of 1.04 per acre.. There were Sc seedlings and sap- 
lings per acre. This was a difficult area to mark. Preferably a larger number 
of seed trees, which would mean a bigger volume per acre should have been left. 


pl&mW%.& { Cent.. ) 

Says a Cattlem an: Ue* Victor bulbar son, of the GGS Cattle Company on the Gilo, 
remarks in an .interview print ad in tha "|1 Paso Herald, in which be draws 
parallels between tha drouths of lCj4'and .ttah? and* pVadic'ts a prr-nu i rig 
outlook, just ahead, "range management will he prac fcv-ed wore e.s -.:':!■ a Ucly and 
sclent if ically than at any previous t ime in the anna.'.? of tha 3 . ■ .ry c 
Pastures will be universally fenced 'and overstocking will be avoided. * de- 
pressions hava a ring as though from a familiar vocabulary* 

Fow i n Gpr-ra tip's.: The smoke-treating, plant of the Cl.apfer1.ala? smelter of the 
United Verde Gopp'er Company, near the Prescott, has been started. About 
two years were used in the construction, and the cost is C ■1,100,000. By an 
el e'e tr ic al • process, 95 to 98 par cent of the solid matter is removed from 
tha smelter smoke. This is the first smelter smoke-treating plant to be in Arizona and it is said that there are only a few in the world. 
Practically ^'11 forms of vegatation for considerable distances around have 
been destroyed or badly damaged by the gaseous smokes from the GlarksJale? 
smeltei* in the past, ' 


DrP Erailk A'. Waugh feted! -Luring Dr. Waugh' s recent visit to this 3brest he 
came ' in' contac t with a- large number of , representative citizens. He was given 
a room at the University Clab and later a t. 

' Tha Commercial Clab escortad him ever ; the Alpine Drive. 

Ha was given a luncheon at the Alta Olub and was taken by the Rotary 
C lub to visit Ro t ar y Gr c v 0 in City Or a ek Cany on . 

Thj IClwahis Club put on a wood-sawing contest in Big Cottonwood 
Canyon and' took moving pictures of the -event in which Dr. Waugh took a lead- 
ing part. These pictures were shown the following Sunday at the Pantagas, 
and Dr. Waugh had an opportunity to sae himself in action.' The Mayor of 
Salt Lake made a special trip to greet Dr. Waugh at this event. 

The Stata Engineers gave a banquet in his honor at which the Mayor and 
tha Governor- gave talks. . • 

The Rotary Club took Dr. \7augh to their weekly luncheon. 

Bonfires in his honor were given at tha Community Camp and at Mutual 
Dell in American Pork Canyon... •• . 

Tha staff doctors of one of the local hospitals met with him and prom- 
ised to do their part in establishing a health camp the coming season. 

griefs of. tfie .Livestock 'Sfe n;: Stockmen on the Mayhill District of the Lincoln 
r'e con gathered their cattle for shipment and then had to turn than loose 
because tna railroad company was unable to -furnish cars. 

Dp .. Y ou . B elieve JSajg? Prank Wood, an old-time trapper, who lives in Jackson, 
an: each season take': £ AGO. 00 or £.500.00 worth of marten, coyote and mis- 
cellaneous SaHre almost, within tha city, limits, has made some interesting 
oh i.e'v on •-.he des yruction of blue grouse by weasels. Evidence in the 
snow of blMa gro u?e h'.vxrg been killed by weasels where there was no vis i- 
ble sr^iip of the attack, the only signs being such as to indicate the end of 
the Struggle, are''. '.3 ad his ourHi' ''.ty , ana an investigation of several cases ■ 
indicated that the are attacked in their natural habitat high up on. a 
fiilI r Jide, and are able to rise and fly away. with the attacking weasel, but 
unable to escape, since the weasel apparently continues the attack while 
being tans through, the air. e v en tun Viy bra ng-ing the grcus 3 down where the 
end of the struggle as noted, is plainly shown in the snow,. 


An Q f f i c e Yi s it oti We had a call on August 24 from Mr. Leroy Jaffers, of New 
York City, Secretary of the Associated Mountaineering Clubs of North America. 
This bureau co-p rises 50 clubs and societies, having in addition to outdoor 
and mount a i nee ring activities a common interest in the creation, development 
and protection of National Parks and National Porasts. We furnished Mr. 
Jeffers with prints of a large number of our best .scenic pictures of the Na- 
tional Forests of this District, and thase will ba incorporated into tha 
collection which the buraau maintains for the benefit of the public in "New 
York City. 

DISTRIC Q! 5 (Cont. ) 

Sierra; This past season a party of State Fbrosters, fifteen in party from 
several eastern States, visit-ad tha Signal Peak Lookout, and from the ques- 
tions asked they were greatly interested in the v;ork. In the party was a 
French lady whose father is a fores ter in France. She seemed very much in- 
terested in the work and asked many questions regarding the methods of hand- 
ling fires in our 5brests, all of which were answered in an able manner by 
the District Ranger, Lai LIcClocd, who met the party there. 

M-M££LJkts_bjy-. The s 3 S tani s la u s Birds ; A Duplex truck used by the Berkeley 
Llunieipal damp to haul people to their camp grounds took fire in some unex- 
plained manner and was completely destroyed. Here is the report: "Smith 
Peak reported fire at 10 A.I.I. , Grovor ;I>yons , garageman at Buck Meadows, at 
10:05, and Duckwall Lookout at 10„09<" Snappy work'. .... 

"Look Before You- Leap"; At tliree o'clock in the morning recently t George 
Cory was awakened by what he thought was a wood rat gnawing. Cory jumped 
out of bed, intending to scare the intruder away. Before landing on the 
floor, however, his feet hit a porcupine. A pa ir of pliers and a large quan- 
tity of iodine were used to administer first aid.- Cory has sworn to look 
before he leaps her eaf tor.__ Shasta . 

Picnic .For »ho Firs; ■ -Li 1 1 1 3 Bobbie (age 5} was in town and saw the 7il lows . 
transfer' T,r„vk loading up with provisions for the fire fighters at Alder . 
Springs.' When he' came home he said: •• , . 

'•Mother, do you know what I saw to-day? The picnic for the 1 fire.' I 
saw them loadin' . " 

His Price is "Above Rubies?; A professional man well known in San 5Tancisco 
5 recently left his camp fire burning near Dutch Slat, Placer County. Now 
there .is nothing that ril es Guard Trousdale and Ranger -Hurst more than this 
same practice, and- they just naturally ha-uled the gentleman be fore a -justice 
and experienced the satisfaction of having him fined 50 = The 616-b con- 
cludes thus: "Dr. was very anxious to avoid appearing in court, and 

through a friend of his made an indirect offer to bribe Ranger Hurst to drop 
the case. His bid was too low." 

PI S TRIC 3? 6 - ., N O RTH P A 3 1 71 C PIS TRIJT 

Y/inte r St ud y bourse ; Ranger Lyman of the Siskiyou believes in winter Study 
Courses. He says:- 

"•,7e are told that the 'Tint or Study Course is to be relegated to the 
realm of the 'Light-Burners 1 , 1 the 1 didri' t-know-it-was loaded,' the 'man-who- 
roeked-the-boat' and. other also-rans. How come? 

One brief experience of study courses revealed to us the following 


"1. They stimulate general, interest in all activities. 
2. They provide an opportunity for a general brushing up on Regulatio 
which we would not otherwise take time for. 

'3. They keep the field force in touch with the District office view- 
point regarding practical' daily problems. 

"4. They give an opportunity for- field men to state their views of 
practical daily problems. 

■5. They provide a practical worth-while occupation during bad winter 


Are these considerations of negligible value ir promoting the. effi- 
ciency of the Service?" 

Same Meet i ng, at Seattle s Recently a 3-day meeting was held at Seattle at 
which representatives of the State Game Department, County Game Commission- 
ers and Game 7/ardons, State Grange, Biological Survey, Washington State 
Sportsmen's Association, and the Ebrest Service were present. The purpose, 
of the meeting was to perfect plans for closer cooperation and the initia- 
tion of the necessary legislation for a better administrative law pertain- 
ing to wild life in tho State of Washington. The meeting was very harmo- 
nious ana represented a long step ahead in the way of cooperative under- 
standing between the many interested parties. — "S.N.K. 


701. 711, No. 4. Washington, D. 0. January ^ 1923 . 

ts fff Win TTfi CTii r. W mmtm* w,mv^» 

By L. P. Kneipp, Washington ' 
State ewS^'STS*^/ th2 Sr03s *** « th3 Na tional Crests is in 
working plans. ?or sirs and S« f ! 0:1 ~oia in the preparation of 

timber-sale, tin too t h„ .2 ' ar5) O'anershxps within natural units of 
our hopes, 'states "tr v " M,8 «~»» t - Hw «• *lon9 in 
consolidating their WlftoStnS^!! the advantages of 

and management. Se ant"r °r * b ° 4l9S capabl3 of use 

public officer; mxriSZ * f^***®** end toward that end both 

progress was made unl" s^iii .'t'f ^f.^ 4 and >«Wtt«X?. Piecemeal 
specific Ehrests t0 holdings or 

any and all Crests. S *** a measur * authorising exchanges in 

and we had futa^f^ J 8 ? 9 '? «*»« ***«•• Act of ferch 8>, 1922, 
opening of the uhorokoe SrL £5?** that following the 

while no rush wouM occur Iter- £2*5 te ® a0 **- » than concluded that 
for exchange which would r e ulY In *fta' « ?f ca * «~* 

portent lands now in privet e tends t,v 5 ao 1ux 3 itxon of the most ta- 
Luckless holders of tSaoasaiM^ Vvthiag W ths sort ilas occurred, 
proposed exchanges &r : qu al ar L?«? '^elass lands have naively 
and many lemons\ave l,t tenSuv T^ l f tiXDJr alose to railroads 
the kinds of land as wan? *av b ^^^ft*' 5*1 »" f » »««^ of 

Another thought «U JC, d Iar b -t-w-::. fca 

i.tence of W.fTh ^ rMbS^itfS^^ SWS * 
ration of land exchange plans st^t, *t ° t,TOlr Gffor t s »W» the pSfflgp 
Proceed to put over some vary'd S d-^T^ ' ,n4 tn3:1 ■W^mST 
happening, but if 30 ths t^lu.Tl,7 J * S ' Parhass this is actual lv 
Ington office. r.sults hava not manifested themselves in the Wash- 

in the «\^^ a ^^^ of ians exchange business 8XOast 

dant time and patience, a»a ,f» oonditaons. She Government has aSm 
lands win be Oo.apansat^or VSSJ^S" ^ " tta ValU3 « Private 

serious mistakes. The present innntf^t, • , * J tlme than to maia- 
raases only one question ^ ! i cxcto -^ »«rk therefor^ 

1*M exchange Pol o^naTro d^*"^^. 18 3i * ^ riTOS *>™ 
ends by asking too much « gi,J L ^::, f 3 .. v;i our own b,st 

6am to the minds of private owners th'fH ' 7e '- r "^= i the imoras- 

ngs involving heavy costs Irt tC J^^T^ -mpliaated praaoed- 
is there, to fact, anything the matter . 1^ o=%fasiva spactoluta? 
ent xack of tot area* be orfditad ta ° Ur posl tlon. or must tha appar- 

men in the fiald, where til 0 her - 1 lV ^ bo* ^ 

contribute constructive a^Sn^a^Stf " ^ 

4 2^L\X:Z ^ -.i..: I'T a IZV'A 
By Geo. B. Ludworth, Washington 

In June, 1922, Bbrest Supervisor H. Basil Wales, of the Prescott 
National Forest, found a single tree of Fr^montodendron californica grow- 
ing in the Bradshaw Mountains at a point approximately 8 miles south of 
Crown King. This tree was about 16 feet high and 6 inches in diameter. 
It is sometimes locally known as "Slippery -Tim," "Loatherwood, " "Flannel 
Bush," and " Fremont ia." The Bradshav; Mountains are in Yavapai County, 
west-central Arizona. Roughly, this newly found station represents an 
eastern extension in range of possibly 200 miles or mora outside of its 
range in California. Previously, Eremontia had never been detected out- 
side of California, where it is distributed from the western foothills 
of Mt. Shasta to the San Pedro Matir Mountains , Lower California. Its 
occurrence is nowhere frequent west of the Sierras, in the foothills of 
which, however, it attains its largest size (18 to 30 foet and 10 to 12 
inches in ' diama tar ) . On the east side of the Sierras it grows abundantly 
as a low shrub, often of sevaral acres extant, in the region of the Mohave 

The trse found by Mr. Wales may ba from saed carriad eastward by 
one of the many possible agencies from the low shrubby growths of south- 
eastern California. It is difficult to believe that this tree represents 
the only eastward jump made by Braraontia outside of California. Probably 
the trae grew from seed of still other individuals located farther west 
in Arizona that represent eastern extensions from California. Further 
careful search is likely, it would seem, to discover that Premontia grows 
elsewhere between California and the Bradshaw Mountains. 

At the season when Mr. Wales found Premontia in Arizona, it was cov- 
ered with brilliant yellow flowers, which make the frfeeo a vary conspicuous 
object in the landscape and easy to detect among othar growths. A month 
earliar, or lat^r, the tree might pass unnoticed, for without flowers it 
is not conspicuous, binding it then outside of its accustomed range would 
dapend largely upon the observer's intimate knowledge of other nuch less 
striking characteristics. 

By Will C„ Barnes, Washington 

Referring to the feeling which exists among some of the field men 
that tha Washington office is continually calling for long and, to them, 
unnecessary reports, it is somawhat amusing to note that while the Wash- 
ington office, in the matter of game, only asks for a short statamsnt as 
to the numb a r of game animals on each Forest, their condition, violations 
of the law, etc., evarv District is now calling upon the Supervisors for 
a long and somewhat involved report as to gama matters, copies of which 
go to the Governors, presumably to each Supervisor, to tha Forester, and 
to the Biological Survey. 

Tha Washington office, of course, do^s not object to such raports; 
in fact, quite to tha contrary, findsthem extremely interesting, but tha 
fact remains that if the Washington ox"fice hn.d called for these reports, 
we would immediately have heard from it as another evidence of our demands 
for unnecessary paper raports. 

Running over a number of these gama reports now lying on my desk, 
their extremj length and tha way they go into details is somewhat inter- 
esting. The one from the Leadville Forest, for instance, covers 60 pages; 
the Cochetcpa, 56; tha San Isabel, 81; the Pike, 54. We recognize the value 
of these game reports, enjoy reading them, and have no desire to interfere 
with their continuance, nevertheless, it do^s strike the Chief of Grazing 
that the field men have been somewhat inconsistent in their criticism of 
our requirements as to reports when one considers thi comparative length 
of the gam:- reports vs. the grazing reports. An 81 page game report and 
a 30 page grazing report from the same Forest strikes us here as somewhat, 
out of line with th_ir importance and rather gets the cart before the horse. 


I often pass a gracious tree 
Whoso name I cm - t identify; - 

But still I bow, in courtesy - 
It waves a bough, in kind reply. 

I do not know your name, C tree, 
(•Are' you. a- hemlock or a pine?) 

But why should that embarrass me? 
Quite probably you don't know mine'. 

' • ■ • . ALASKA, HAS ■ M 

■■■ ■ By L, 0. Pratt, L-8 

That insects -are destroying an important body of spruce timber just 
beyond the northern boundary of the 'CLugaeh National Forest has been re- 
ported to the Service by Fred H. Koff it 'oif the Geological .Survey." The' 
infestation, occurs along the Copper '?a**r ir/i Hordes torn Railroad, about 
150 miles from Cordova. I.Ir. Moffitt reports these destructive beetles, 
which have been identified as Dendroe tonus , as occurring on the Chit is tone 
River, the Kus&iilana River , and the Chit ina River valley. 

"So far as I can learn," reports ltc\ Moi'fitt-,', "the .damage in this 
locality hss taken place in the last few years'. Although I have ..been famil- 
iar. with this district since 1907, 1 do- not remember having seen-the' work 
,of the beetle's ^1-onger ago than five or six years. Their wide.. distribution 
would, however, indicate to my mind that they have, been present for a long 

time . • ' - '.I .;. ;•; L ■Ay? :c . 

; "I did n'Ot make observations to 'determine. .the proportion of trees 
infested,, but my impression is that the proportion, considering the. &i s- 
trict as a whole, is not great in spite of the wide, distribution, of the 
.'beetles." Unfortunately, the better trees are the ones .attacked, chiefly. 
Y/hen the infection starts the leaves' begin t'o fall and the. -tree gradually 
stakes uta a biownish aspee-t which becomes more and more pronounced until 
;all- : thO' leaves have fallen and-' the* - ; tr'e'e is dead." 

: So far no steps have been taken to' combat this beetle.; • 

' NFV/ 1153 JCUND FDR V/FSTFRN JUNIP5R. ' . , • 
, r&ksl i. J • 'By T.D. Woodbury, D*-5 ' ; * " • • '"J- . .. ' ' 

On the- west s ide of Coose Lake within the Modoc National Forest, 
in the extreme- northeastern corner of California, there is a level lava; 
plateau 2-50,000 acres in extent, covered -.-with jagged malpais rock,, to . . 
which the -.local settlers have: give nvtho picturesque name of "Devil's • 
Garden." Here., ..where the more ' valuable epecies/can not thrive, due to.,: 
poor soil and alack of .drainage', -the' sturdy 'Western Juniper has gained a 
foothold and- has produced a stand of 13u,C0i/' b'brds ©*£ wood. This species 
grows very slowly; is liriby, gnarled and c'eforme.d. Only exceptional trees 
reach a diameter of SO inches and a height of 50 feet. Because of these 
unfavorable qualities this tree has been given but little attention by . 
lumbermen .and, foresters, . although'^the-'d'oeal-coffrmuiii ties .have drawn upon, 
this area for fuel and posts for many "year si"'' ; ; .,' ... :.. :- 

The eastern red cedar of tho Soutfh Atlantic" ..Stater has 'for : years; 
been the standard material for the manufacture df "High grade <p.;-nc^.ls> h-,£he 
supply of this material is being rapidly depleted. • Tests, of the.. wood of 
western juniper made by 'pencil manufacturers ' some y^af s. ago . .i ndjic a-1} e£ ; 1 ha t 
the properties of this, wood are very similar t o those ,of . eastern. ;rc 1 x-edar , 
but the remoteness- from transportation of the western juniper s tanas , the 
small amount of timber per acre, the knotty and erossgr,ain;;i .character ef 
the .wood, all tended to prevent the exploitation of this s'peoiesas- a. -pen- 
cil wood. •" ! v " : - ii'^'iea ■>& v^*.- . 

A little less than-' a year ago, however, a progressive pencil slat, 
manufacturer decided to undertake the venture. This concern submitted a 
bid to -the *t>rast Service on. 50, uOO cords of the wood, of this species. 


mm use fb'jflp roa-Tfsa sri at' jgflip gR (cont.) 

The offer was accepted and a contract signed which runs -until July 1, 1941. 
This contract also pro~ 7 idr>.s that the portions of the tree not suitable for 
pencil wood will be manufactured into fence pests and cordwood to be mar- 
keted locally. 

This operator during the past summer established a small cut-up plant 
at Alturas, California,- thb headquarters of the Modoc Forest. Somewhat over 
500 cords of juniper has been cut and hauled to this plant and is now in 
process of manufacture into pencils to oiake up a portion of the billion 
pencils which it is estimated are annually manufactured from American woods. 
A portion of these are consumed abroad, but statistics show that we use 
about seven pencils each in this country annually. 

The juniper logs are hauled to Alturas, some ten or twelve miles, by 
motor trucks. There they are first cut into sections 6 inches long, from 
which blocks two and five-eighths inches square are made. These blocks are 
then cut into slats of pencil length and thickness. The slats are shipped 
to the large pencil factories on the Atlantic Coast. 


Sfr.:T..W. ISbrcrftftj, .Chief Zngineer, and Fir. John 17, 50x, District Engineer, 
District 7, loft to-day for Chicago to attend the convention of American 
road builders which is being held in that city. They expect to be gone 
several days. 

Some Lambs: The annual grazing report from the Holy Cross Jbrest, Colorado, 
rath-r places the ranges on that Forest at the head of the list when it 
comes to : turning off well finished lambs. 

The average of all the lambs turned off the ranges was between 70 
and 80' pounds at Kansas City, one shipment of 70l lambs averaged 76 pounds 
•at Kansas City, with a cut-back of only one lamb. They must have been pretty 
good stuff to stand such a long shipment and weigh out so well. 

The percentage of lambs marked up to the .?brest averaged 99, while the 
calf crop was about 70 per cent, which, considering the weather. condit ions 
that prevailed over practically ail the Colorado ranges this year, ia a 
mighty good record from a stockman's point of view.--7/.C.3. 

Col. Greeley has approved the program for the Ogden grazing meeting, to- 
gether with the selections made "for committees. Mimeographed copies will 
go to the districts within a very few days. — VMC.E. 

Grazingjacaminer, Harry 3. M alms ten of the Great Basin Experiment Station left 
January 1 for a five months' leave of absence to assist Dr. Sampson, formerly 
director of the Great Basin Experiment Station, in starting the -new range 
investigative work, at the University of Calif ornia. — V/.R.C!. 


^Jbor_a^pjr^^d§jitifxes Many Specimens of V/ood : A regular stream of specimens 
of wood for identification flows to the Laboratory, During October, 10£4 
different pieces were received from 27 sources. Of these 748 were identified 
to species, 208 to group, 66 to genus, and only one, a foreign wood, could 
not be identified. 

Most of these are sent by firms or individuals who need the informa- 
tion in their business; often the exact knowledge received averts expensive 
litigation and quite commonly the determination of a -species decides the use 
of a large, shipment of lumber. Undoubtedly, as the. supply of standard spe- 
cies dec'-'e.- ?es , there will be an increasing demand for our. wood identifica- 
tion services. 

Some of the requests satisfy curiosity only; for example, a piece of 
v/cod apparently petrified on the outside, dug up loo feet below the surface 
jr. ta, was found to be a species of cedar. Another request fOT? idsnti 
fication acoi rpanied a section from a tree which had grown on the court-house 
tower of an Indiana town, A specimen which seemed to be infiltrated with ore 
and found in blue clay 2.1 feat below the surface in Wisconsin proved to be a 
species of spruce. 


...... - ., . • 30Rff>?, • PailTiC TS .{LA ByRATuRY-.. lOont . }. . \ •. 

Structural Timber Grac^.g? -Rues? A b ig ,.s tep-;:- forward in promoting s t.a.ndar&iza- 
tion was .made >; when the directors of' the National Hardwood'. Lumber Association '" 
at their meeting in Chicago adopted' the Basic Rules for Grading Structural 
Timbers- ^ At conferences held by numbers of .the Laboratory with officers 
of the association, grading rules were . wot Iced, up based on laboratory rules 
and covering also such defects as wane, grub holes, wonnholes, etc.,' which 
are not included in the Basic Grading Rales. Wide publicity and use will 
result when the association, places these' rules in its grading manual, ad- 
vertises them to architects and designers, and educates its mill men to 
cutting. timber in accordance with^these grades. Hardwoods graded -under • ' 
these rules, the association believes, will enter house- construe tion, • es- 
pecially locally, to a greater extent than-. hats ■ been done in the- past » 


60 V* . JQaaPh M; . pi3gfon r in his message to the Eighteenth 'Legislature Of Mon- 
tana, made the fallowing recommendation concerning timber taxation'? ■ ■ 

• ''Under our constitutional '-mandate, the present system of taxing our 
diminishing timber supply. is not only an economic ■ crime , but threatens the ■ 
future welfare v. of the State.. .It enforces the cutting .of our timber supply ' ■ 
for the future, ahead of its natural time, by its present Owners in order 
to avoid absolute confiscation. 

.. limber t , like minerals, should contribute, .an extra heavy tax when s©v-' ! : ~ 

ered from, the soil.. It ■ is-.-my belief that Montana, ; in • self-defense of its ! ' 

own future development and .in order to ■ conserve its , invaluable timber- re-. ' 
sources should change the,. present unscientific -method . of taxing timber by J »~'\ 
providing a* moderate, annual .tax on . the land and; a heavy toll 'from the 
ber itself at the time it is harvested." - - ; •<■■■■'■} - * 

,■;> . - .- . - • ; . .: ■ • . *- ■ '.-y< ; >.. ' : 


Colorado Mi t ion, "of La Poudr.a» Through cooperation of the District office 
with the Chamber of Commerce of Port Collins, Colorado, the entire space 
in a, magazine entitled '.'-La Poudre,,." published by the Ft. Collins organiza- ■ - ■-• 
tion, has been given over: to. .articles, -of the Colorado ^National 50rest, pre- ' 
pared by members cyf the 5br est -Service, -'on .various phases of National 5br- 
est work -as carried .on in this region. , This edition of -the -publication - • 
will be advertised as a special Colorado ITational 50res t : 3dit ion: 

LjO.r e .. Game Re fug a s ; There is considerable ,act ivity 1 0 bring before *the' 'pres- ' '•; 
ent session of the Colorado Legislature a .number of new State game refuges; 
and it is expected that five or six more will be this •s-e'ssion. - 

Soil .Probl em; In 1914- , the Morton Nursery was established on the Niobrara 
Division of the Nebraska Fbrest through special legislation secured by in- 
terested local paople, who deaired .to. -afforestation work . started- on that * 
division of the -Jbrest. The f lrs ; t. seedbeds-' were- - : sown in 1S15 and' it wa-s ; '"-'- 
soon found that the trees were unhealthy ,. portions ...of the .roots^'rOtted off 
and an. incrus tation was not iced .on .the surface, .of the soil-. After' -analysis •'-'- 
of typical soil samples, the .Bureau of Soils .announced, that there was^-alfcali' '' 
present,, but not in sufficient quantity to b,e injurious to crops. . .Silvia •>:>-- 1 
cv.]turi°t Bates took the position tnat .far.oi crops and .coniferous" -trees have 
differ-rat recfai r f s and di ffer. .in their susceptibility -to alkali and • • ; '•' 
that these conclusions did not necessarily apply to conifers. . ■■■■>■•'■ 

'L'il'ling was recoc.monaed as a possible -solution to place the soil in 
condition for good tree growth, but the .situation .has grown worse, recently 
instead of be. tier. Luring,. -the past season,- it was found that, if -the nurs-ery' - 
area* containing trees were diked and- .then flooded that this treatment kept 
the alkali from concentrating near the .surface. 'However^ recent, tests- by 
Mr. Bates indicate tfiat the- water of the Niobrara Riyer, which .is used for 
irrigating, .contains alkali and that the. continual adcat-ion of this ^a'-lkal i ' 
to the soil will in t ime- counteract the beneficial e ff Feats' .of flooding, -a " - 1 "' 
final trial of this site will be given next season and gypsum and magnesium 
sulphate will be added to counteract the alkali. 


Sto ck Show Draws Conv ention: The occasion of the national Western Stock Show, 
which has come to bj a national event in Denver, is taken advantage of by 
various other organizations and associations to hold their annual meetings. 
During the week January 13 to 20, there will be held in Denver not- only the J 
stock show, but annual meetings of th3 Colorado Stockgrowers Association, 
the Game & Fish Protective Association and the State Forestry Association. 

Advantage is taken of reduced fares at this time and usually there is 
a good attendance at all these meetings. 


getter Evid ence Required; A Hanger's explanation of a law case- that went 
wrong - "The simple fact is i that the man confessed his guilt but. the judge 
practically called him a liar and turned him loose." 

Grootf onte in, where Sheep Grow With out Water : Shall we import Australian _ . 
sheep into the Southwest or reseed our drouth, stricken ranges with pure 
stands of Australian prickly pear - which? The mere habit of drinking 
(water) which American sheep. seem to have gotten into apparently means noth- 
ing in the young lives of Australian "Woollies." A recent newspaper item 
credits the British Royal Agr.i. Farm, Gi-ootfontein, South Africa,, with-this 
experiment:- Sheep existed "for 280 days solely on a, diet of prickly pears, 
and if a little lucerne plant is added, for 500 days, without a drop of water. 
'We have^ written for the rest of the story'. 

Fire Calculation on Santa. Fe: . In 'the year 1973,. along- about the middle of 
June say, the Gallina District \-/ill experience a fire originating from a 
cause which, it is believed-., "is absolutely .uni.qUev The burning .coal vein 
just off the starboard side of that District which, so the Viejos say, has ,, 
been afire at least for the past 36 years < will by that time have crept to 
the surface within the Forest. 

By referring to the Pe-ru-na Almanac and Weather forecast, it will be 
seen that June, 1973, is to bo a month of exceeding drought and heat, and 
this timely warning is given in order that the Gallina District Ranger may 
have his trusty McLeod sharpened up and the winters ' grease completely re- 

Dry Yea rs an d Trout Fry: Has a dry year when no floods occur, like the pres- 
ent one, anything to do with increased natural restocking of trout in the 
mountain streams? I have asked myself this question several times this year. 
According to my observations, 1 would say yes. I have noticed during the 
summer .on. several trout streams on rny district thousands of small fry aver- 
aging from l|- inches to two inches. The number has been, much larger com- 
pared to other years when floods occur. . I think all mountain streams have 
had a large natural restocking this year. Would like to hear from some one 
else on this sub ject,--J .A.R. 


Mr. D. A, Shoemaker makes the following report of the splendid work done by 
the Grazing Reconnaissance party on the Fillmore the past summer: 

"The grazing reconnaissance party which worked this year on the Fill- 
more Forest mapped and typed about 110,000 acres, which almost completes the 
north portion of the forest. Typing was discontinued about the middle of 
October, since the forage at that time was so frozen and dried up that ac- 
curate estimates could not be secured. However, the mapping continued un- 
til October 30, when a quite heavy fall of snow prevented any further mark 
this year. 

"During this season a considerably different method of mapping was 
used than has been the practice in the past. Instead of making a detailed 
contour map which was later used as a basis for securing type acreages, only 
a skeleton or drainage map was made, the type lines being located by alidade 
and traverse board methods at the same time the map was being made. This 
method we believe results in a map which shows acreages of forage types 
fully as accurately as the contour mapping method and which contains suffi- 
cient data for a practical grazing working plan. Tha contour method of 


DISTRICT fx ( viont i ) 

mapping necessitated the examiners going over the ground in detail at two 
different "times, first to get the. contour map, and the second time' to get 
the type lines and typo write-ups, since all of this, could, not be done at 
One operation. 1 ." .'. 

"The drainage map which was ^m^de this year is made % the examiner 
going over the ground only /once in detail, since the 'drainage map and the 
type map is not ■ too much for one to make at .one operation./ It is believed 
that the method as used this year, if it proves practical as we think it 
will, will b'e a big aid- in speeding up. the. work of intensive grazing recon- 
naissance^ since undoubtedly it will materially reduce the cost p^r acre 

of this. work. " . 

• * ' ' '' ' • •' 


r ,, 

Sequo ia\Men ' G-p After, p f fender s : ,• Late Sunday evening, October 15, we' got a 
"hunch" through ?. E. V/ooldridge-,. road foreman, that there; had been a game 
vie la t ion above. -Pino Flats near the Capinero Road. Camp, Slinkard 'and Brown - 
started out early Monday mor.ning, finding Jc C. Bellah and Hv B. Stevens 
camped outi^l/2 milo above the road camp. They were requested to produce the 
meat, horns and hide of the deer they had. killed on the previous Friday. 
They had a, good story which sounded, fye.ry plausible. The horns were in 
Por cerville, 3-point, and. the hide and' meat were at ' their ' base camp about: 
three miles away. Brown and Slinkard "gum shoad" it to the other camp, 
found the hide which, bore no evidence of sex, grabbed the meat and came ., 
back to the camp above the road camp, where Bellah admitted he had killed 
a doe. The following morning he pleaded guilty to a charge of having il- 
legal deer meat in his possession and was finad &25.00 by Judge Mitchell 
of Luc or. 

Burning Permits Required in San Diego County : Recently the Supervisor of 
San Diego County passed a drastic ordinance which requires that burning 
permits be secured from April 1 to December 31 before fires can be started 
to clear land, burn brush, grass, stubble, etc., or set off fireworks. 

Sa ndy Has Some Eyes: The ether night, 7 o'clock, the telephone rang at 
Shaver and V/estfall answered: "Hello," said Sandy. "I see a fire on Steven- 
son Creek." "Where are you?" asked V/estfall. "Over at the Hogue Ranch," 

said Sandy. "Well, I'll be ," said V/estfall as he took his McLeod 

tool and hurried forth. Up Stevenson Creek he went, turning over every 
stone and looking under every leaf. At 10 o'clock he came to a man sitting 
on a rock smoking a pipe. "What you smokin?" asked Westfall. "BULL DURHAM, 11 
answered the man. "Well, get down in that gulch so Baldy won' t see the 
smoke. " — Sierra. 


Ga me Protection Pays: According to the "Oregon Voter," the Oregon State 
Gouroission "financed its varied activities of 1922 entirely through the 
sale of hunting and fishing licenses." Also during 1922 there were 756 
arreste made for game law violations, as compared with 184 in 1918. 

D; ? ir and P.. F ir; Douglas fir in the Inland Empire occupies an intermedi- 
ate position with respect to mechanical properties, as indicated by specific 
gravity determinations, between Douglas fir from the Pacific Coast and Doug- 
las fir from the high elevations of the Rocky Mountains in Montana and Wyo- 

The average of the best groups of trees studied for the Inland Em- 
pire show qualities, as indicated by the specific gravity determinations, 
equal to the average values of Douglas fir from the Pacific I'orthwest, and 
the average values of the poorer groups of Inland Empire Douglas fir are 
about equivalent to the average values of the material tested from the Rocky 
Mountain types. — W.H.G. 


More_jPublijitv! The Oregon Journal, one of rortland's afternoon papers, 
plans to have an annual sdition to be out about January 1. r Jhe editors 
have asked the Pbrest Service for 5 or 6 illustrated stories and a large 
number of "fillers." Stories are being prepared by members of the Dis- 
trict office on some of the following lines of work: Protection, Roads, 
Water Power, Western Hemlock, Reforestation, Range Management, Poisonous 
Range Plants," Wind River 3xperim3nt Station, and the Columbia and Oregon 
Forests will furnish stories also. 

4_I§wiiij£anizatj^ Tha Hoo-Hoo Club is out for an in- 

telligent and definite forest policy for State and nation. It is confi- ■ 
dently believed that in this manner Hoo-Hoo in general, and the Hoo-Hoo 
Jlub of Seattle in particular, can impress , itself upon the citizenship 
for a great work. The speakers at a recent Hoo-Hoo dinner referred re- 
peatedly to the revelations brought cut at the Washington second annual 
forestry conference, which had just closed its. sessions here, showing 
that at the present rate the stupendous timber resources of Washington 
Are going as did tb,e forests of Minnesota and Wisconsin, with one re- 
sult, that every member of Hoo-Hoo would be < looking for a job outside of 
the lumber industry. . • : . . 

I.t has. been shown that' Hoo-Hoo has a real mission to. perform- 
and in the formation of 'the 'Hoo-Hoo Olub of. Seattle that. the. order s.t 
last has caught its stride and now is going to it." 



U. S. Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential ) 




Vol. VII, No. 5. 

Washington, D. 0. 

January 29, 1923, 

0ONSI333 N3W J 3RS3Y 
By T3« 3, Garter, Washington 

At the Weeks Law Conference a year ago, after an able talk on fire 
protection by an eastern State Store star, one of those attending from the 
West was heard to iwittsr something about "woodlots and parks." Unfortu- 
nataly, that particular man did not hear State forester Wilbur later de- 
scribe the 15,00u and 40 ,oOO~acre fires with which New Jersey has been 
plagued. Now comes a bulletin by Associate State Jbrester Baker, en- 
titled "?oreocry for Profit," which can be considered with profit by any 
.•oroster. It says: "%w Jersey still has two million a^cres of second 
;rv.vth and cut-over woodland. * * * Ubr many years forest land cleared for 
lV» i-.. And industrial development has been closely balanced by abandoned 
fields reverting to woodland. * * * ilew Jersey consumes the equivalent of 
©0u,o00.,Q00 board feet of timber annually, half of whioh is sawed lumber 
used in industries and for construction, while the other half is used in 
rough form for poles, ties, piling, mine timbers, posts, cordwood, etc. 

* * * The output of New Jersey sawmills is approximately 30,000,000 board 
feet, or one-tenth of the sawed lumbar consumed, leaving nine- tenths to be 
imported. On the other hand, about two-thirds of the round and rough tim- 
ber is produced locally. At present freight rates it costs the people of 
New Jersey not less than $.5,000 ,000 annually for freight alone on imported 
timber. * * * Hew Jersey is now cutting the equivalent of 230,000,000 board 
feet annually (mostly not sawed) , or 115 board feet per acre per year. An 
annual production of 300 board feet per acre per year, which is easily pos- 
sible once the forests are protected from fire and are put to work under 
forest management, will yield an amount equal to all the timber now used. 

* * * New Jersey can eventually grow practically all the timber needed for 
home consumption," 

Mr. Baker gives a map which shows that something like half the State 
is "50 to 100 per cent forested." In fact, it must be, for the entire State 
is over 40 per cent forests, with over 300,0 00 acres of tidal marsh and sand 
beach counted as part of the total area. Also less than half the total 
acreage of tha State is in farms, and less than 7 per cent is "urban, rail- 
roads and highways." 

All of whioh is recommended for meditation by those to whom the name 
New Jersey brings visions only of Atlantic 3ity , Hoboken,rum runners and 

By P. S, Baker, D-4 

£br years I have been trying to find somebody who would tell me what 
this watershed protection we talk about is worth in cold cash. I have asked 
Lands, forest Management, Grazing, and Grazing Studies many times but with- 
out avail. The other day I was reading the Manual and my eye lit on item 
4 at the top of page 9-A. This value of watersheds is in the allotment es- 
timates'. Highly elated I went down to "0" and demanded -tfea dope. (I had 
never had any idea "0" knew anything about, it before*) ,, Oh," they replied, 


"that's one of those things that are in the Manual all right, but they don't 
exist anywhere else." I departed a wiser man. "Well, if nobody else will 
do it, "thought I, "I'll do it myself." So I did. 

Take the Snake River Valley in Idaho, for instance, with acres and 
acres of irrigated farm land, great dams, reservoirs, cities, - real cities 
with big stores, movies, crooks, automobiles and flappers. Water, just plair 
water, running in little streams in far away forests did it all. what did it 
do? It took sagebrush desert worth maybe $5 an acre and made it worth £45 
an acre. Wow don't go and think up all the $200 land you know of. The as- 
sessed valuation of irrigated lands in six counties in the upper Snake is 
$43.61, so $45 isn't a bad average at all for assessed valuation. There are 
2a million acres of this land. The increased value due to water is $40 per 
acre, - multiply it yourself - one hundred million dollars total. Now, if 
we judge by the Minidoka Project - not because it is especially fine, but be- 
cause it is the only thing I can find information on, - the values in cities 
and public utilities created equal that of farm values, or one hundred millioi 
dollars more. Credit water with two hundred million dollars'. Now, how many 
acres did it conu from? Well, there are nine million acres of National Fbr- 
ests that certainly sent down lots of water, and then there are perhaps three 
million acres of other fairly high country in between, up Lost River way, on 
the edge of the Yellowstone Park, and so on. (I don't figure that the very 
early water from the scanty snows of the plains themselves amounts to much.) 
Twelve million acres created two hundred million dollars values then, or about 
$17 to each acre. Pretty good, - what? Bu-t wait'. That is the value of the 
mountain watersheds per acre, not the value of proper protection that we are 
forever harping upon. Cut down the trees, burn the land, turn on ten million 
goats and pigs to destroy the forage, and grub out the roots, marshal armies 
of bark beetles to riddle away surviving trees, in fact simply ruin the whole 
works. The mountains will still stand there. The heavy snows will still 
gather on the peaks and the great drifts will melt slowly through the mid- 
summer. Are the high, rough, barren Sawtooth Mountains valueless as sources 
of irrigation water? Do what you will, you can't ruin the whole $17 value 
of these watersheds. All right. But we do cut a hole in it, just how big 
it is hard to say. If the watersheds were ruined vast quantities of silt 
would come down, the great reservoirs would clog up before paid for, canals 
would need cleaning every few minutes, maintenance charges would go up and 
the poor farmers would long for the good old days back in 1922 when spuds 
were 40^ a hundred and banks only went busted once or twice a year-. Maybe 
the country would go back to where it was before the great projects were 
built, - when irrigated farming had only l/e its present value. Wo would 
have destroyed 7/8 of $17 or about $14. If watersheds were not so badly 
"razzed," things probably would not come to this pass. Nevertheless silt, 
rocks and junk would come down. The usefulness of dams would be impaired, 
annual charges would soar, late water would be short especially where reser- 
voirs were small, and crops Would become smaller, - and naturally land va"i:3s 
and prosperity would go down. Probably your estimate on this is as gord :s 
mine, but it looks to me as if half of the great values created cca: j be lathei 
readily destroyed through the mismanagement of watersheds, - that is, atoi.t 
$8 an acre. What do you think? Therefore v/e are custodians of v :es of $8 
an acre in watershed protection alone. What is the integrity c: forest 
worth then to the \iater user, - probably somewhere about eight million dollars, 
and your ranger district. Roll your own figures. 

Why don't you, some of these days, take a small watershed and irriga- 
tion unit, one you know like a book; figure out the values you can truthfully 
say are due to water and then divide this by the watershed area to find out 
how much it is worth per acre? Then imagine it misused and figure how much 
more it would cost to irrigate, how much poorer the crops would be, etc. and 
see how much of this value created by v/ater can be destroyed and how much is 
due to the mere fact that mountains are mountains and as such get the lion's 
share of the rainfall. I expect you would get lower values than I have be- 
cause the values created in the Snake River Valley are truly remarkable. 

Take a whack at it once - it's the real dope that knocks thorn eold. 


By S. V/c Pel ley, Y/ashiiigton 

Dead - tho organized advocator of light burning in the pine region 
of California and southern Oregon. According to a recent California Dis- 
trict News Letter, that arch' enemy of American forestry was, on January 5, 
pronounced deceased. •• i » ' 

Mr. Redington in his News Letter item goes on. to say: 

"The California Pbrestry Committee * * * voted unanimously that fur- 
ther investigation and work in connection with 'light burning' was unneces- 
sary, since the results of the' last three years* hava demonstrated that such 
burning is impracticable, both from a seasonal and financial point of view." 

This committee consists of representatives of Pine and Redwood Manu- 
facturers' Associations, the University of Calif ornia Jbrestry School , the 
State Board of Jbrestry, the Southern Pacific Railroad 'and the Pores t ^-rv- 
ice. The membership of the Pine Lumber Manufacturers' Association is 'com- 
posed of the majority, if not all, of " the largest owners, of pine lands, in 
' the Y/est. The Southern Pacific Railroad Company Controls the land originally 
granted by the Government to the Central Pacific Railroad Company. This' 
grant extends- for 20 miles on each side of the railroad track, both along 
the route through California to Oregon and the route across the Sierra 
N^vadas as far east as Ogdcn. Since so large an acreage of privately owned 
timberland 'was represented in the investigation mentioned by Mr.. Redington, 
there remains little doubt as to how the pine owners in California and south- 
ern Oregon now stand an reference to this vexing question. Mr. Redington 
concludes his item by the words: "The 'ghost of light burning is laid to 
rest." Thus we have the. assurance that the Piute forestry idea is at last 
out-distanced and wind-broken in its race with^the ideas of those who have 
l6ng known that fire and; the growing of pine trees can not go hand in hand. 
•To those inside and outside the Tbrest Service who took part, in this neck 
and neck race, strongly handicapped as they Were by public opinion in , favor 
of tho light burning theory, great credit is duo. It is really a brilliant 
' achievement and \one which marks an epoch in the progress of California for- 
estry. , _ •' ;>!-' , , . 


• New Bbrm : On the .recommendation of District 4 arid'-ono other District whose 
identity has been lost, 'a new form in the 874, Ranger. Notebook Series. ; will 
ba printed, listing the. 29 activity cost captions to which time should be 
charged in the diary and . on. the 'Form 26. It is believed that with this form 
carried in the Ranger notebook or pasted on the cover, the proper charge to 
make* at the. end of the -day's record will be more easily determined and that 
the resulting records will be more accurate. These forms will;. be on requi- 
sition in the Ogden Supply Depot Within a short time, — H.H,. •; 

"Savage /.lice" : Under the. heading Principal Departmental Library Accessions 
we note "Heredity of Mildness and Savageness in Mice," by .-J . A:. Cob urn of 
Baltimore, Y/illiams V/ilkins Co. publisher This will be of intense inter- 
est to feminine members of the Service. V/onder if Captain 31dredge couldn't 
get out a monograph on "Morphological Determinism as affecting the Reckless 
Demeanor of Dendroc tonus.*,' 

. i . ■•: . ' ■ 
AJLLast.: In his annual grazing report Supervisor Hall of the Shasta makes 
the following comment: 

"Coniferous reproduction is' rapidly shading out the palatable browse, 
and large areas of once splendid Blue Brush (Ceanothus integerrimus) are 
now dense stands of yellow pine reproduction. These conditions force stock 
into heavier brush areas, and as these brush areas are opened up, yellow 
pine reproduction follows. 

"If fires are kept out, which is hoped can be done, the time is com- 
ing when the carrying capacity, on browse ranges will be very small. It is 
believed that heavy grazing on 'browse ranges has stimulated reproduction, 
and evidence of this fact can be seen on nearly all -of our browse ranges!" 
The old cow comes into her own. — Y/.C.B. 


Lumbe r from California : A carload cf 26,5t0 feat of western yellow pine 
lumber has just been • rec aivod at the Laboratory from northern California. ■ 

The lumber is' Of various thicknesses and widths and will all be used 
at the Box Laboratory in the manufacture of approximately a thousand boxes 
and crates that are later broken up during test in the big revolving drum. 

These tests will determine the proper thicknesses of material and 
nailing, improved design of wooden crates, and the bost form of metal strap- 
ping or other bindings. 

The box and crate industry is now the second largest wood-using in- 
dustry in the United States and uses approximately 4-1/2 billion feet or 16 
per cent of the wood required annually for the manufacture of vooden prod- 

/ . ' ■ - .. • . . . • 

'' Lead , Pencil Was to ;. Perhaps the correspondent whose letter we quote has heard 
of the pencil-saving, discussion in the Service Bulletin, or possibly he may 
he a manufacturer of mechanical -pencils'. 

"In." your "campaign of protection against unnecessary wastage of wood, 
it. may b'e valuable f or you; to take cognizance of the amount of wood employed 
by the .wood pencil industries Of the country that might properly be applied 
to more -•essential uses.' 

"If the mechanical pencil now manufactured in great numbers by an in- 
creasing number of concerns wore, to be substituted entirely, there would be 
a saving to the country of thousands of feet of timber. The emphasis on 
this would accelerate the entire campaign 'for the saving of timber. 

"Do you feel that this saving is sufficiently important to be recog- 
nized by the' Department of Agriculture, Fb-rast Service? 1 ' 


V/ o Pi ne Yield: The completion of the Ohio Hatch Company sale on Scott 
Creek on the Coeur d' Alone has given an interesting check on yield in the 
white pine type. The stand' was damaged by the 1919 fire and .was offered for 
sale in order to salvage it, though it was considered to be mature. The 
stand was even-aged from 90 to 100 years, apparently having followed a clean 
burn almost- exactly 100 years ago. 

The total cut on 790 acres was 31,300 M, and it is estimated that 
there is 500 M left, making a total of 31,800 M, or 40 .1 M per acre. This 
averages a trifle over 400 feet per year increment The timber was 4o£ per 
cent white pine, the balance- being white fir t Douglas fir, hemlock and larch. 
This is not a specially selected area, but included practically the whole 
Scott Creek drainage from rim to rim, so it ought to give a fair indication 
of what can be expected at 100 years from the bost areas of burn reproducing 
to .white pine. ' 

"' • ! The price of this timber was £5.10 for green white pine, &2. CO for 
dead white pine, frl.00 for white fir and cedar, and £2.00 for Douglas fir 
and larch. 

Re cord Pr ic e ; Districts 5 and 6 are making a good sprint for lead in quan- 
tity of timber sold, but can either of them beat> this price? Bids on the 
Uranus Creek chance on the Coeur d'Alene were recently opened and ths re- 
sults certainly indicated that tha lumber companies want white pine. The 
chance included a very high "percentage of pine, sixteen and a half million 
foot, together v/ith 1,200 M of white fir. It was appraised at C6.5u for 
white pine and 50 cents' for white fir. Competition was keen and five bids 
were submit ced. The Rose Lake' Lumber Company -got it at a price of $ 12.4t 
for white pine and 6o cents for white fir. Almost zny kind of a white pine 
chance now brings from £6.00 to ^9.00 a thousand. — S.jC. 


Sav/mills f or Ties: Is the time approaching when the picturesque tie hack, 
with his broad axe, will be replaced by a sawmill on wheels? The experiment 
of manufacturing ties with such a sawmill driven by a i-brdson is to be given 
a thorough try-out next spring in the Pbxpark region of the Medicine Bow 
National Forest. 


DISTRICT, ,2 (Jont.) 

The general shortage of skilled tie choppers at wages returned to 
practically the high war time scale appears to make the sawmill, with its 
comparatively cheap and unskilled labor, a real competitor to the tie hack 
method of production. Logs will be handled in eight-foot lengths and then 
skidded directly to the mill, which will move. progressively through the 
timber along strip roads with set-ups every few hundred yards. 


Who? What ? Why? . ( A ssent ial' •elem ents of g oo d planning) ; Through coopera- 
tion worked up by Forest Ranger Mo'ore with the Indian , Service, residents of 
Espanola and the Rio Grande Valley, and' a sawmill operator, the road out of 
Santa Clara. Canon to the- Puje Cliff Ruins oh the Santa Clara Indian Reserva- 
tion and leading into the Forest near the Stonehouse Ranger Station is being 
reconstructed so as to' be reasonably accessible to autos. The principal 
work is being done on what is known as the Rodarte Hille The present maxi- 
mum grade of 18 per cent will be reduced to *10 per cent. 

This, work, is a conspicuous example of a combined -recreational , for- 
est development and farm to market project* It facilitates the marketing of 
approximately 10 ,000 ,000 feet B.M. of sawtjjmber, aids in.fQrest administra- 
tion, opens up. a region of Cliff dwellings second only to the Kito de'los 
Frijoles, and, probably most important is 'the fact ^hat thousands of cords of 
waste timber .resulting from' the above sawtiraber cutting will, be made avail- 
able as fuel t*o-the residerits of the Zspa'nola .Valley , .where there is now a • 
wood famine* --Santa Fe* *';.'''.',-. ■ ■ ' > 

Some Forest Lef t Out; That the Coronado Forest did .not includ.e .alL the for- 
ested, area .in .the vicinity of Tuos'on is' indicated in press: dispatches . 
say that-. within- 5 miles' of Tucson, is 'the. largest* standing cactus for'ss-t In 
the United States, while just north of Oracle in Pima. Cpunty is. an area in 
which every known variety of - cactus grows.' These areas are said t'o-be under 
consideration by the Department of the Interior 4 for inclusion in 1 a ifetional 
Monument. • ; •• . * , , . •' 

... • ••' ■ . . i' • * 
* . ■ ... , . . . 

Prehistor ic Scr een ^St ory,; According to press notices, a scenario is to be 
filmed at the Grand Canyon which will re,produce i in picjture,*frfte ancient in- 
habitants of that region. The country around the Bass trail will be the 
basa of operations, Mr. B$ss, owner of , the B^ass .Ranch, > who. has: been known 
to many .D-3. men for a long time', will cooperate with the producing company .. ' 
Ho will probably be one of the characters; . . ■>■?, \ . , { 

A_Rare_BirdL. Last April a bird collector spent several days on the Catalinas 
hunting for, an Evening GrOssbcak. -He stated that he' wanted it- for the 
Smithsonian collection and that they were' very rare,,: there' being but 1 a few 
specimens in the country. A few days after he left, one flew into the ten- 
nis court at Soldier Camp and was found by .Vocational Ranger Noll; who 
mounted, it. . This bird, is being sent to T. H. Wilson at Deposit, New York, 
who will present it to the Institute. — Coronado. 

iklsogth J _-_a_jb^: during the' hunt ing season very little game . : was killed on 
account of unfavorable Weather conditions. The first few .days of the sea- 
son the hills were full of hunt'ers; Tuesday a heavy fog came over which 
lasted until. Friday night. Several hunters got lost. . One. night the Ares ' 
chuck wagon, took care of 14 lost hunters, and one man,in an effort to go from 
Queen to/the Bearup ranch, returned to Queen three times, each time intro- 
duced himself to the lady and inquired the way to Bearup' s* One bird from 
Texas walked into the R : S . asked for his mail "and. when I explained t'h'-.'.t' I 
wasn't a postmaster he wanted to know -what the devil that thar flag ment 
and if I had a land office out here in these here hills, and he spent the 
nite also. — Lincoln. 

ffpllen .Smoke: "Smoke" from blowing pollen in the Island. Park region occurred 
heaviest the past season on June 22, at which time' the wind was moderately 1 
strong and steady. It was noticeable as a gray looking pronounced haze 
against the hills, very much like late autumn haze, except that at times 'it 
was difficult to distinguish timbered hills four or. five .miles -distant . It 
covered the edges of ponds as a yellow scum. There "was no discernible drift- 
ing that would resemble the . movement of new smoke.— Targheo. ■< 

DISTRI CT- 4 (Cont.) 

Br ush Burni ng on the WeiBer: • Supervisor Rice ■ reports the "burning , o f brush . 
from 545 LI foot of timber on" the Weiser this- fall at an average cost of 10.5^ 
par M. The highest cost reported was 25c 1 per M and the lowest 1.5g^ per M. 
On several of the Forasts the officers ar a -requiring purchasers to burn the ^ 
brush as the trees are felled and trimmed during the winter season, and where 
consistent attempts are being made to put this into effact, oxcellant results 
are reported. 

Game Law Violators: Ranger Gordon of the Caribou Sorest and Deputy Gams 
V/arden Marriott found some of the more zealous trappars exercising thair 
skill a faw days before the opening of the trapping season and took them be- 
fore the Grays Lake justices to see whether the association would not have 
a restraining influence.- We find -that it had, for Justice Frantz Nielsen, 
after practically an all-night session, received $40. 00 from Mr. Miller, 
$25..00 fine -and $16. 00 costs-. Justice Harry Field was more moderate, prob- 
ably because it did not take him as long, and assessed William Miles only 
$33. 00, $25.00- fine, and $-8.00- costs. --Caribou. 

Fish and G ame Notes: The other day a party of tourists jumped two deer on the 
road north of Cedar City. One of the deer ran intO ; a mesh wire fence and 
broke its neck. The tourists notified the city marshal who, accompanied lay 
several local men, drove out t dressed the deer and brought it into town. The 
case, was raported to.- the -Forest Supervisor 'and the doer placed in cold stor- 
age. Yestarday the deer. was-, sold at public auction by Deputy State Game 
7arden Clark. The. deer was a buck fawn, weighing 42 pounds dressed,' and went 
at $7,00.— Dixie,. . ■ <t : ■, ■ ■ • » • ' _ / h '. .'" 


Cleanlines s is Next to Godlines s: Three hundred and one special use permit- 
tees in San Antonio Canon on the Angeles have assessed themselves $6 apiece 
with which to- pay for garbage collection at their cabins. , 

He , , Ha s O ur Numb er : ■ The following latter was received by Supervisor Charlton 
from, the Church of the Open Door Bible School; - 

"Dear Sir: We should like a list of the rangers undar your super- 
vision, also the names of other supervisors, as we wish to send them some 
literature. 1 am personally acquainted with soma rangers' and realize thair 

The Cal ifornia Secti on of the Society of Americ an .Fore stars ha Id a vary 
largely attended meeting at the Ferry Building on tha evening of Thursday, 
January 4. Dr. E. P. Mainecka, newly elaC ted chairman, prasided. The State 
Forester, Mr. Pratt, presented a program which had been drawn up for State 
legislation this year. Mr. George Cornwall, Zditor of TH3 T 1MB .DRMAN and an 
associate member of the society, was present and" gave convincingly his views 
regarding the forestry program. There was "considerable discussion regarding 
the necessity and advisability of legislation of a regulatory nature, par- 
ticularly in regard to slash disposal. - 

Aspan In jured b y. Camping; During. a' recent trip over the Inyo and Mono, I no- 
ticed that at several largely used public camp grounds in the aspan timber, 
camping is rapidly killing out the trees. This is particularly evideE* alf 
Silver Lake and C^aok pufclicr camps on tha Mono. It was noted to a 
lesser extent at other places . 'Since- the roots of the aspen do not grow:, 
down deep, it is evident that trampling of the ground and particularly the 
building of camp fires close to tha trees is responsible for killijog them out 
Unless something is done soon .to prevent the building of fires too close to 
these trees, some of thase cp.mps will soon be almost treel3T.r.c tfora are 
cases whore the construction of central fire placas would, doubt-lass eliminate 
most of the damage to the timber. I shall be glad to know whether this same 
condition has been noted elsewhere in this District. — L.A.B. 


Th3 Spoken Word: During ths year 1922, ?orest officers of 1-6 delivered 160 
talks and addresses to the public. These were delivered by 3o different of- 
ficers. The encouraging, thing is the large number of Hangers among the list 
of speakers; 13 Rangers delivered 44 talks during ' the year.. These Rangers 
were: Wies endanger and Walters of the Oregon; Peachoy of the Grater; Brender, : 
H. e\ and S. A. Blankenship of the Y/ena tehee;; Young and 'White of the Fremont; . 
Alb^rtson of the Malheur; Bruckart of the Snoqualmio; Hougland of the Colville; 
Woods of the Umatilla, and Park of the Cascade, Fourteen Fbrosts and the Dis- 
trict office are represented among the speakers. Most of these talks were .>..; 
made, as was proper, during Forest Protection Week, The Rainier Forest leads 
with 42, Oregon next with 31, with' the Olympic a close 1 third with 26. 

Valuable Contacts: Supervisor , We igle of the S-noqualmie will take a prominent 
part in affairs of the Seattle Chamber '6f Commerce for 1923. He has been 
elected chairman of the Committee on Mountains and is also a member of two 
other committees: - Tours, and Smoke Nuisance. ' 

More Sales Activity. Logging Engineer Hoffman has completed an appraisal of a 
unit of about 110 million feet on Rocky Brook on the Olympic Fbr3st. 

It Alway s He los: Advertising helps some anyway Y/e have had 10 to 20 inches 
of space in local papers each .week the past six weeks. A fire started in 
Boar 7allsy last week and,, in addition to 3 lookout reports, we had three 
phone calls from ranchers in the valley within 30 minutes. One man jumped in 
his car and drove about 11 miles and notified a road crew. Everybody seems 
anxious to help us in fire prevention, but the man-caused fires still keep on 
starting. Just plain carelessness and not ,cussedness. We can't feed the pub- 
lic too much "Care with f ire" propaganda,-^-P\A.*T. 

By Roy Headloy, Washington 

Walter Lippman, in a recent book, shows with dovastating clearness how 
the attention of a nation is gathered up and fastened on an ideal or symbol 
which is so remote and. general ; that everyone is able to see in it what he 
wants to see - the business man sees profit,, the religious enthusiast sees 
the spread of his creed, the humanitarian sees, progress of human welfare. 
This focusing of. public opinion gives those leaders who wish to do so a great 
temptation and opportunity, to put over things. which public opinion would not 
stand for if it were not hypnotizo'd by the symbols. The only way to keep 
ideals in control and to prevent them from being used to lead us into places 
where we never intended to go and really don* t want to go is to permit them to 
be examined and discussed. 

Mr. Granger in the Bulletin of January 15 argues, with his usual per- 
suasiveness, for keeping our ideals sacred and free from the profaning touch 
of the typewriter, and. the mimeographs Doesn't that inevitably mean to keep 
our ideals elusive, not to be' pinned down to- anything in particular, meaning 
widely different things to different men? And does not that mean an oppor- 
tunity to put things over that we don't really intend or want*? Just as the 
fixing of public opinion on symbols means the opportunity for the public to 
put undesired things over on itself? Do we want our ideals to be sacred or 
do we want them to be clear, tested, understandable, understood and meaning 
the same thing to all. men? . 


Ti n- HZGI fa, 
By the "Poet lariat 

' Way, B ack in 1908 it was Report 3d that a large portion of the clerical force 
of tha Forest Service was to be moved into the '.Vest, with headquarters in 
the cities of San Francisco, Denver, Portland, Albuquerque, Salt Lake, and 
Missoula. Inspired by this rumor the "Poet Lariat" in November, 1908, 
penned the following lines: 

Oh, they're whis'pring in the corners 

And talking in the hall 
They are scheming and a-planning 

Where to migrate in the fall, 
They are telling one another 

Of the places they like best; 
Oh, the whole blamed outfit's "locoed" 

'Cause we're going out West. 

"Have you ever lived in Portland?" 

"Is it wet or is it dry?" 
"Do you think you'd like Missoula?" 

"If, you do, please' tell me why." 
"Is the living high in Denver?" 

"Are the ladies there wel 1 dressed? " 
, . .Oh, these, are burning questions,' 

' C aus e. w e ' r e go ing out We s t . 

"Now J. want to go to Frisco, 

3van tho' the earth does quake." 
"Well I'm wild to see a Mormon, 

So V d much prefer Salt Lake . " 
"Do you think that I'd get homesick?" 

"Are the Frisco fleas k pest?" 
.What a turmoil has been started, 

'Cause we're going out West. 

"Oh, they say that board's expensive 

In the town- of Albuquerque." 
"But you needn' t take a'street car 

For to reach your daily work. " 
"Well I've heard the living's awful, 

(Now please don' t think me silly) 
But really, do they live out there 

On only beans and chili?" 

Oh, such like doubts' and troubles 
Daily agitate the breast, 
•Of each one in the Service, 

'Cause we're going out 'Vest. 


A road camp adjacent to a National Tbrest had a number of negroes 
employed. The entire crew was called to fight fire, which spread rapidly. 
A dozen of the negroes were building fire line 500 yards from tha powder 
house, which caught fire and went up with a terrible concussion. With 
one accord the negroes started in the general direction of the camp. Sam, 
leading the procession, was closely followed by Mose, who noticed that Sam 
was still trailing his shovel, and he y3llsd: 

"Drop dat shovel, niggari Drop dat shovel." 

"Man, Man," gasped Sam, "I haint got time to drop hit." 



U. S. Forest Service 1 

(Contests Confidential) 


Is 1 



Vol. VII, No. 6. 

Washington, D, 0. 

February 5, 1923. 

mm ABOty. A LASKA, 
By J. C. Dort, L-8 

From the number of questions asked and the -widespread interest shown, 
it is apparent that the story of "The land that Uncle Sam bought and then 
forgot," the title of an article by Scott C. Bone, present Governor of 
Al tska, has not been told so many times but that it may be set forth again 

iu new form. ; , \ ' ; > ~ 7 ■■■■ - 

When the tour -'.ft $oes to Alaska he is greatly impressed by the un~ 
i sx .i shipss coming into port with rigging and upper works all cov- 

.. ; ; ' ice as a result of soma severe storm, as well as tales of ship- 
,v v-iSt oth:.r disaster^. Eh on the numerous curio dealers have large 
r; ■ of picture post cards of the towns buried in snow from some espe- 
cially h^avj snowstorms, icebergs, dog teams in winter, and one enter- 
. L« ;-- c photographer even took a "close up" of a glacier after he had stuck 
. lot of cooked macaroni in holes in the ice, labeling it "Glacier Worms." 
£ho tourist literally "eats up" these unusual and remarkable tales of ice 
and snow and the hardships of the frozen north, and these arc the stories 
that are so commonly told to the folks back homo - not the ordinary story 
of everyday life in Alaska, 

But there is another kind of picture of Alaska that the people in the 
States should know, and that is the picture of Alaska in the summertime - 
with summer temperatures ranging from 4C°-50° in the early morning up to 
75°-85° at midday at Juneau, the capital, in the southeastern part, and from 
35°-40° up to 850-100° at Fairbanks < 3ven the winter temperatures are not 
so severe as generally believed, with monthly means of 3c o at Juneau, 35° 
at Sitka, and 0° to 15° at Fairbanks,, We can appreciate this moderate cli- 
mate better when we realize that southeastern Alaska is in the same latitude 
as the 3ritish Isles, and that Alaska proper is in the same latitude as Nor- 
way and •' Sweden. 

The Forest Service is primarily interested in southeastern Alaska, 
where it has the responsibility of administering large timber resources that 
are chiefly valuable for the manufacture of pulp and newsprint paper. In 
order to develop a market for this timber, the Service has been carrying on 
extensive timber surveys, and for the past two years the Service, in coopera- 
tion with \he Federal Power Commission, has made a detailed investigation 
and study of all of the known water power sites of this District. Our knowl- 
edge of many of these power sites was limited by reports of trappers and 
prospectors, and many of these reports upon being traced out proved valueless.. 

There are many lakes in southeastern Alaska, situated near tidewater, 
varying from practically zero elevation up to 2,C0C feet and higher, and 
with varying amounts of water flowing out of them. This combination forms 
an excellent power site and one that can usually be developed at a relatively 
low unit cost, The winter discharge of these streams ie very low and a large 
amount of storage has to be provided in order to develop a uniform amount of 
power throughout the year, and it is this condition that gives so much value 
to the Alaskan lakes, because they make excellent reservoirs. The investi- 
gation showed that there are a large number of good water povaf> sites capable 
of being developed to yield from §,000 to 25,000 horsepower each. Four sites 

have been estimated at over 20,000 horsepower each, and these are suffi- 
ciently largo to rae-et the desires of prospective pulp and paper manufac- 
turers, most of whom seem to want to establish plants of 200 tons daily 
capacity or larger, and figure roughly that IOC horsepower is required 
for each ton cf paper daily capacity. Other power sites are in groups 
that can be connected by transmission lines, so that 20,000 or 30,000 con- 
tinuous horsepower can easily be combined at one manufacturing site. 

The officers of District 8 are working on a bulletin which will de- 
scribe the timber resources of southeastern Alaska, and the Federal Water 
Pow T er Commission will publish a bulletin on the water powers of the same 
region. These two bulletins are badly needed in the efforts of the iorest 
Service to secure the establishment of a substantial pulp and paper indus- 
try on the Tongass rbrest. When issued they will be of very material aid. 

By E. E. Carter, Washington 

For the first half of the fiscal year 1923 timber sale receipts total 
$1,380,645.74, an increase over the corresponding period for the fiscal year 
1922 of $527,163.81, and approximately $340,000 greater than for any preced- 
ing half year. It is doubtful whether this amount of increase over the fis- 
cal year 1922 can bo held throughout the rest of the fiscal year 1923, on ac- 
count of the very large receipts in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year 
1922, so that the estimate recently submitted to the Bureau of the Budget 
was for an increas;- of only i '-200,000 for the fiscal year. It is obvious 
that there is going to be a substantial increase, however, because the amount 
already taken in is only $400,000 less than the amount received during the 
entire fiscal year 1922, 

The size of the increase is due very largely to a greatly expanded 
business in District 5, which, with ever half a million dollars taken in dur- 
ing the six months, shows an increase over the corresponding period in the 
fiscal year 1922 of $357,000. The Districts show approximate increases or 
decreases as follows-. 



plus §357,000 
" 136,100 
» 41,100 
" 11,800 
" 6,300 
" 5,000 


The receipts for the second quarter are about $300,000 less than for 
the first quarter, when the normal amount of advance stumpage deposits was 
being rebuilt after the very thorough liquidation of the summer of 1922. 
Still, these second quarter receipts are about $90,000 greater than for any 
preceding second quarter. 

It is evident that the timber business for the fiscal year 1923 will 
be distinctly larger than in any preceding fiscal year. 

By C. R. Eillotson, Washington 

The annual report of the Superintendent of the Geodetic Survey of Can- 
ada for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1921, describes a new type of recon- 
naissance tower which that survey has been using, and which has also been 
used by the Provincial Forester of New Brunswick in locating suitable points 
for lookout towers. This particular piece of equipment is a ladder tower of 
the type used by the Geographic Service of the French Army. It permits a 
man to ascend to a height 76 feet above the ground. The ladder tower is 
composed of interchangeable sections joined together end to end, which form 
two vertical ladders about 2 feet apart resting on sleepers on the ground and 
connected with one another by pairs of cross braces at intervals of five feet. 
Four sets of guys placed at 25, 40, 55, and 70 feet from the ground hold the 
ladder steady. It is quite light, weighing about 1,C00 pounds, and is con- 
veniently carried in a motor truck. It can be very quickly raised and dis- 
mounted, two experienced men being able to raise it in two hours and dismount 


it in one hour. The Geodetic Survey of Canada has built these to^ors large- 
ly with its own help c.t a cost of approximately £400 each. Mr. G. H. prince, 
the Provincial SbroSter of ITevi Brunswick, states that he has personally as- 
sisted in erecting' the tower anfl ir s viewed the country from its top on sev- 
eral occasions. A tower of \ h is type wil 1 be of par Lieu 1 ar value, first in 
locating desirable observation points, aud second, in determining precisely 
the height of the tower wh'i.e.h,v/,ill give the; best service at that particular 
point. Obviously, it:, is not desirable to erect a 60-foot tower where a 40- 
foot tower "would be sufficient , and on the .other hand, It is just as unde- 
sirable ^W-e roc t a 40-foot tower where "a 60- foot tower is needed. A dis- 
mountable ladder 'tower 1 - of this type should -be' particularly valuable in a 
country of a rolling or flat type over which it would be fairly easy to 
transport the tower by rfieans, of a motor truck or a team of horses. 

• '. ~By. s/v. JoiSe* 

An. overwhelming per cent of our contacts are through correspondence; 
naturally our usefulness, as well as the impression we make, depends upon the 
effectiveness of our letters. All this is old stuff, but like some other 
ancient literature, may, with propriety, even with profit, be considered by 

Back in 1919 Prof,' ft; K'. Gardner wrote a good article on "Correspond- 
ence That is Effeptive,'' much of - which' can be applied directly to our Forest 
Service correspondence.-' '•' To quote him: "One of the chief ends to be sought 
through correspondence *.iS''t : be development of good will. V/hat do we mean by 
the good will factor in business? , 7e mean .the building up of a relationship 
so pleasant and so full .-of- confidence ■ that when things .go right you can do 
more business, more_ pleasant business with .the people with whom you have re- 
lations and when things -.go wrong there will be confidence in you and in your 
intentions' that will ,tido over misunderstandings . You have built up an in- 
surance against mi sunder standings, • , ( . . 3 '. . 

"Lastly, if you ;wi 11 put . facts into , the first 'sentence of your let- 
ter you will likely get .action. '. ifi'.the subject of your letter stands oul 
clearly at the beginning you are most- likely to get action, whereas, if Vne 
subject is buried down in the middle of the . lp tter your reader may pass over 
it entirely, or, if he does liot dp that, he will not"- appreciate its impor- 
tance/ " 'p*-.s ; ''v^ • oiM \'X', *o i-Sf.-z 

"The style of a letter should be conversational. Gauge your language 
to the reader. 

"Do not' tell a person what you can not do for him, but what you can 
do for him, and furthermore, not only what he may ask you to do, but what ^$ia 
know he really wants." 

By B. H. Mace, D-5 

An old-time Hanger on the Trinity received a report over the grape- 
vine line that a band of goats were in trespass several miles from' his head- 
quarters. He saddled his "'fuzz-tail" the ''next morning and started Out, 
The horse began bucking and' landed on. his back in. the bottom o.f a 'gulch som? 
distance from' the house, breaking the large bone in the 'rider's, leg. fhg'i 
horse, on being released by the 'Hanger, who' held him down until he was sure 
his foot was not fast in the stirrup, bucked' back to the barn, and the 
Hanger's wife s tar ted out on 'the back trackJ Finding that her husband was 
not able to walk she brought out a gentler horse, and he mounted '.and rode to 
the house. , 

There; was a stream of ice-cold water available, and by running it over 
the broken leg he reduced the pain until, with his wife's helgb, he was abl= 
to set the bone. He then applied splints and bandages, mounted the gentle? 
horse ard started out to finish his interrupted day's work. He arrived :n 
due time at the goat herder's camp, only to learn that that worthy knew ail 
about the "reserve" line and was keeping well outside. 

The Hanger, after visiting awhile, started on the homeward trip, and 
all went well until the horse blundered into a hornet's nest. These whiti- 
headed gentlemen happened to be in a peevish mood that afternoon, and several 
landed before the horse realized that it had given offense. 


You will note that in previous references to this animal I have 
called it the "gentler horse"; however, it is not to be assumed that it 
was vary gentle. In fact, after the second hornet got in its work, it 
became quite coltish and took to the timber. It finally collided with a 
tree and rebroke the leg, also broke the splints. The danger then de- 
cided to ride to his brother's camp, a distance of twelve miles, and 
reached there at dark. The brother knew of a doctor in a camp some dis- 
tance from his, so next morning he assisted the injured man to mount and 
they rode to the doctor's camp. The doctor reset the leg, breaking up a 
packing box for splints and tearing up his only undershirt for bandages. 
The Hanger again mounted and rode to his headquarters, where he stayed in 
bed for thirty days, but only because the doctor insisted upon it. — B.H.M. 

**********v:***********>i***X- + ******* 

* * 

* Surely of all smells in the world the 

* smell of many trees is the sweetest and * 

* most fortifying. The sea has a rude, pis-* 

* tolling sort of odor that carries with it * 

* a fine sentiment of open water and tall * 

* ships; but the smell of a forest, which * 

* comes nearest to this in tonic quality * 

* surpasses it by many degrees in the qual- * 

* ity of softness. Again, the smell of the * 

* sea has little variety, but the smell of * 

* a forest is infinitely changeful; it va- * 

* ries with the hour of the day not in * 

* strength merely, but in character; and * 

* the different sorts of trees as you go * 

* from one zone of the wood to another seem * 

* to live among different kinds of atmos- * 

* phere. — R. L. Stevenson. * 

* * 

* **. * Jcjj^f * .1- * v ********************************* * 

By Hoy Headley, Washington 

Reports on cost of control line are in from Districts 1 and 2. 

District 1 shows a cost of $6.21 per chain on 96 fires on which the 
record was kept. The average cost per chain in District 1 for the seasons 
of 1921 and 1922 was exactly the same. In 1920 the average cost per chain 
was $11.19. There was progress but she stopped'. 

In District 2, on 42 out of 50 Glass Z fires occurring during the 
calendar year, the average cost for control line, including "Forest officer's 
time, transportation and travel time, was $1.37 per chain. 

One dollar and thirty seven cents per chain is getting it down pretty 
low. Some min will say that it is due to the easy fire- fighting conditions 
in District 2, but District 2 might properly retort that their worst fire 
troubles are in a country where conditions are not easy at all. — Minnesota. 

A Chance; The House of Representatives recently added ^25,000 to the item 
for Silvicultural Investigatio'iis, 'brfftging the total up to $110 ,p00.„ On' 
the floor of the Senate, Senator Lodge.^got- anothe'r ^25,000 added. These'- 
additions, if. re tanned- by the' Gonf erenc^^OoTnoiittee that'whips the bill into 
final sha'pe, are designed by Congress ; for the establishment of two new sta- 
tions - o he In New 3ng land and 'one in.thel*ake States-. --V/.S . 

Meeting of Fir e Fight ers: 'Bellowing the Southern Forestry Congress in Mont- 
gomery, the State Foresters and; ( .Chief Firewardens in attendance will hold 
a -forest fire conference to discuss, various problems connected with the 
work Of protecting forests from f Ire in the Southern States. It is ex- A 
pected that Virginia, ,North f Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana, Texas, West 
Virginia, Alabama, and the Federal Service, wilT be represented. The 
meeting is scheduled, for February 1,. the program oalling for a -morning and" 
afternoon Session with a get together ( luncheon at noon. . A.M. 

r . j MpiIJMS< tt ™. • - ' )?•• • ' ,V " ., ft "\£:'tbV flfftf'X .^Amw- 

G razing Examine r L. eland S. Smith of the Modoc Forest has arrived in Wash- 
ington for a three months -detail' to" ass list' in the forage .investigations of 
the Office of Grazing Studios. One of.his early, jobs, however, turned .out 
to be injecting, some new field*' idoaS ( %nio 'the Grazing- Assistant examination 
-questions. ', \7e hope shortly to clear/. up the jam , of the" usuai early winter 
deluge of "plants, from the field collectors; and =,to add to our 
s,tock o f "ec'onotnic p^ant no't«s-.--W:R.pV j ■ ,■ .•„ • * 

., ' - ' . . • » k ' ...... '. » '•"■ ► 1 '., •■ •■ , : 

' ' ' / JDRSSg PROMP TS LABORATORY - if' a ' ' • -• 

* ..-'. '■}]': : a ■ ■■' ' '"' *•...,.;. , t) ' ' \ ■ i "'• ; : 

Visitors from Priest. -.Hiv^B • ,^peri,u\e.nt; 'pUjjs>&i: t H.. T.- Gisb.orW, p'f.^he. Priest 
River Experiment Station, spent- twd days -JlgggfrA; .Mr* Gi'sbofhe 'is assigned to 
fire studies'' in D-l and has done 'special research with reference .t,©^ the J iso- 
lation between humidity and fire con^rol,^,,;,^ 

has also worked, on a jphase of thls^'^d^^^Mriy-Gisberna ^y/s'^jhat the ' 
cial apparatus designed by Sunlap %^;^^.^^^^i^%W^^ : ^i l ^i < -.<dn-3 that-; 
can be ttsed most "effectively in fire profeeOsti^, r's *¥ . 

Japaaese;.,For ester. „Visi. ) ts:;,.ithp- Labbr ktOry ; \-The-s interest take^.b^ Japan in' for- 
estry and the recognition/by ■ that CQuntry ^foths' .'necsssit^ fc^r ^keeping 
abreast with' current practice is ilius'l^ted, by ttfe numb or of^. Japanese who •'• 
have. been in the "TJni-ted .^t^tes ,; tof .f-ojro^tiB^ 1 -- !S r ' ^';-s 

The - mos t. recent; .visitor ( is', ; R^ui^}ca.mato $ fibre s^y"* p/j^icer -of the' s im- 
perial household 'in Japan. Two'd^ys y?re spentrby him 1 - at ^I^q laboratory,' ;• - 
which he declares : is the mbs-t -per'fOc.t ' and- hag, the'beSt '©^uijtmen'^ ; pf. *any*' " i ' ■'" 
similar- institution ho-'.>saw ; on J his present trip. . **•*""'*' 

- He started on this tour last February and has visited laboratories 
and forests in India, Cz ec ho-S.l ovafcia* ; j&$$$%t£^&t9&& v --^erraa'iiy ,' Holland, 
Sweden, Norway, and England.- -■ in' -America he has been in the , East s ince ; -N.oxkm 
bor and will now spend four months .in J;he ■wee'tem-'f orosl-S; ; ' " '*" ■: ■ . >. * 

He stated that .fores ti -in' Japan cqy^er.VO: ; cent b;f £)xq. country.; 
apparently the Japanese realize "t^at the jppun.tainou^^ and hilly lancls must 
be kept" "covered with ;tree:s,' : as; it is. gepe'rally - recognized" there that. .great- 
damage to' agricultural ■ lands'- wbuld .result, through' erosion' Or ^through .diffi- 
culty in irrigation.. - . ■■■■■ ;: V'" . -/i i , ^■■' /> ' * * r . . : -. • . "> > 

Although the. forests a-re di'vided^to |our.. class as, 'as national,.-, im- 
perial, small estates, .and plrl'vateiV^Fad^rairP-Q 1 ^ 1 ^- 1 ''^ 8 P^act'iQ'ed,: a$ the .gov 
ernment has supervision .ovt-e'r' all 'classes^.; - ••"•' 


X mas Tree Busine ss: On the Pike Na'ti'p'na^, "^br^.s,t , r tH& -woods, end" of, the. Chr'is t 
mas tree business has bsen -satisfactor i^^ ' .syprked. out-and the appljLcationiof- 
thinnings through' the .re.moval^o'f Christmas treetSVUs both - desirable; .and- \prac- 
ticable. When one reads .in^the daily'_ paper s-tfcai. railroads" wii^ make sfpe- '"- 
cial rates oft Christmag ,.,fcr.i3e's"ih qarload lot5§ # ';-and it' is 'Estimated. jthat 50C^' 
carloads of dhr is.tmas -trees will 'be' 'shipped into the Middle' States in a sea- 
son, it is "time to get serious minded about the Christmas tree business, for 
it is already a big business in the United States and is going to grow. 


DI STRIP g 2 (Cont.)- " ; ' * • . T'-. . 

This is inevitable. Wftero do | tho Christmas : trees come' from that supply tha ; 
country oach Christmas season? Privately Owned lands to be sure. But is 
forestry being practiced, improvement thinnings being made or is the encroach 
of the . forest upon, burns and partly denuded lands being seriously checked? 
Tho average man who cuts Christmas trees j picks the long -ones t advance guards 
of the forest, because, these trees growing in the open are usually symmet- 
rical, desirable for Christmas trees, and obtained with the least amount of 
effort and, cost. If nbt'this, tho' Chris tmas tree hunter with axe , and -saw 
scouts, the forest stands' cutting trees here and there, usually the thrifty 
growing - ones^ in. the 'open spots, until eventually all the Solitary and 'beauti- 
ful trees along our .highways, and a Considerable distance back, are gone.. 

The Christmas tree business oh the Pike Fb rest "this 'Season was consid- 
erably less than last year. A net roturn of $20 per acre was realized. 

' . , ' ' „ DISTRICT 3 - S0UTHV/3STg3N DISTRICT '' ; ' L ■ ". 

Anot her JTask f f or pother Qobse : After the Cobwebs are swept from the: sky, P.erry 
the Hanger, has a job closer by. One Domingo Vigil, sheep man of this Dis-t. j . . 
trict, recently moved his sheep to the v; inter range and prompt-ly 1'ost 25 fat-,, 
healthy ewes. Tigil was at a loss to account for the deaths,- but:* other sheep, 
men in the community to whom I mentioned the loss are certain that it is due 
to the cobwebs, hanging in the sagebrush -and 1 ehico*^ of v^hich ihey say there is 
an unusually large amount owing to the lack of rains to wash them away. 

I thought. that 1 was up to about all the hazards that attend the sheep 
business, but this .is a hew one on 'mev Is it merely a local superstition or 
has the theory a foundation in fact? --Santa ^Fs-.- 

■ ; , • ^ • ' / _ -;; '■■ * ;' l .:V ■.: • ■ . « ■ .- ,,.(. 

New Publication in Demand : "The "National Streets' -off New-Mexico,-'-' which will 
be known as Bulletin #240, the text for which was ^written by Mr. Kircher last 
spring with the assistance of the' branch ohiefs 'of -the EG 'and th<S 'Supervisors, 
of New Mexico forests, has been printed, according to advice from Washington. 
The Washington office "issiiod a news story onAthis'. publication a- few days ago. 
which gave it so strong an introduction that requestsfor the- booklet are com- 
ing in from all directions - from North Dakota j from Georgia, from.. New. York, 
from Nebraska, and so on as well as inquiries from points near at hand, and 
the supply has not 'yet reached Albuquerquev '.The booklet - is well worth the 
get ting 'arid as soon a£ this; 'office has the stock from which to meet the de- ■•. 
mand, further publicity will be given. Copy for a similar booklet, "The Na- 
tional Pbrasts of Arizona," is in"c6u^se-of publication and'should be avail- 
able not far in the future. v ; ■-•>'. - ; 

" h " V " ' ' ' '" DISTRICT 4 - INTE-SfoUNTATN DISTRICT . .... . • . 

Pennsylvania" tmnprts Lvtobar i Either 'the wasteful habits of the ; great • State of 
Pennsylvania.. or, '"the glamour of Jackson Hole is^about to . place the Teton For- 
est in - the list 'of 'timber exporting forests. ; • A : local, contractor has reoeived 
an order for a ; bunch of 16gs to be shipped to Ligonnier, Pennsylvania, for 
the construction of a rustic lodge. Mr. Arthur Thompson, erstwhile patron of. 
the .Bar'BC Dude"' Banch in Jacks on 'Hole", is' the purofoaser. :We thought the bal- 
ance of trade, after' this exportation, v/ould swing* around more in favor of. •. 
Jackson Hole; however, we have just learned that the Countess Gizyka is im- ■■• 
porting pressed brick for her residence here in Jackson, — Teton. 

Fish. Planting in Western States : Some interesting figures on planting of trout 
were brought out at the meeting of Western Spates Game Commissioners; at Sacra- - 
mento, California/ Last year Montana planted 42, COO, 0 00 trout and 17,oou,-eo6 
gcayling. California planted 26,o00,000 tr'Out and Colorado 24,000,000. The-, 
planting in the States of Oregon, Idaho and Utah ranged from. 10 ,000,000 to r.; 
20,000,000 each. There .was a recognition by all the commissioners present 
that in order to maintain fishing, plantings proportionate to those of Mon- •. 
tana must be undertaken.— S.B.L. * •. i 


31 Jl./.lJ r x ; 4 ( Jaat.) 

- •.: • U .. . . " 55 ■•■ = 

Ranger Station B urns to. Ground: Recently, Mr. Mink was preparing some tar to 
ro.palr. the" roof 'on the Ra-ngier-' Station. In heating Soms^o.f this ..tar on the 
.kitchen st-dvo,. the .oan exploded,-' sotting the' house on f ire and' burning t-ha 
station to ths grounds The smoke v/as so severe that it was impossible to 
save any property belong ing'. to Mr.' and' Mrs." Mink. ; .,' ' "' 

Mr, ,and B&tfu Mink '-have the- sincere sympathies of the.- office force, 
and stops are being' taken for an allotment to replace 1 this" station.— Hum- 
boldt. . 

Take . n from Ranger * s jr A nnual, Grazing Rapor ,t : In answer to the number of game 
animals, on District 5, this is what he has to; say 1 :' • 

' : :"60 deer : '- >vW- ; / , ) V vv'" ..'., v . \ 

1 goat a- (The Hanger j" " ( , 

, tjjp „*. pair ' :.,\J- ft*^^**'*^ '®T*W8F .i. ■ v ';. /•. i'Saf^'^^^ii :'• ' ti &*>.'! - ' 

MR WP» ! : ' \?. '; J f v •* ; '. v. < • v y.i.;\.>' .". • . hpsm 

~: x;oect to .Ad vanc e:' \7e note 'Inthe ''June .3lh .^.stiimatoS Stand of National Forr- 
est Timber," that the Toyabe is credited.'. with 2,811,'bbO cOrds of wood. Aft- 
er inspecting a. sawmill on the Humboldt in the upper Jarbridge country, and 
• seeing, ttie type of timber "used for lumber- of -.various kinds, you need, hot be 
uur^rised^to. read, something like "llj'GOO cordis of^'woqd, and the balance sav/- 
ti.xi'bei-" on t'ho .Toyab j* s -next 'report;'-' . ■' : . 

. •■ '•<>'*•* • « i ' ' . ■ ' ; - 

l-v^C'i: '■ < •• Dl'S^IHT-S - QALIJ^RNIA- DISTRIGT ; ' ' .'. (: 0\. t 

iT ' , . ■ ■ ■' • '1 '■ • ■ . • ! • ' I; •■; 1 ; ] ; '"_ .. ' . . 

3i;.u pp.v .t/o rk:. ,> y/." '3.' 'Irving seht- a 'note- to -th'e office -witja machine ..numbers of 
-.parties tthfe ft&it&s 'hunting' in Middle Fork -of'' Lyt.le 'Greek. , Irving said He' 

..thought Ihjy had Ttftflitfd- a dOof-*:s that was. about, all the kihd .of deer; there 
-..'Jre.. in. .Iliddite 5b rk. Parties' -passed Ranger 'Station at' v;er'y. great s,pe6,d» v ' I 

. phoned H. '-Lamb to 'st©pv-t#3mY bui' they got pats- 1 /hip'.' . 'Next morning .i'.Vpok* ray 
dog ".-Jid fell oy;ed their tracils -up a .small canbn.- X'r. soon f oiuiid'''t.wp ,s ; mall, 'fawn 
. luajds buried' "in the bottom' of - the wash./.. Then. 1 tracked the.m and .f ound their 
v - '-jQpty eirtrid^e's. -I took "this evidence' to 'Mc 'G,,;' Malone^ Game V/arden, ' and 
,we wont to the District Attorney's office and swore out complaints. I went 

f with, Malpne^.and we .arrested iee 'E, Hie o . at ; thje .substation in Hlal"t}0«.'I'' , \76 
next . went" -td,. San Bernardino ind 'arrested George' Woodruff at' the £.'2!. sub- 

;' station, Snd. put 'him 1 ' in jailc ' \7e then got. search warrants and searched 
their housjs and found ! tw'o« deer carcasses changing in a - c lothes closet of 
Woodruff ' s house. They were- released loa-bail pf 1^400. "... (Be port, by District 

< Ranger Jo .21'.' Haydon.'b f vtho A'iigeleS' Nationals. Fbr^st.:) " Note : ' The, termination 

. of this :casV an' eminently satisfactory; One; Rico was . fined £.'75' and Wood- 

y ruff 1.175', besides^ which' each'r eceived -a. 6l>-day, jail sentence (which-. vjas , 
however, suspended) and had his hunt ing" -license - taken away, with "the .warning 
not to hunt or enter th3 Forest until July, 1923. Under "Publicity 11 Ranger 
Hayden states: "Published in two San Bernardino dailies and the Los Angeles 
papers. They were given a good roasting by Judge Kavanaugh and the court 
room was full. " 

3ff icienpy ; 7/hile getting the evidence in another case, two sleuthing For- 
est officers found a camp fire merrily burning with the owner missing. 
Since they did not hav« a full load to the justice court, they sat down for 
an hour until Mr. August Godige of Visalia cams in. He informed them that 
he had been out quail hunting. Fortunately for him, he had none. Slinkard 
and Brown patiently explained to him that they were short one man to make a 
full auto load to the justice and invited him to go along. He reluctantly 
accepted to go along and donated 50 kopecks to the coffers of the State of 
Galifornia on the following morning. — Sequoia. 

district 6 - nor t h pacific district 

Appreciation : - Quotation from a recent letter from Geo. M. Cornwall, of the 
"Timberraan" and father of the Pacific Logging Congress, to Col. Greeley: 

"Just a line to say how splendidly Dr. Hofmarih of the Experimental 
Station helped us at' the Logging Congress at Tacoma with his wonderfully 
able and enlightening paper on the effect of atmospheric conditions in 
fire control. 

"We are going to print it as a bulletin and place it in the hands 
of every logger in the five western States and British Columbia* 

"Mr. Alamos W. Girard, of Missoula, gave us a fine paper on tractor 
logging in the Inland Empire, and an address on the Missoula official 
wireless telephone. 

"Altogether, your Forest Service men showed up splendidly and are a 
credit to your organization. 1 felt, seeing you could not be with us, you 
would like to know how the Congress, with its 615 registration, got along 
and the part the Forest Service played." 

B ig Power ■ T ra nsmis si on Pr o ject : The transmission lino of the California- 
Oregon Power Company, from, Prospect to Springfield, 115 miles, has been 
completed and the power turned on. . This line passes through the Crater 
fibres t for about eight miles and the Umpqua Forest for twelve miles. The 
cost of this transmission line was in the neighborhood of a million dollars. 
Work was commenced last spring and ordinarily it would have taken two years 
to finish, but the job was rushed through and completed this fall. The line 
is on two-pole towers, set about 500 feet apart and is built to carry 110,000 
volts. A strip of timber 50 feet wide along the right of way was felled. 
Payment has been made for all timber felled on National Forest land. An 
interesting feature is the interference caused by the power line in Forest 
Service telephone lines, both inside and outside the Forest. C. M, .alien, 
telephone onginee-r, is working out the solution of this problem. This same 
company is considering the development of" power on the North Umpqua River. 

Ne w , Foyms. Needed ; The Chelan Forest has felt the need of a labor contract 
for improvement' employees. •' Something like the "D-6 Fire Fighters* Con- 
tract" of notebook size so- that they could be easily carried and available 
when needed. Road and trail foremen could carry them and see that they 
were signed before an employee started work. 

: A similar form 'would be desirable for 'contracts of hire. These 
should bewordod so they could be used for horse, auto, or boat hire. If 
any other Forest has a need of such forms the District office could order 
a supply for next season' s use. -J-G. 3. M. 



U. S. Forest Service: 

(Contents Confidential ) 

▼ol. 711. NOc 7, 

Washington, D, C. 



February 12, 1923. 


Dr. Barnard Tdward Fernow, author, pioneer educator, organizer of 
the forestry movement, and the first United States Forester, died on the 
morning of February 6 at Toronto . 

Dr. Fernow was born in Fosen, Prussia, in 1851, and studied under 
the tsufcr& Heyer and other noted foresters,. He first came to this country 
in 1876 and soon took an active part in the forestry movement of New York 
State, where he formulated legislation establishing the Forest Reserve in 
the Adirondaoks. From 1885 to 1895 he was Bditor of the Proceedings of the 
American Forestry Association, Largely because of the activities of this 
association, the greatest piece of forest legislation so far adopted in 
our country was enacted - the law of 1891, authorizing the President of 
the United States to establish National Forest reserves. This act led to 
the creation of the present national Forests. 

In 1686 Dr. Fernow' s great work for the nation really began when he 
accepted the position of organizer and director of the forestry work of the 
Government for the Department of Agriculture, a position which he occupied 
until 1898. 

During twelve years spent in Washington, Dr. Fernow kept in close 
touch with the forestry work in the various States, and there was little 
of State forest legislation passed during this time in which his opinion 
was not consulted. He secured the cooperation of many prominent men of 
science. Numerous bulletins and circulars, including monographs on White 
Pina, the Southern Timber Pines; results of tests and studies in timber 
physics, the first complete discussion of the metal railway tie as a pos- 
sible substitute; studies on timber impregnation and other subjects, all 
of immediate value in wood utilization, are evidence to-day of the pains- 
taking work of the guiding spirit which directed them and edited their re- 
suits for publication. 

Throughout the twelve years in the Bureau of Forestry, Dr. Fsrnow 
never ceased to write articles and addresses. In these years the larger 
part of two hundred articles and addresses, over twenty circulars, and 
over thirty bulletins and reports were prepared and edited. 

In 1898 Dr. Fernow was called to Cornell to organize the first for- 
estry school in the new world. Hare he inaugurated the beginnings of pro- 
fessional education. After laaving Cornell he worked for four years as 
consulting forester. Daring these four years he continued the Forestry 
Quarterly; delivered lectures at Yale University, and started the forest 
school at Pennsylvania State College, In 1907 Dr. Fernow accepted an in- 
vitation to Toronto University and organized the first forest school in 
the Dominion. At the time of his death he was .Professor Emeritus of that 

His wall known "History of Forestry" is a masterpiece of its kind, 
covering the subject for both the Old and New World. 

Three years ago, when Dr t Fernow retired from active teaching, 
there was published in AMERICAN FCHFSTHY a tribute by Raphael Zon to the 
father of forestry in the new world. To-day the words assume an added 
significance, "While the period which Dr. Fernow typifies is rapidly be- 
coming history, his teachings and his contributions have the quality of 

permanence. They have been always a source of inspiration and guidance to 
the pioneers of forestry; they will be infinitely more so to the actual 
maragers of our forest lands as soon as real woods forestry comes into gen- 
eral practice. As with any great teacher, it is net the kind of theory 
that he happens to advocate that really counts, but the ability to teach 
how to think in his particular field. Theories come and go, but the abil- 
ity to orient oneself in the details of complex problems is a lasting as- 
set; he who teaches to meet ever-changing problems, not by a ready-made 
theory or hypothesis, but by a critical attitude and ability to discern 
between the essential and nonessential, is building on a solid foundation. 
With him forestry was not merely theory, but a movement ever changing as 
life itself, and for him problems became soluble not in ready-made formulas, 
but in the forces, economic and natural, that are at work." 

To Mrs. Fernow the Forest Service has sent the following message: 
"In this hour of sorrow may the thought console you that Dr. Beraow' s work 
will never die but will be carried on as long as the Sorest Service end-ores. 
The members of the Forest Service extend to you and your family their deep- 
est sympathy in your loss." — T<H*G. 

By Clinton G. Smith, D-7 

Mr. Ilneipp, in a recent issue of the Bulletin, asks "IThat is the mat- 
ter with our Lard Exchange? 11 This partial answer is given on the basis of 
the Florida Exchange Act of July 3, 1916. 

If it takes over two years to put an exchange through the Department 
of the Interior, th* effect on the exchange business can readily be antici- 
pated. V/ith four exchanges pending since 1919, no exchanges have been of- 
fered since Lay, 192i . See following table of Florida exchanges to date: 

Name of applicant: 

^ate approved 

Area of 
Govt, land 
( selected ) 

Araa ox 
Priv. land 
( b as e ) 




3wing, Dc A. 
Harrison, 17, '.h 
Sutton us Harrison 
Ferdon, C, B. 
McCaskill, H.3.L. 
( 51 our no y Lands ) 
Bryan, R, 3, 
Bryan, R< 3. 
( Fa ire loth Land) 
McCaskill, R.3.L. 
(Walton Land & 
T imb er Go . ) 
Rose, 3. P. 

6- 7-17 

7- 16-18 

8- 16-19 








11,0 21 






Ratio, 1 to 26 


- 2 _0*4_9!_ 



Ranger Walter A, "3s tap of the Idaho Rational Tores t is a pigeon enthu- 
siast and his report covering the result's of last year's work with them is 
very interesting. 

"The past season on the Idaho national forest, in addition to numerous 
successful trial flights, the carrier pigeons ware flown from seventeen dif- 
ferent lightning fires, and in every case made successful returns with the 
messages in time, varying from fivs to twenty minutes. ICot a bird was lost 
on any of these trips, anQ they would hava made a still better record had 
there baan anyone at the Headquarter station to receive them, as several of 
the later fires occurred after the supposed close of the fire season c..nd 
after most of the protective force had been put on improvement work. 


QAafljgfl Bfi TjPWS rrfrIRa ooamL^woBK lOontJ 

"It is "easy to estimate the saving in worry,,. time, trouble and money 
gained by an immediate and authentic report of the actual location and condi- 
tions existing at the fire, and this, too, without any loss of time to any- 
one working in connection with the fire. 

"In addition to the actual fire reports received, the pigeons also 
brought in a signed affidavit in regard to a fire trespass case clear across 
the Ranger district in a half hour's time in order to catch the outgoing , 
mail and save the delay of several days in its receipt. In addition to . : .. 
this, they carried a number of other messages of official importance. 

■ "The best individual flight record of the season was from the Super- 
visor's headquarters, to the Ranger's headquarters, a distance of twenty 
miles in twenty minutes. Another flight of twenty- five miles and over two 
mountain ranges was made in thi'rty-two minutes, 

"An incident which occurred goes to show the inherent instinct of 
these birds. The' Ranger doing the experimenting with the pigeons sent some 
young birds just off the nest and which had not yet learned to fly back to 
the remote Big Greek se.ctioh of the Thunder Mountain area, in order that > 
they might be established and used there.. One of these birds was taken too 
far on its initial flight, and not knowing- the location of its new home, it' 
instinctively took the direction of the old home, a hundred miles distant, 
the outside of which it had never seen. This pigeon must have passed 
directly over its old home without recognizing it,' for it showed up at 
Cascade on the same line of direction, but thirty miles farther on." 

It is understood that at on6 time during the summer Ranger Estep was 
caught with several lightning fires on his hands at once in a very inacces- 
sible and difficult region far from : a telephone. He went to these fires 
alone, believing that they would not spread rapidly. After he was due to 
arrive at the fires, the lookouts kept reporting that they still existed 
and did not appear to be under control, and it seemed probable that rein- 
forcements would have to be sent into him. Then a pigeon came in. Its 
message told of four fires in a rocky, and difficult ground where- control 
was slow and difficult. They were so hemmed in by rocks that they could not 
spread, however, and he would be able to handle them all by himself. That 
represents the type of work done by the birds constantly throughout the fire, 

By H. I . Loving ' ' \ 

The Federal Traffic Board, a branch of the Bureau of the Budget, is 
aiming to secure.- a uniform travel regulation ■■ for all Departments and inde- 
pendent governmental establishments. Copies of a report of its subcommit- 
tee on subsistence were recently distributed. The recommendations con- 
tained in their report will, if adopted, liberalize some of the present 
restrictions and limitations considerably. Many of the recommendations can 
be adopted under existing law; others, viz., those providing for increased 
per diem, either actual expenses or a fixed sum in lieu thereof, will re- 
quire legislative action. A few of the changes recommended are; (a) "Max- 
imum per diem allowance in lieu of subsistence. $6.0 0, or actual subsistence 
expenses, not to exceed £.7.00 per day"; (b) "Tips to waiters not to exceed 
2G£ per meal"; (c) "Tips to bellboys and' maids at hotels not to exceed 30^ 
in any one day"; (d) "When time of departure from depot at headquarters is 
before 8.00 a. ra. , before 1.00 p. m. , or before 7.00 p. ra. , charge for 
breakfast, dinner, or supper, may be allowed en route; or where time of re- 
turn to depot at headquarters is after 8.00 a. m., after 1.00 pp m. , or aft- 
er 6.00 p. m., charge for breakfast, dinner, or supper, may be allowed en 

By Will J . Barnes, Washington 

'There has been more or less discussion! of the need for the annual 
grazing reports, complaints that they were difficult 'to make out, took too 
much time, and were of no particular value to anybody. With this idea we 
have never agreed. Perhaps .we have been somewhat to blame for not having 
outlined to the field our ideas of just v/hat a grazing report should cover, 
how long it might be, and what particular subjects could be discussed or 
left out. '1 have had this in mind for several years past but always dropped 
it, feeling it was a matter for each Supervisor to work out for himself, 
and that for us to discourage long reports might really work a distinct harm 
and result in mere bare routine statements of little value to anybody. 

Some wiseheimar once stated that there were two classes of public 
speakers - one who had something to say, and the other who had to say some- 
thing. Some of the Supervisors seem to approach the annual report work with 
a feeling that they have to say something, While the majority, I am delighted 
to say, seem to tackle the job with the. feeling that they have something to 
say and are going to say it. It's a real pleasure to read a report of this 
kind . 

There are a lot 'of things included in some of these reports which, 
while interesting, could be materially scaled down. We want to know some- 
thing as to weather conditions, but we are not interested in a long table 
of rainfall statistics covering, perhaps, a large part of the State in which 
the Sorest is situated. A report may show a heavy 'total precipitation on a 
Forest, including snowfall for a year, but if it all fell in the winter and 
nona of it during the growing season, the statistics would be awfully mis- 
leading. Rainfall statistics should cover simple 's tat ements as to the time- 
liness of the rains, above or below normal, their results on the growing of 
the plants, etc. 

Then again, there are many Supervisors who devote page after page to 
tables a«l statements of sales of livestock. 1 have one before me now which 
states that -1,0 00 head of mixed 'steers were shipped from the Forest, aver- • 
aging so many pounds, and brought so many dollars per head. Such informa- 
tion is absolutely useless for our purposes because it can not be dissected 
so as to discover how much a yearling, a two-year-old or a three -year-old 
really brought, and that is what v/e need for purposes of comparing prices. 
Two good sales, showirfg ages, weight and'prices, are worth two whole pages 
of rambling statements' as to shipments of mixed bunches. Here's a dandy 
from the Routt: "August 15, Jones Cattle Co., 25 Hereford steers, 3-year-old, 
average 1100 pounds, sold at $8*10 per cwt. Practically pure-blcod stuff." 

Here's one that might as well have been left out: "Steer market only 
fair, lambs brought a good price, weight below normal . " 

Again, many Supervisors £o to great lengths in taking up each individ- 
ual grazing -unit on their Forest, discussing the situation on it not only of 
forage but' the permittees themselves, and a multitude of other irrelevent 
details. These certainly are not necessary for the information of either 
the District office or this office, and really do not seem to have any groat 
value to the Supervisor himself. ' . 

If each Supervisor will sit 'down and,. Size up the making of his annu- 
al grazing report and put himself in the place of a reviewing officer inter- 
ested in the larger details and not in the mi.nutia of range management, 
local troubles, etc., he will have little difficulty in making a readable, 
meaty report and one which need not cover too many pages. 

Did anyone ever get a litter from this end of the line complaining of 
the length of grazing reports? I don't think so. V/e always read every last 
line and appreciate the fact that report writing, like anything else, is a 
highly spacialized business that not every man can do in just the right way, 
and not every Supervisor is expected to be one of "them d d literary fel- 

Finally, let me emphasize this one ra^in point. If you have something 
to say for an annual grazing report, say it just the best you know how, but 
endeavor to sat it concisely, plainly and intelligently. 


Newiin_Hjl-£S': No one who intends to build a house should fail to study 
"Rccocmer.ded Minimum Requirements for .-Small dwelling Construction," in 
which John Uewlin, of thY Forest Products Laboratory, had a hand. In 1921 
Mr. Herbert Hoover, appointed a.Building Code Committee of seven members, 
Newlin 'being 'the only Government representative. After a far-reaching 
study, the committee has, published this compact report to serve as a basis 
for standardizing .municipal building codes for small houses and to aid the 
builder in building not only cheaply 'but well. Mr. Hoover ©alls the report 
a piece of ' "intellectual legislation" of unique character. It is published 
7 y the Department of , Commerce < ->-W.S ■ ' '■ 

ff. -P. White. Supervis o r, of the Lolo -In District 1, has' been appointed Ci fef. 

Operation at the Forest Products Laboratory, 'Edison,'. V/is. , to. succeed •:>-•• 
l> "t. Maudlin, who r ecently became business' manager for. the American .For-. ' ■ "'• 
estry Association. He will take over his new duties' about. -February 15... 

' ■ ' ' ' " ' . . " ' i 1 Ml : 

One Mo re B i g Reason : "The lumber .industry 1 owes-.- it .to,, itself to take-'the lead- 
in its own perpetuation* as .the industry ranks 'among the most important in 
the country.''--.3ditorial in The Timberman. . ... 

A p. S . Author: The 0P3N HO AD for January and February contain articles by 
Supervisor 3. W, Sbi.vf.of the Absarokai 

Rad Cross: The Forest memberships in the' Red Cross here totalsC $58. 


Plugging JJ p Kno th o le s ; lino tholes, in. lumber seem to. have aroused special in- 
terest recently in various correspondents. Some want to fill the holes with 
a wooden plug, a fey; advocate soma moldable material, and still other 11 * have ' 
variations of these methods. The d iff iculty seems to be that aside from the 
cost thare is always likely to be a variation in the moisture content of the 
board so that the plug will either drop out or be forced, out, . Thu problem, 
of course, increases with the decrease in the thickness of the board. 

Apparently there are several ' inventions on file for filling up knot- 
holas. A recent genius says, "I have a process, that relates to removing knots 
in lumber and replacing them with inlays , that leaves a perfect surface for 
paint, enamel, and also the darker colored stains. This process is partic- 
ularly adapted for use in raising the grades of sap gunl, -white pine , and 
Douglas fir, which are all infected with rotten or loose kn.o + ;s which in 
white pine and fir fall out or become loose when the lumber is dry. To 
date, I have only treated sap gum, but results obtained have been perfect. 
The knots are cheaply removed and the expense of operation is very lpw," 

Carload of Logs from Alaska Here: The logs from the trees personally 
selected by Mr. Markwardt last summer have made the long trip from the Na- 
tional Forests of Alaska and are now being unloaded in our yard. 

The nine species represented by the 78 logs are as follows: Sitka 
spruce, white spruce, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, Alaska cedar, Alas- 
ka birch, western red cedar, black Cottonwood, and Balm of Gilead. 

Tests will now be made on these species to determine their mechanical 
properties. Such data will not only result in the more extensive use of 
these .species in Alaska, but will enable c orapari son with species in other 


The, .Colorado Game and Pish Protcc^iy^AjsnGi^tiqil held its annual businei 
meeting on January 19. The principal' business was the election of officers 
for the ensuing year and a review of the report of tha Legislative Committee 
which had been holding sessions in reference to proposed game legislation 
before the present session of the Colorado legislature. Among the things 
advocated by the committee and approved by the association were: a bill 
putting bear on the list of big game animals; deferring the opening of the 


fishing season to make it conform to .the .spawning ' s 3 as on of the spring 
spawning species and appropriation for retaining ponds and the propagation 
of pickerel, bass, porch catfish, 9,tc»- in - those sections of the State suit- 
ed to those species; bettor lav/ enforcement and a program of game refuges, .and 
better protection for these refuges* Bills are now before", the legislature 
covering all those subjects, and about nine new refuge bills, are under consid- 
eration covering important see ti,ons .of ftho 'mountainous, region in the western 
part of the State. Officer's".' ejected for the ensuing year ■ are. Otis Mointyre., 
Colorado Springs, President ; 0= J. Clark, Denver, .^Vice President;' and j ," H. 
Hat t on , • -See' r e tary-Tr easurer . A board of directors of ten members was also 
elected* '•»•'" ■ ' • i • ■-. 

19 21 .D elinquents; The record of .'the.. Dis trict shows seventy. 1921 permittees 
Who have not paid their grazing foes. A large majority of -these are bank- 
rupt and will simply have to be refused- further 1 consideration. A list has 
been sent the various Pbrests' in tile District. 

V- ■ ■" ■ ; ■ • . • ; 

Pis tric t, .R ) re s tor, Peek- talked before the Colorado Stockgrowors Association , 
on "January. 18 on the subject of s tab ilizing' the ; stock ind us try and what the 
£brest Service is doing to bring about this condition, especially through 
the range appraisal and adjustment of the grazing fees. A resolution was 
passed .requesting members to cooperate with the Rarest Service in gathering 
information for'*''tho range appraisal. ... Mj 


1 ~"~ '' ;'. v "• 

G ba-ftl'es s Po:r es t; The Coronado, for the first time in its history, has no goats - 
or sheep either, for that matter - in the authorization for the grazing of 
livestock. There never were many sheep on the Coronado, but considerable num- 
bers of goats have been, grazed in times past. The.. goat business, however, 
seoms to have dwindled down to nothing, and 'with the lack of need, authoriza- 
tion for that class _ of , stock has Veen- w ithdrawn. The Coronado .is the only 
D-3 forest .with exclusively C&-H grazing authorizations-. 

Do gs and Lions: Helping to render the Apache safe for livestock, the Biolog- 
ical. Survey has been w or king one of its>best hunters on that Forest lately. 
A story of success is, given in an incident when five dogs belonging to the 
hunter 'stirred up three,- lions.- All, throe lions went different directions, 
according, to reports, but were all brought low. Dogs went' by twos after two 
of the lions-, and the third was secured by an old dog by himself. The hunter, 
Clay Miller by name, is credited with 67 lions in the- last two years-. 

What 'Plots S h ow, : In the spring of 1S2C plots about one aero in size wore 
.fenced in three different brush range types of the Tonto. These areas were 
enclosed for the purpose of watching -some of the changes of our ranges under 
grazing as compared to, protection. Some of these changes take place slowly 
over a long period of years, others show up quickly. • In every case such areas 
are of value to permittees and "permit ter" alike as a basis for. range utili- 
zation estimates. Even now. the Tbnto plots show - t ,r o things of practical 
value; ' • -.- - .- . 

1.' "This season* s forage crop of grasses and weeds is le-; than ^ as 
big as last year. (This is interesting when we remember that this, year' s 
rainfall at Roosevelt' was over* an- inch more than last year); within limits, 
dis tribution is a b igger factor than total precipitation. 

■2. "The sod of Curley Mosquito has thinned a little this year even in- 
side the -fence. (This shows that poor growth years affect sod density even 
where it is not grazed." ) 


.Perso nally Con ducte d Law Cases : Dvery once in 'a while from some source or 
other comes criticism that the .Merest Servic-e is continually taking into 
court trivial cases which could be settled by meeting defendants, half way 
and without resorting to legal rproc ee dings. In District 4 this hue and cry. 
occurs most frequently in reference to grazing cases. - This probably for the 
reason that by far the' greatest number of violations reported are of t'he 
grazing regulations... 


PI ST RIOT 4 (Oont. ) 

The following table gives the situation year by year, and shows that 
we are gradually getting results ' ourselves in a greater number of eases, in 
1921 only 4 per cent of violations being reported to the Department of Jus- 


Yoar Handled Administratively In court 

1921 254 ■ 96/S 4/S, 

1920 . 273 95/£ 5/i 

1919 181 93$ 7/a 

1918 95 91$ H 

3.917 89 95/b 5/1 

1916 58 8B#- 147 0 

1915 52 85$ 15/o 

ggw Regulations, for, State Lands, in Idaho.: Mr. George T . Marshall, of the 
Idaho State Land Board, has been in Ogden conferring with Forest officers 
regarding revisions of laws relating to the powers of the State Land Board. 
In consequc-nce of the large holdings of grazing lands which the State Land 
Board is getting through land exchange with the Forest Service, it is becom- 
ing necessary to administer these lands somewhat in the same way that the 
5br3st ^Service administers .its grazing lands. In order to do this, the 
Land Board will have, to be given certain powers, and regulations will have to 
be made somewhat similar to ourSo ' Mr/ Marshall is making plans for the neces- 
sary legislation along this line. ;*, ' ; 

• i .. . PIS 13102. 5. - ^LlPJi L, DIoA (I0I 

•■ And Lo.. ; The,An gdIer. t Kame L ad All' the Host; Once more we are rounding up the 
annual statistical reports," and as 'usual find that the commanding lead of the 
Angeles National Forest in special use work is maintained, on December 31 
the Angeles had .2,476 special use permits in effect,, 20 70 of these, or 84 
per cent,, were, recreation permits, 18-75 'being summer-homes, 176 hotels, and 
■resorts, and .19; miscellaneous permits connected .with recreation. These .2070 • 
recreation permits cover about 10 ou. acres and' bring, in an annual revenue of 
about C 35,000. Y/hat other forest use can even approach . this figure from the 
revenue -producing standpoint? It, might be incidentally mentioned that the 
Angeles issued 611 new permits during the calendar year, and that the spe- 
cial use receipts for the fiscal year 1925 will exceed- &4o ,uOy.--L .A.B . 

Howdy, "Shorty"!, Paul pi llelleter, Forest Inspector, Mayor of Kensington, 
Md., East Potentate of the Mystic. Shrine' and general good fellow, is. out 
from Washington taking a whirl at the Western districts. He visited New 
Orleans, Albuqia.erq.ue and the Aiigeies Forest 'before arriving in San Francis- 
co, and is now busily engaged . in putting Operation over the hurdles. . Mr. 
Kelleter will next visit the'District office at Portland.. 


K iln D ryin g Study.; Since July the Forest Service has been conducting a study 
in cooperation with the 'Test Ooast Lumbermen- s Association to determine the 
feasibility of kiln drying Douglas fir common lumber. The field work has 
been completed and from superficial analysis of the data, the indications 
are that such methods of handling common lumber are practical and commercial. 

A kiln of the Wheel er-Osgood Company, Tacoma, Washington, was r-vcod- 
eled for the purpose. A total of seventeen kiln runs were made which re- 
quired over 150,100 board feet of lumber. Various temperatures and humidi- 
ties wore employed to learn this action on the knots, which normally drop out 
luring the usual air seasoning practice and by so doing reduce the grade. It 
is anticipated that kiln drying of common can be done at a lower cost per 
thousand and less degrade than for air drying. — 0.Y/..G-. 


D ISTR I CT 6 (Cont. ) 

Hot a "Dry" Talk : A difficult technical subject was "put ov.;r" in a success- 
ful and interesting manner to a gathering of hard-headed lumberjacks when Dr. 
J. 7. Hoffman addressed the thirteenth annual Pacific Logging Congress in 
Tacoma recently. Dr. Hoffman spoke on "The Effect of Humidity on Forest Burn- 
ing Conditions." His talk was replete with scientific fact and was ably illus- 
trated with curve charts , y_-t it was delivered with a quality of human inter- 
est that held the attention of the practical loggers throughout and brought 
forth applause and favorable commjndation at its closu-. — G-E*G. 

§cr^a^in^^4gain: A cougar 8 feet from tip to tip was killed lately near the 
BlaoJ: Buttes on the Umpqua by E. 3. Harpham of Elaciath Rills. "The cougar 
screamed when he received the deadly bullet," said Mr. Harphan, who used to 
be a member of the Poreet Service. A 7-foot conger was killed on the Umpqua 
by Fireman \7. C. Curtis at the Black Rock Station. Mr. Curtis says he did not 
hear the varmint scream but it did a heap of growling. 


The. Cordova Hi gh School, is using the Chugach library to quite an extent during 
the present school term. The advanced classes in natural science are using 
our. copies of "A Primer of Forestry" as textbooks on forestry, supplemented 
by Bulletin " Forjsts and Forestry in the United States," issued for distribu- 
tion at the Brazil C jntennial Exposition. The teaching staff appears to have 
a very good general knowledge of forestry principles and the work of the Serv- 
ice, and they are being encouraged in the use of the office library. 

Sup ervisor McDonald and Deputy Supervisor Pratt will spend ten days this win- 
ter in the District office at Juneau going over allotment and other matters. 
Mr. Pratt ./ill also spend ten 'tidy a or two weeks in District 6, principally in 
Public Relations work. 

Fpres.t Ranger Brady_ of the Anchorage district spent the holidays in his old 
home at Sitka, where hj was bom. Ha is th~ only native born Alaskan on the 
Chugach staff. Mr. Brady has charge of the only ranger district in Alaska 
having a fire hazard. 

The Alas kan,. Engineering Co m miss ion will cut from the Chugach in 1923 about 
.seven million board feet of timber, principally crossti^s, for the mainte- 
nance of the Government railroad. This material is taken under free use per- 
mit. If sold at the usual commercial stumpagc rates, it would increase the 
timber sales receipts of the Chugach by nearly 1 10, not . Contracts for the 
cutting of this material have already been let by the Commission. Under the 
terms of its freu use permit the Commission will not make final settlement 
with its contractors until the cutting areas have been examined by the Forest j 
officer in charge and a release given by him.' 



U.S. Tor est Service 

(Contents Confidential ) 



Vol. VII, No. 6, 

Washington, D. C, 

February 19, 1923. 


by ' 

Col. W. B. dreeley 

i (Extract of speech before American National Livestock Association.) 

There are 175,000,000 acres, more or less, of unreserved public 
range which is still a free-for-all grazing commons without protection or 
regulation. Much of this range land is in the vicinity of the National 
forests. Much of it has been largely depleted of vegetation by competitive 
and unregulated use. The deterioration of these outside ranges has greatly 
increased the pressure for National Forest allotments. It often leads to 
the crowding of unpermitted stock upon the National Forests. It has made 
our task of a satisfactory grazing administration much more difficult. 

At the same time the condition of these public grazing lands is be- 
coming more harmful and upsetting to the livestock industry. They are the 
free spoil of any freebooter or speculator. An effort to secure exclusive 
control over them is a legal felony. The inability of stockmen to control 
such lands often renders them powerless to fully control the use of other 
lands to which they are rightfully entitled. Whatever benefits the stock 
industry has gained in the past from free range on those areas are now, 
for the most part, more than offset by the deterioration of their forage 
and by the uncertainty and instability which they inject into the business. 
This is especially true of localities where seasonal conditions compel the 
use of unreserved public lands during intervals between winter ranch feed- 
ing and summer grazing on National Fo rests. As an Idaho sheep man put it 
to me last summer: "Two parts of my year's business are absolutely sure - 
the winter feeding on my ranches and my summer range on the National For- 
est. But the spring and fall range in between has become a plain gamble." 

The experience of the last five years has, 1 take it, pretty well 
convinced the western stockmen that they can not afford, to own and carry 
the large areas of low grade range lands, such as those now left in the 
open public domain, which are needed to stabilize their business. If this 
is true, it would seem a v/ise policy to retain these lands in public owner- 
ship and extend over them some form of protection and control sufficient 
to keep up their productivity and stabilize their use by the established 
stock growers of the region. In fact, I fail to see how the livestock in- 
dustry can be put upon a stable footing in many parts of the west until 
this is done. 

Many areas of unreserved public range adjoin National Forests and 
form parts of natural range units which lie chiefly within the National 
Forests. In scores of cases, local stockmen have petitioned to have such 
grazing lands added, to the National Forests. In a few cases this has been 
done by Congressional action, but in many others it has been blocked by 
the opposition of the Interior Department. I beliavo that this situation 
should be m^t by a law which would authorize the President to add such graz- 
ing lands to a National Forest upon a petition from a majority of the local 
stockmen who use the range. Such additions should not be made under any 
color of timber growing or watershed protection but for the stated purpose 

S^ILmKG JEHJ USE t? PJB LI J .Ai-XIS ( Jo tit e ) 

of protecting and regulating the use of glazing laud, '/hat ever may bo done 
with the rest of the open public ranges, there can be co question that these 
strips and patches forming parts of natural range units cut through by a 
National Forest boundary can be handled most economically by the 3brost 
Service . 

As to the remaining public grazing lands which de not tie in closely 
with any national Forest, 1 advocate a law which would authorise the Presi- 
dent to establish national ifenges upon petition from a majority of the 
stockmen now using the areas concerned. Here again, let the initiative 
rest with the men who use the rango and who are in the best position to 
judge whether they will be benefited by public protection and control. In 
the administration of such areas after they have been established 1 would 
also recognize by law the participation of advisory boards of local users 
along the same lines as they have been recognized in the grazing business 
on the national Forests. 

I may perhaps be pardoned for thinking that the Sorest Service, with 
its 17 years' experience in working on these problems in cooperation with 
stockmen all over the West and with the organization it has built up combin- 
ing practical grazing men with .experts of technical training, is the best 
equipped Federal agency to handle a development of this character. I firmly 
believe that the Secretary of Agriculture - one of whose chief duties is to 
work out a national program for the most effective use of land - is the 
best qualified Federal executive to shape arid, direct such a policy. The 
Forest Service has steadily built its organization for grazing work - both 
investigative and administrative - on a par with its organization for timber 
work, and will continue to do so» If Jongress and the stock industry want 
us to tackle this new job, we will give it the best we have; and we will be 
ready to expand cur functions or broaden our official designation or take 
any other steps needful to give range administration its proper recognition. 

But the essential point is not w ho will do the job; it is rather 
tha t th e, job b e done ,* The question of jurisdiction is much less important 
than the need for this step in stabilizing the use and assuring the perma- 
nent value of all of our public ranges, and in making them all play their 
full part in creating a sounder und more prosperous livestock industry. 
I believe that the western stock business would be better off to-day if the 
bill for public range administration which was drafted by Mr. Potter and 
widely discussed about seven years ago had become a law, and I commend to 
your association the wisdom of some action along this line, as an essential 
step for the future security of your interests. 

by Ernest Winkler, 3-4 

In tlie good old days when as a Hanger I was struggling to learn the 
nomenclature of forest trees, wrestling with the formidable forms, thought 
it necessary to ride 20 to 40 miles per day to hold my job, was trying to 
teach the stockman or timber operator something I didn't know anything about 
myself, and posing in the little community where 1 lived as a bureau of for- 
est information, together with my newly acquired wife and one baby, I thought 
the Ranger was the busiest man in the world. I still think so. 

Then in the Supervisor's office, where the office hours were as long 
as the wife would refrain from calling a halt, or physical endurance would 
stand no more, I thought the District office consisted of an organization 
whose chief function was to conjure up some new freak ideas to cause the 
field additional worry, on this I've partly changed my mind, and that to the 
extent of taking the "conjure" and the "freak 11 out of it. 

In the District office 1 thought I found the opportunities for cre- 
ating trouble and disturbing peace of mind multiplied many times - Washington 
office and Supervisor - with importance in the order named. 1 haven't en- 
tirely changed my mind yet. 

In Washington; I still have been unable to put my finger on the guys 
that cause the trouble. Here I find another source, none other than the 
Secretary's office and the "Board of Directors," the great Congress of the 
United States. The latter in particular are the ones here that create the 
heart throbs and hair pul lings for the higher ups, and, believe me, they 
keep busy. 


a. si T^'f-hfitra Tt) Aft t>mm.^M & (Cont.) 

' I am .still not cor tain where the trouble lias, Perhaps there's soma 
rbs-oo.nsibility all along the lino. Congress crowds the Washington office, 
the" Washington. office crowds the District, the District the Supervisor, the 
•Supervisor the dangers,' and the people are crowding us all. Why not? What 
i S . it that keeps us busy other .than the effort -to reach the standard set 
all along the line? What is it other than keeping constantly busy : that has 
developed the enviable record for accomplishment the: Service "-enjoys and that 
is • recognized not -only by the .entire ' Department but by the public? 

''.;'.'. throughout my .-experience, from Ranger' -to a detail in- the Washington 
.office,; I ••..have found a constant lina of earnest men and woman striving to 
ma : . ^;;i,n -.and^fAxrth.r davolop the' record for doing ' things. Let us hope that 
we will continue to be a busy organization. Are we doing unnecessary things? 
Many have implied that we are, but few, if any, have been able to point out 
where. That, however, is a _subgsot^f ; or another story. 

• ; ;" By h.'> L; Bishop - -District ?, Allegheny - 

"Hearts Content," an -area 0f : five 1 or six hundred acres, belonging to 
the Wheeler and vDusenbury Lumber Company, 'contains ' the only remaining stand 
v of old-growth v/hite pine in the 3as?t , this 'valuable tree having long .since 
, reached the vanishing point ' in^ this ' section; "The history of ' this stand 
dates back to 1809, when. the- ; families of 'Wheeler' and 'Dusenbury first engaged 
-in lumbering operat'iioiis o*i the- headwaters of the Allegheny. By 1850 rela- 
tively-large, -timber, holding's had been acquired by ' this company within what is 
• now '.;% he southwestern corher 6% -'the Aai J ag41eny Purchase Unit .and ' was 
begun. .^he ■.first mill. Was one of. -2-t mills' operating 'on Tionesta^ Creelf within 
a distance of 2o miles, . , 

In .1865,. after many years of -unsatisfactory , operation, Ivir. IT.. P. 
Wheeler, Sr., became manager of the holdings and Immediately, put into effect 
constructive and 'far -seeing 'policies; ' Much waste was' eliminated by the closer 
utilization practiced; high stumps were cut off 'and long butts' which had been 
hitherto left. In the fcripeda "'were' 'Collected- and shipped to a ''"shingle mill, and 
other forms of waste; were, closely watched and transformed .fhto. useful and 
profitable products. After instituting reforms in uti].i^.?:-io'h, Mr. V/heeler 
turned -his attention t:o .keeping fir'e out o"f -thb-' woods ano , regardless of 
cost, any fire which even -remotely menaced the Wheeler' arid "Dusohbury holdings 
was fought to a finish. For v6G« years this property has had the benefit of 
• effectual fire ; protect ion -and., the present" ha nag erra nt is fully convinced that 
such protection has, <bae.n more, than justified by the results,. . 

In 1919, when 32 acres of second growth' was cut oybr', the operation 
yielded an average of ;.30§- cords of chemical wood, 26 raiirrmd-; ties , and 125 
board feet; of sawtimber per 'acre. This 1 second cutting was "35 years after 
. the area was f irs.t-j lpgged off and did' not include the hemlock^ which was es- 
timated to comprise 30 per cent of the stand. This company owns many thou- 
sands of acres of comparable .young, growth. < " Their entire' holdings of .40,000 
acres < in its virgin condition averaged-- from 4o ' to 56 tLousan?.' feet', of 'saw 
. stuff , ; 8.";9ords o.f. ; chemical wood., ; and 5 cords of hemloek : bark'pcu- acre,,' 

. Tp^day,- "Hearts Content" 'boasts of holding in it's confines, the last 
stand of virgin eastern white pine, the trees averaging' from' 2uo to 35o' years 
old. Single trees in this stand have cut as many as ten 16-foot logs and 
5,000 board feet, a single, one^quartor .. acre has been estimated to carry 
50,000 board feet. This last stand is of very fine quality, cutting a- large 
per .Q ei/t . of ;:ha higher-grades ..• : .,- • .- •• •• - : - : ■ " y 

She rr 9 "anageme.nt has • profited by the lessons in .close utiliza- 
tion aijo fire i taction. A supply of natural gas has been developel'.and 
piped tc "*•'•" > r. ■-I'.is to be used "as 'fuel instead of the ?av;o.ust which is "saved 
ard sold, shipped to Niagara ialls to reappear as 'carborundum, ''The smallest 
sized ua'corial manufactured at the null is V' by 1" by 14," 

The results of the lumbering- ©potions ' on thi s 40 ,000-acf e hol ding 
have won Mr. Wheeler to j the . opinion- thai -it would havs 'been entirely' prof- 
itable and practicable to have .-organized cutting on a continuous oasis.' It 
is expected, however* that -.this -tract' Wi'lfl b e aval lab 1 e for r><:rz base by, the 
Government at the on<| of .t.he-next 3 or 10 years, when this eo-v: ay will have 
finished its cutting and wil,! begin operations In its vast holdings .of .red- 
wood and other western species on the Pacific Coast, 


By Will Gc Barns s, Washington 

In the midst of a multitude of discouraging reports from our Super- 
visors covering denuded rang ;s, low -rainfall, starving cattle and sheep, 
discouraged stockmen, drought, and raisfo'rtune generally, it is a joy to 
take Hip the Mono report covering grazing matters cn that Forest for the 
past year. Here at least is one National Forest where, during the year 
1922, the rainfall has been above normal, the forage excellent, the stock 
coming onto the Forest in the spring in fair shape, and leaving it in the 
fall in first class condition; to know that the cattlemen were able to 
spend several thousand dollars for blooded bulls; and that the sheepmen 
got excellent prices for their lambs and wool, taking it all together, 
the stock interests in and around the Mono seem to be. in every way in a 
most satisfactory condition as Compared with other Forests and other parts 
of ' the country . 

By Sc W. Kelley , Washington 

Recently the Oakland, California, branch of the Svinrude ' Mo tor Company 
demonstrated the portable fire pump manufactured by the Svinrude Motor Com- 
pany before several District Five Forest Officers. 

Hero is District Five's report of the demonstration: 
. On January 25 the local agent of the Svinrude Motor Company demon- 
strated the "Svinrude Unit and Centrifugal pump to a number of. District office 
men. The demonstration was held at the San Lorenzo Dam. 

. •' The outfit consisted of the Svinrude two' cylinder , two cycle, 4-5 H, 
P. gas • engine with' one Svinrude built in" fly wheel Magneto, gravity feed car- 
buretor,, and a special easy starting device. The engine connects directly 
to. a 7iking lg-' inch high pressure pump. The complete outfit weighs about 
99 pounds. » . ; ,. ••■ : --.r 1 .• . 

The pump" 'was placed about 15 feet from the dam and about five feet 
above the surface of the water. . • ' \ " 

I n the first tes t 50Q feet of hose was laid uphill to a height of 
about 150 feet above the elevation of the pump, This threw a very' intense 
stream sufficijnt to dampen any ordinary fire. It is estimated that the 
■stream, reached at least 5o to 60 '-feet beyond the nozzle and about 30 feet 
in elevation, . .■ 

. In the, se cond t est 1,050 feet of 1% inch linen fire hose was laid out 
reaching a height of about 125 feet above the level of the pump. With a fr- 
inch nozzle, it is estimated that it delivered about 24 gallons per minute 
and threw a very excellent stream of water 50 feet beyond the nozzle. . With 
this linen hose the hose friction was equal to probably 45 to 51 feet head, 
making a total head of at least 170 feet. 

In. the, third test the hose was laid out about 950 feet at a height 
of approximately 30 feet above the level of the pump. This threw a stream 
at least three times as great as in the second test to a distance of about 
..ICQ feet. . ' , 

lx gallons of gas will run this pump from three to three and one-half 
hours. It takes one-half pint of medium oil to one gallon of gas. The oil 
is mixod directly with the gas. This pump is a very compact unit and has 
every appearance of efficiency. It IS hoped that this District can in the 
near future purchase three or four. 


Value of a W ood. lot' A v.oodlot on every farm, maintained under the rules of ' 
scientific forestry, drawn upon for fuel annually, would make about half of 
the population of Canada wholly independent of the coal miners and the coal 
mine operators in the matter, of keeping the home fires . burning. — fores try 
Jjflews Letter Dept. Int. Canada. 

"In " or "O n?" In most Fbrest Service writing, things usually are "on" or 
happen "on" a National Forest instead of "in" it. There is so much timber 
on the Santiara Forest; there were such and such fires on the Modoc. John 
Doe is a Hanger on the Inyo. Is this usage correct? I doubt its correct- 
ness even in such old stand-bys as "on-and-off ." Certainly if we were speak- 
ing of an ordinary forest, we should say "in." "On" must sound a little off 
to the layman. — W.S. 


Gams from the Ranger Fxam. P ap or s : "Ihe two principal resources of the Na- 
tional Forests are lumbar and shingles. Lumber and paper from the cotton- 

"Methods of chaining on level and hilly country differ: where tho 
land ; is very rough not a great deal of chaining can be done, the' sun hides , 
behind high trees, which makes it hard to get a solar. Then the. magnetic 
needle jumps around too much to get a lino*" 

He Knows: Henry Hardtnar is practicing forestry on 50,000 acres of cut-over 
land in Louisiana and paying the cost cut of his own pocket. He knows what 
he is talking about when he says: - "Anyone can grow trees ~ there are no 
difficult problems to overcome - trees will grew anywhere - and' they grow 
night and day, winter and summer; drought and flood. It is a sure crop." — 

; forfsd* p ep du cts labohatohy 

Observations on Gluing Prac tic e in the, West : A number of plants which glua 
wood more or less extensively- in tha manufacture of doors, furniture, aabi^- 
net work, and other products, were visi tod by Mr . 'T. R. Truax during his ; . 
western trip. Considerable' information was 'secured on tha cutting and dry- , 
ing of srenair- and the gluing of the western woods. Ihe western species which 
ware being glued more or less extensively include Douglas fir, red alder, 
Oregon maple, Oregon ash, western Cottonwood, western .yellow pine, Sitka 
•spruce, hemlock, and redwood, 'Douglas fir is cut into veneer for gluing in 
large quantities' and us.-d principally for doors 'and interior finish.. Alder 
is used considerably- for cores in furniture panels and is preferred for this 
purpose by most users of -western ■species. Ash, maple, and Cottonwood are 
also used in connection with 'furniture .manufacture both 'in veneer and thick 
stock. Spruce is cut into veneer and glued into panel s , to a limited extent, 
while vertical grain spruce, hamlock, and redwood are used somewhat for core 
stock. ■ • 

I ndustrial C ourses Have at tendanc e of 2 6: The January courses ; given at the 
Laboratory were attended by 26 representatives of various industries. Most 
oi these came from the Central States, but there were some who came from 
Atlantic and Pacific Coast States. In the seasoning course there wore 11, 
in the gluing class 6, and in the box course there were 7 representatives. 
Enrollment in all courses was much cut •' down because of the business expansion 
in all these industries. ' ■• ; 


The Department, of Agri culturs ^ Exhibi t at the "National Western Stock Show in 
Denver was handled by the Forest Service and the Biological Survey. The 
Forest Service showed through a very realistic scene, the devastating ef- 
fect of fire both on the forest and on wild life in the forest. Also there 
was a very interesting display of Colorado grasses and poisonous plants, and 
two models showing the results, respectively, .of open herding and close herd- 
ing of sheep. Ihe Biological Survey presented models and,. mounted specimens 
illustrating the importance of 'the present predatory animal campaign in Colo- 
rado and the effort to exterminate prairie dogs and other rodents. It is 
estimated that approximately 40,000 visited this exhibit. Favorable comments 
were heard on all sides about its attractiveness. 

The D istrict inv estig ative Committ ee held its annual meeting in January * In 
addition to the representatives in the District office, this meeting was at- 
tended by Silviculturist C G. Bates of the Fremont .Station, . and Deputy 
Supervisor Hunter of the Holy Cross. Projects of particular interest to For- 
est Management,- vhich were approved for study next season, were the estab* 
lishmont of reproduction plots in cut-over and denuded areas, so that it will 
be possible to determine the success of our methods of cuttiiug in securing 
reproduction and to know how rapidly our burns are reproducing. Also, it 
was recommended that plots be established in lodge pole pine eut-ovar areas 
trying out different methods of brush disposal, • - 


' 1 ' , ,. - • , DISTvtl JT- g (Oont..)- . •'• : . ' '* ■ • • 

Forest gxami rur Johnson 1 s Report on "The Influence of the Forest in retard- 
ing Run-off as Brought out by the iV.;blo -Sloc-d,"- which was printed in 
"V.'ater Resources" for December; 1922, has been received in this officii 'in 
the form cf a reprint, for distribution. ■ Ht limited number of copies are 
available for : this purpose,. 

IBS Tift JS. 3 - SGUT.raST3HK' DIS??IJT : ' • ■ 

P. R. Opportunit y: Supervisor '.Vales mads use- of it and achieved results. The 
narrative starts with an announcement by the Supervisor in a Prescott paper 
concerning the plan for handling Christmas-, trees . . Tho teacher of a country 
school down in the desert country, fifty miles or more off the forest, road 
the announcement 'aid was int. rested. She wrote the Prescott, stating that 
a tree would be groatly appreciated and while it would not be practicable to 
come for it, if one could be' sent- all expense -would be gladly met. ' Deputy 
^unro arranged for a tree to be gotten out and s int. The affair apparently 
impressed the teacher and -the school, for it was' made 1 the occasion for a gen- 
eral lett'er-writing lesson, v The Prescott office has received no less thin 
twenty. Tho composition and penmanship 'indicate that, the lesson was handled 
by practically all of the grades while the sub j ect matter shows that fire pre- 
vention and other forestry ideas had been discussed with the classes, 

Tree R ings ; That variations An the width of tree rings ire determined by cli- 
matic conditions, and that climatic conditions in turn are' closely related 
to solar activity. -is the theory being worked on by Dr. a. D.' .Douglas uf 'the 
University of Arizona, In regions, of meager -rainfall annual growth agrees very 
olosely with the precipitation -curve. Thus it happens that the yellow pines 
of northern Arizona have provided, .excellent material for Dr.' Douglas* ' study. 
Trunks of prehistoric pines reeently excavated near Flagstaff at a depth of 
16 feet b .low the present, ground surface point to a much heavier rainfall in 
early ages than in modern times. The use of tree rings as an index of cii- 
matecin periods antedating. instrumental records has groat possibilities in 
long range weather forecasting.. . . . 

forest Servic e an Asset to- Bond . J^vn. j_ngj_ A firm, of "investment b ankers is 
sending out_ pr int ed circulars to bond buyers ' in a market campaign on Albu- 
querque paving bonds, -among the A-lbuquerquo ass ots that make 'the bonds es- I 
' pecially attractive is mentioned ' tb.3 fact that Albuquerque •"•is the heaiquar- I 
ters of the Southwestern District of the Forest Service. 

After It' s Over : The one consoling ' feature about, a vacation is the fact that 
you can get back to work and recuperate. —Santa-Fa.. '... '' . 


Grazing . Dxper i merits on t he IlinidnTr^ Supervisor R, D. : Garver of' the leinideka has 
established a number- -of quadrats for the purpose cf demonstrating ' the ..value 
of proper grazing season. At two places, 1 one at middle, and th ; e other at 
high elevation on the summer range, he has established three sets cf quadrats, 
one quadrat in each set is entirely protected, one is left open to .grazing, 
and the third is open to grazing during what is considered the ideal grazing 
season, which opens approximately two weeks later than the. present season in 
force. At a lower elevation near the forest boundary there are- also, two quad- 
rats, one enclosed and the other, open to grazing the whole season' long. Ihise 
plots ere placed where they can easily bo seen by stockmen and others passing 
through the country. The idea is to show how much improvement can be ob- 
tained by the use of a .grazing season opening at ' the proper date, and how 
close conditions can come to those obtained under cemplete protection b- this 
means . 

Studies of Eisft Stomachs; During the fall the stomachs of a number of trout 
taken at Fibh Lake were placed m formalin by the local Forest officers and 
sent to the Bureau of Fisheries for examination. The -analysis of the stom- 
achs shows that over 90 per cent of the food of the trout th^re consists of 
the scuds or so-called fresh water shrimps. The collections are to b e con- 
tinued next season. If the shrimps continue tc forri such a largj proportion 
of the diet in a lake as productive es Fish Lake, it . i A I indicate a remark- 
ably high value for them as fish food. Th.-y ire dependant on ^qu*tic vege- 
tation for food and Shelter, so the valua of sueh growth to fish oreduntw. 

PIS JR1CT 4 (Co nt. ) 

Can You Beat, This ? Comes now Hangar 1 McGinnoss claiming to have the most ener- 
gstic permittee on tho Forest.. Said permit t so oa Wing "bumped" for his de- 
linquent grazing fees borrowed Mac's bobsleds, wont out on the Forest and 
stole a lead of Government wood, which he proceeded to. soli, and made prompt 
payment of his grazing fees. Docs this come'undor S-29, "2tnergoney Use," 
or is it plain trespass? — Weiser. 

SIS T3I CT ,. 5 . - ... C.iL I gO TfflSUx PI ST R.I CT 

a, C omm unity Loade r; 'In 'addition to acting as mayor, councilman, marshall, 
and moral censor of tho Big Santa Anita special use tract, Ranger Hayward . 
of the Angelas has been requested to dispose of the cats inhabiting the can- 
yon bocausa, as one of the permittees states, they are killing all the song- 
birds, what njxti i 

An E thiopia n Deer St ory ; Three men, one 'of them of -African descent, appeared ' 
in the Sonera office a few days ago carrying a very small buck with horns 
just beginning to sprout. While driving an automobile between. Standard and 
Sonora thjy hsd seen the frightened deer try to jump through a fenpe by the 
roadside, fall back to the ground' and lie there apparently helpless. On ex-' 
amiriation they found that its spine .had been injured, probably broken, just 
abovo the hips, and that the hind legs v/ere paralyzed. Said the- colored 
gentleman: "Boss, Ah craves a written . puhmit bofore Ah kills this hoah deah. . ' 
If Ah terminates his misery mah own. self • along 1 11 come Mis.tah Game Wahden 
an' fifty bones of mah hahd- earned money* 11 go ' to de J edge. Ah wants safety 
fuhst - nothin' else butl"--Stanislaus. \, #••.... * . . 

"Ma Pe tte npill." made famous by Harry Leon Wilson in his SATURDAY EMIKG 
JOST stories, is said to be no other than Mrs. Martha Cooper Hughes of Mon- 
terey, one of the great landowners of the cow country. Prom h-r husband, 
John Cooper, a Monterey pioneer, she inherited thuusands of acres, and in 
the process of giving her personal attention to her cattle business she has 
learned everything that this occupation has to teach. It is said that she 
can appraise a herd of cattle as fast as her cowpunehers can drive them past 
her and also, though no longer a young woman, that she can outdance any girl 
in Southern California. 

Market fo r Pine Neediest M. H, Cord, head of a concern that manufactures pine 
needle products, has been negotiating with Siskiyou County* s Chamber of Com- 
merce with a view to locating a pine needle enterprise there. His company 
uses the Dil from the greon ne edles as an ingredient in their medicines, 
seaps, toilet preparations and other articles, and also manufactures mat- 
tresses stuffed v/ith the dry ones, 


Tel ling it in Billboards; luring the past year the Oregon Tourist & Informa- 
tion Bureau (a State-maintained agency) entered a new field of advertising 
the State's scenic resources. It had painted and erected 5 pictorial sign- 
boards each 10 x 50 feet advertising Crater Lake, Oregon Caves, Mt. Hood, 
Columbia River Highway, Wallowa Lake Region, and the Blue Mountains. The 
Crater Lake sign was placed on a much traveled highway near Los Angeles; 
Oregon Caves on Pacific Highway, near San Francisco; Wallowa Lakes, near 
Salt Lake on Lincoln Highway; Blue Mountains near Pocatello, Idaho; Columbia 
River Highway on Yellowstone Trail near Spokane; and the Mt. Hood sign near 
Walla Walla, ftmr of these 5 attractions are located within National forests. 

What th e Publ ic Thinks ; Quoted from a letter received from Mr* George 3„ 
Wright, Seattle: 

"While I am writing to you I wish to takj the opportunity of suggest- 
ing that more attention be paid to the scenic value of trails in thjir con- 
struction by th,j Forest Service. My observation leads me to believe that the 
persons who lay out these trails almost entirely ignore the scenic possibil- 
ities. Many tinvis I have b jen over Ar est S^rviCo trails which might have 


16 . C ^ 2 6 (Com.) 

What thj Publ ic Thinks ( Jor.t. ) 
bson swung a lSitlj to this sid:- or that sidj-vithout additional 'expense but 
with the result of perhaps carrying thj trail towards a s conic vlov^.int. or> 
near a water fall ~r an interesting stream canyon. " — .l.o-.Y/. 


Th-j V/iiit.r'- 3ar i.iya l Idea was practically unknown in Nov: Zr^land until 3 yo.' rs 
ago-. ! -The • ibres't officers it Gorham at >that -time actively cooperated with the . 
residents aul business inoii of that town. Thj results wore worthy of thei ef- 
forts and ovoryon'e voted thj carnival a decided success. Since that date 
many oth.r towns ha fh taken up the idea, and this y jar over twenty different 
winter carnivals 'are being held in New Zrgland. From thj support given those 
carnivals, it is evident that they are now as p ermanoi.t a celebration as thj 
"round-up" is iL the t'/ost,. One sjos-,'? spills" at both celebrations. 

To Honor V/ar Heroes: The citizens of Brevard 'add Transylvania' County, North 
Carolina, arj now engaged in a .movetriont to erect a memorial arch at the David- 
son Hiver entrance t'c 'the Pisga'h National ijbrest.-and Gam 3 Preserve. They '.r 
soliciting contribution all oyer the county.. The preset design of this 
memorial arch calls for' rubble masonry, contraction with bronze letters 12 
inches' high, "PISGAH NVTIONnL AND G^MCPlliSZ-WZ,"' across -the arch, 

ii bronze tabljt will be placed on each of the pillars, and these tablets 
will bear the names of the men fro.n ; Transylvania County-' who were killed dur- 
ing the war. The v entire structure .will probably cost not' loss than $l,2o'o. 


U. S. Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 



7ol. VII, No. 9. 

Washington, D. 

February 26, 1923. 

Herbert A < Smith, Washington 

The latast form of proposed Federal legislation looking to a nation- 
al policy of forestry was introduced into Congress by ilapr ssentative Clarke 
of "Tew York on February 8, and referred to the Agricultural Committee. It 
is notable on two counts: It replaces the Snail bill as the measure which 
the former supporters of that bill now wish to see enacted, and it has the 
hearty approval of President Harding himself and therefore stands before 
the country as endorsed by the administration'. 

The readers of AMSJBIvJAN BHISTSif will recall that hearings on the 
Snell bill were held by the Agricultural Committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives early in 1921, and again in January, 1922, They will also re- 
call that these hearings brought out a sharp division of opinion among for- 
esters and other advocates of Federal legislation for a national policy 
of forestry. This division centered mainly on the question whether the 
principle of regulation of privately owned forests should be applied 
directly by the Federal Government, as the Capper Bill contemplated, or 
should be sought through encouraging the enactment of State laws by offers 
of Federal cooperation. The Snell Bill also cams in for criticism from 
some advocates of regulation on the ground that its terms were too indef- 
inite to bring about any regulation at all, and that it was at least doubt- 
ful whether all its supporters believed in regulation. 

In the hearings held a year ago, Chief Forester Greeley suggested 
to tha Committee that the program should be modified so as to include only 
such features of the Snell Bill as could command a substantially united 
support from the friends of forestry. He advocated a law providing for 
adequate protection against forest fires through cooperation, between the 
Federal Government, the States, and private owners; for Federal coopera- 
tion with Statas in furtherance of reforestation of denuded lands; for 
more rapid enlargement of the National Forests through land purchases and 
exchanges; and for addition to the National Forests of all remaining pub- 
lic forest lands, reserved or unreserved, wherever this is practicable. 

To this list of immediate obj actives the Forester subsequently added 
enlarged provision for investigations, experiments, and demonstrations in 
the interest of battDr use of forests and forest products. The Secretary 
of Agriculture in his annual report last fall urged the same legislative 
program. The Clarke Bill substantially embodies this policy. President 
Harding's approval of tha provisions of the Bill in a letter to Congress- 
man dlarka following its introduction makes it in the fullest sense an ad- 
ministration maasure. 

While its enactment in the short time before the present Congress 
expires is impossible, its formulation is of large significance. 

3y Tho Fire Sater, D-5 

Qae of tho biggest probljms that tho 5brest Service faces to-day is 
te rcduco the number of man-caused fires which occur each year in tho Nation- 
al bbrostSo If this is true, and for once it seems that we aro all unani- 
mous on the proposition, isn't it about time we were digging down to get at 
the root of tho evil? Zach year we spend considerable time, to say nothing 
of gray matter, figuring out new and improved methods of fire detection and 
suppression, oontrol, elapsed time, tools, forms and what not; and in the of all this the number of fires due to human agency is steadily in- 
creasing. What's wrong? Have we been putting the cart before the horse? 

'.Vho sets the fires, anyway? Usually we charge the:.; to railroads, 
campers, smokers, hunters, incendiaries, brush burners and the like, which, 
boil 3d down to the essence means "mere man," He is the fellow we ought to 
be getting after, and a loO,GOO,oLO more of his kind. There is where the 
seat of the whole trouble lies, and there's where we must apply the cure. 
Lii& that cure is not going to be brought about, either, by buying long- 
handled shovels or putting on an extra force of forest guards in the danger- 
ous season. 

There are just two ways you can "get under a man's hide," so to speak, 
on th„ firs problem, One is through the process of the law, and the other is 
by education. The first is affective but harsh, and th^ second more easy to 
swallow, but not so effective, unless you keep everlastingly at it. But edu- 
cation, 1 believe, is the most effective, because it appeals to the better 
sense and makes a more lasting impression. 

Granted we must educate the public to be careful with fire, let's 
look over the credit side of our balance sheet in this regard. Here we find 
fire signs, illustrated lectures : nd addresses, booklets carrying fire warn- 
ings, cooperative agreements, press items, personal contact, and - - and 
- - Not many of them, are there, when you com;- to count them up on your 
fingers? And what have we put into all these in the way of money? V/hy, noth- 
ing much except a few odds and ends of dollars that may be lying around loose 
in the Districts or at Washington. These are the things that have heretofore 
always been put down at the bottom of the list - whether it called for time, 
iLon^y or work. Wo have been too busy selling timber and forage and fighting 
to keep from burning it up to bother much about educational and informational 
work, and little things like personal contact and getting the man on the 
street wholeheartedly behind us in the fire game. 

Isn't it time we were putting our best foot (and a bit of cash) fore- 
most on this part of the job? "A penny saved is a penny earned," they say, 
but it sure isn* ^ when it comes to the fire game, especially if you sav^ it 
through failing to educate the man who sets the fires. 

By Ward Shepard, Washington 

"The man that deliberately burns the woods year after year is not 
only doing an injury to himself, but he is burning his children and grand- 
children out of the lumber business, the grazing business, and the farming 
business." — S t V7< Greene, Supt. of Coastal Plain Sxp. Station, McTTeill, Hiss. 

By P. G. Az ding ton, 2-5 

The article by lir. Kneiop in tho Jamiery 22nd Service Bulletin is 
written with a pessimistic tone which is not characteristic of the gentleman. 
Perhaps he was fishing for a rise. In order to cheer up the Chief of Lands, 
we hasten to present the situation which confronts us in the California Dis- 

1 X 3 Xi « 

Hfo doubt we all had visions of a "land office business" in exchanges 
as soon as a general law was effective.. Looking back, however, on all simi- 
lar movements of this character we find that, like a rolling snowball v they 
start slowly but repidly acquire si^c and speed. In the West, at lea3 1, 
the acquisition of private lands for forest purposes is something- new. W/e 
have neither established prices nor procedure. Consequently, many owners of 
the kind of land we want to acquire are sitting back waiting for some one 
else to start the ball rolling. 



Immediately upon notice that tha general land exchange law was ef- 
fective, we received a number of offers to exchange. Investigation showed, 
however, that these first comers were all looking for a deal of distinct 
advantage to themselves, and the fact that all of this kind of offers have 
been given a cold shoulder has apparently seeped through with a consequent 
discouraging effect on others, if absence of applications of this kind is 
an indicator. 

Later we began to receive offers that meant business, and right now 
we have on file applications that involve 9o,000 acres of base lands, about 
75,000 acres of which are cut-over lands of the kind we want to acquire. 

2s T ow these 75,000 acres, with the merchantable timber remaining on 
them, are easily worth $250 ,00.0. All of these people want stumpage in ex- 
change for cut-over lands. 

Our timber sals receipts last year were 1-663,000, and, according to 
the Manual, we should not ordinarily approve land exchanges within any State 
during any single year that will involve a reduction of more than 10/o in 
timber sale receipts. Ten per cent of &663,090 is $66,300, and 4 times 
$66,300 .is $265,000. 

Therefore, if only the exchange propositions now on hand are approved 
and the Itfanual restrictions are complied with, we can. not handle any new 
business for the next four years. Such being the facts, is it desirable to 
go out and drum up a lot of new exchange business, with the resultant in- 
crease in field and office work, when we have in sight more than can be 
handled in accordance with the regulations? Also, under these circumstances, 
is it good policy to go out and drum up new business when we are not in a po- 
sition to go through with the exchange without considerable delay? 

By W. 0. Barnes, Washington 

For some time the desirability of identifying the various bands of 
elk in the Yellowstone region has seemed important if we are to understand 
their yearly range movements and learn as -to possible change of habitat. 
To this end the matter was taken up with the Biologioal Survey and the Park 
Service, with the result that the Biologioal Survey has purchased and for- 
warded to the elk feeding stations in the Jackson Hole region and also to 
the Park people a large number of metal tags which will be placed upon the 
younger elk as they come into the corrals at Gardiner and Jackson for feed 
during the winter. These tags are numbered and dated and will be placed in 
the ears of the animals in the hope that whenever a tagged animal is killed 
by hunters or found dead from other causes, the tag will be taken from the 
carcass and forwarded to the Biological Survey in order that a check may be 
made of the particular animal from which it was taken. 

There is a firm belief in the minds of many of us that at the pres- 
ent time some of the Jackson Hole elk are migrating eastward over the Con- 
tinental Divide and down into the headwaters of the Shoshone Hiver east of 
the Park. There is also a general belief that there is a direct inter- 
mingling of the Jackson Hole herd with the Park herd in the northern part 
of the Park. This tagging business will enable us to learn something about 
these movements and will undoubtedly be of great value in the working out of 
future plans for the improved management of the elk herds in that vicinity. 

By 0« ?. Korstian, Appalachian Sorest Zxperiraent Station 

For many years hemlock bark, so far as the writer is informed, was 
the only coniferous material used in the tanning industry in this country. 
It is, therefore, of interest to find an extract plant which has been using 
red spruce bark for the production of tannic acid. This plant, which is lo- 
cated in West Virginia, has been obtaining yields of S to 11 per oent of 
tannic acid and occasionally as high as 12 per cgnt from the spruce. Be- 
cause of peculiar conditions connected with the administration of this oper- 
ation, the spruce bark is commanding £14 per ton, &2 more than hemlock bark - 
a differential occasioned in part by the greater cost of exploitation of the 
spruce bark. Although the extracts from both species are made to 25 per 
cent tannin, that from the spruce is lighter in color than the hemlock, due 



possibly to the higher percentage of non- tannins. The extract sells at 
about 'lyrtf par pound in the liquid form ana 5-6^ in the powder form. Shore 
is still srme prejudice in the trade against the spruce extract, although 
on3 leather concern has been purchasing ell spruce extract. 


This magazine has attained an ee-normous circulation and weekly gives 
much joy to a wide circle of readers. However, as Horace Greeley would have 
said, you can* t run a paper on hot air, and we are now advertising the fact 
that a right smart lot of our readers haven't paid up their sub so riot ions 
for 1923. 

IFurthermore, the field season is headed our way, and we're afraid 
it will prove an unanswerable alibi against said payments if we don't head 
it off. We w'ishj therefore, to ask that all delinquents kick in with con- 
tributions that will tide us over the lean months this summer. The editor 
will appreciate them and can attend to his job much more cheerfully than 
will 'otherwise be the case. Selah*. 


T parous gu eit: Observant readers of the Minutes of the Service Committee may 
have observed that these meetings recently ..passed the lOUu mark. The Com- 
mittee thus gets into the class of talkative Scheherazade with her thousand 
and one Arabian Nights. 

as Shakespeare hath it, 

"Like as the waves make toward the pebbled shore 
So do our liHWTtS hasten to their end." 

But he was wrong. The end is nowhere in sight. — Smoke Chaser. 

A G lorio us. Feeling ; A certain wise man recently received a letter from the 
Income Tax people. ; He studied it over carefully before opening, "©id he 
fudge on his last return? Had he left out some income items which those gum- 
shoers in the Income Tax division-had dug up on him? What. was the penalty ] 
for such tricks?" These and several other questions romped merrily through 
his brain. The letter was opened as gingerly as if it was known to hold a 
bomb or sentence of death. 

His worst fears were N 0 T realized. "Innocent as a baby" was his 
mental comment. Prom that official letter dropped a Treasury warrant for 
exactly 2o gold dollars. He was informed that a check of his return showed 
an error in his favor of that amount which was herewith remitted, etc., etc. 
Oh, BoyJ this aint such a bad world after all. What a fine day it is to be 
sure. — W.3.B. 

"K osher .," an interesting article by Will C, Barnes, appears in the January 
issue of THE PitoDUCE^o The article deals with Mosaic law as it affects for- 
bidden and permitted foods. 


After. Taki ng On e lo se : "Yours of Jan 19th has been received in regard to 
different hard woods and the strength of the same, and so forth.. I thank 
you kindly for your prompt reply to my inquiry. 

You ask. Do I require any more information, I will say. No thanks. 

Though I say no thanks. Still although I have said so I must admit 
that I never knew that you people were as well informed on wood as you are 
till I read your circulars. And as I have stated in the foregoing that I 
thankfully decline any further information on wood. At the same time I was 
wondering whether or not you people could give a cause why the top of the 
hemlock- tree always leans to the east. I have noticed it in northern for- 
jsts. And even in Washington, D- C £ where the trees had been transplanted. 

But I will ask you to please go to no trouble in the matter for ray 


So you need not reply to it." 


Gut Burba nk on This. Job; "Has .been.any attempt mads to cross Jack Pine 
with White Pine? It occurred to the writer that if it would be possible to 
do this there will be vast areas ox barren land which could be made produc- 
tive for a bitter tree than lack Pine. If we could gat the good qualities 
of the White Pine- combined with the wonderful reproduction of the Jack Pine, 
it wil-l sure make some tree«" 

This recalls part of a talk given at Battle Greek, Michigan, by Dr. 
Kellogg of sanitarium fame, in which he referred enthusiastically to the 
possibilities of promoting health through proper food, if all the forest 
trees could be crossed with nut trees, so that edible nuts as well as tim- 
ber could be produced, 


Sup 3 r y i s p r s ' n . Lie e t i n g ; The Supervisors' Meeting vjs.s held the week of February 
5 to 10 and ull the 26 Supervisors were present. The papers were well pre- 
pared aid thoroughly discussed. 

All the Supervisors and visitors were guests of the Federal Field 
Olub at luncheon on Tuesday, February 6, and before the Denver Commercial 
Association at noonday luncheon Friday, February 9. 

It is interesting to note that of the 26 Forest Supervisors in Dis- 
trict Two, 12 are members of local commercial clubs, 4 are Hotarians, 3 are 
Lions, 1 is a Kiwanian and 1 a Kanotin. Total of 16 are members of commer- 
cial or some one of the service clubs mentioned. 

The following were gues.ts at the Supervisors' Meeting- Cros. Hoar, 
in charge of Weeks Law cooperation in the Lakes States; 0. G. Bates, Silvi- 
cuiturist; J. Jtoeser, Forest Examiner 5 ; 3= D, Garver, Supervisor Minidoka 
N. F. , D-4; it. G, Stockdale, Assistant District Forester D-l; P. D. Kelleter, 
Forest Inspector; I. F. 31 dredge-, Forest Inspector; Smith Riley, Biological 

N ebraska Lecture s; H. N. Wheeler, Chief of Public Relations, was in Nebraska 
during January delivering lectures on forestry- He talked to various organi- 
zations, high schools and colleges, reaching 10,500 people in 16 towns. The 
itinerary was arranged by the Nebraska State Forestry Association. The lec- 
turer emphasized especially the shortage of timber, the great need for refor- 
estation and the particular opportunities in Nebraska, pointing out espe- 
cially the work that is being done by the Forest Service in that State. 
There was the keenest interest manifest and the newspapers in each town gave 
considerable space in news items and also in editorials. 


H ow Exhibits Pay: At one of the Southwestern fairs last fall a building con- 
tractor, after viewing the part of the Forest Service exhibit that per- 
tained to the Forest Products Laboratory and talking with the man in charge 
about timber testing, stated that had he known about the tests of dimension 
timbers that had been made by the Laboratory and had had a table of compari- 
sons, that he would probably have saved close to a fifth of the dimension 
lumber he had vat into a job he had just completed. Not knowing just what 
sizes of various kinds of lumber would be necessary to carry given weights, 
he had put in over sizes that had to be milled especially and at special 
cost in order to be sure.. His margin had been figured so close that the ex- 
tra cost made th-j job a loss when a saving of even a sixth, he stated, would 
have made it pay out and anything more would have yielded a profit. 

Normalcy : The multitudinous circumambulations of the property checker among 
the labyrinthine anfractuosities of the District Office are ended. For a 
time he wielded a wicked 2 H but the strain is over, OhS these property 
returns. As a whole the check was a success. Many unknown articles were 
located. It was reported that a keyhole was missing in lands, but on fur- 
ther investigation it was found wrapped around an escaping recreational plan. 
Considerable difficulty was encountered by the carelessness of stenographers 
in not got ting a correct count on the staples in the Hotchkiss fasteners. 



Normalcy (Gont.J 

This resulted in a failure of minds to meet in the balance sheet. This ap- 
parent discrepancy, however, partially offset by the discovery of 10, CCD 
gem clips in various stages of repair bravely supporting range appraisal maps. 

Following ths drive a "no soliciting" sign which had been marked as 
missing was locat3d in "S." Thirty-eight sturdy thumb tacks could not be 
traced, but it finally developed that the property checker had half soled his 
Shoes with them. The procedure was justified by the large amount of dupli- 
cate travel. The average quota of pencils per man per year is again a total 
wrack due to the extra numbers used in the chock. 

Pi S I Jtt JT 4 - I W PXL UN TAIH PI S Titt J T 

The Forest Glerk 
(With apologies to Lowell) 

0* er his reports, the musing forest clerk, 

Beginning doubtfully and far away, 

Just lets his figures wander as they list, 

Then takes a long vacation - without pay. — OoJ.3. 

Brush Burning ; Supervisor Garver, of the Minidoka, reports an average cost of 
£.22 per M. for burning. The character of the brush, its location, age and 
weather conditions were factors influencing the cost. Lodgepole brush piled 
in the open, easily accessible and with favorable weather, cost $ .16 per M. 
for 145 M. A torch was used and the ranger rode from pile to pile on horse- 
back. Burning Pouglas fir brush was done for $.15 per M. in dense stands. 
Piles 3 or 4 years old wore difficult to burn and ran up the costs abnorally. 

Grazing Form: Supervisor J e Shepard of tho Boise ?orest as supplying all his 
sheep permittees with a form of notice so that when a herder's camp is moved 
he completes the form, showing when he arrived at that particular camp, when 
he is moving and to what point he is moving. The Supervisor states that this 
torm has proven helpful in getting better sanitation of camps, in preventiitg 
camps b^ing kept too long in one place, and in the matter of locating c^mps. 

Idaho Meeti ng; Pis trie t Forester H. rfatl-jdge recently attended the annual 
meeting of the Idaho Horse & Cattle Growers' Association at Boise, The meet- 
ing was well attended and enthusiastic. One of the best speeches of the ses- 
sion was by Mr. W. P. Swendson, Commiss ioner of Reclamation for Idaho. He 
pointed out the absolute necessity of maintaining proper cover on the hills 
and mountains which form the watersheds abov^ the big reclamation projects of 
Idaho c The matter was presented from an engineering standpoint, but very 
clearly and simply. He made it clear that the very existence of agriculture 
in southern Idaho depended upon the maintenance of this watershed cover. 


Am jn. Broth er*. The feeling against discarding the old pine-tree badge is very 
keen here on the Sierra Forest. I feel that a substitute for this badge, 
which has stood for the principles of the greatest organization of idealists 
in the western States, will be a serious setback to the morale of the Service. 
I believe the entire Pistrict will back me up in this belief. It is ray per- 
sonal opinion that as an organization we might be able to influence the Sec- 
retary to reconsider this proposed change. — Sierra. 

A Pesira ble Ci tizen : A report from the Angeles on a fire last summer was sup- 
plemented by the following statement: "Henry Jacobs , of 1515 Shatto Street, 
Los Angeles, voluntarily fought this fire; when I suggested putting in time 
for services rendered he objected, saying he was glad to have the opportunity 
to offer his services for such a cause." 


j_g ox iLi yjL jj iwuiii j 

They gag T hem on the Angeles ; Three water companies, known as the "Committee 
of Nine," and interested in the San Gabriel Canyon on the Angeles Forest, had 
printed a supply of these cards; 

Date A-uto No. 

Auto Tag 


Did you EXTINGUISH your PIRE with WATER 

and then COVER with DIRT? 

Did you BURY your PAPERS and camp REFUSE? 

The Law PROVIDES heavy PENALTY for NEGLECTING to do so. 


Go od lope, D-l ; Lowdermilk and Girard* s study of slash disposal (Service 
Bulletin of October 9, page 2), has given us just the material we have been 
wanting. For some time we have had a notion that western yellow pine slash 
might be disposed of by the "burn as you go method," just as they do in the 
Lake States, but never having been tried the "practical ones" said it 
wouldn* t work here. Now we thank D-l for the information that it will work 
in certain sites. It appears that there is about a 10-cent differential in 
cost in favor of the piling and burning method. Can D-l tell us whether 
there is not a saving in the cost of logging under the "burn as you go meth- 
od, " and if so, how much it amounts to? Perhaps it would be enough to really 
-make the "burn as you go method" cheaper to the operator, everything consid- 
ered, and if so, for certain seasons of the year it surely has many advan- 
tages over the piling and burning of brush. — T.T.M. 

A , Tribute to a Superannuated , Pack. Mule; The following was found in a Rainier 
Ranger* s files attached to correspondence relative to the disposition of an 
old mule* 

"Kirk:- Dispatch old Noah to the Green Elysian Pastures beyond the 
River Jordan. There are no burdens there to carry. 

"Some day I, too, shall come to the end of the long trail and shall 
camp on the broad plains beside that mighty stream. Then will I look about 
for the homely frame and honest countenance of this friend of man. Ed." 
A Big Bug Meetin g; A meeting was held in Portland last fall for considering 
ways and means of enlarging the pine beetle investigative work of the Bureau 
of Entomology and for expansion of the pine beetle control operations. In 
addition to representatives of the District office, the following were in at- 
tendance: C. S. Chapman, Western Forestry and Conservation As sociation; J. P. 
Kimball, Klamath Forest Protective Association; J. 0, Howarth of the Klamath 
Indian Reservation; and Messrs. J . M. nailer, J, C. Evenden, ard P. P. Keen 
of the Bureau of Entomology. —A. J, J. 


A, Cautious Visito r: "Can you inform me of any murders that have occurred on 
the 1 Forest reserve or any accidental deaths that are doubtful and cause of 
deaths or accidents not proven and suspicious of murder; also has there been 
any hunting accidents by shooting or any bodily harm and if so was it proven 
accidental or unknown or was harmed person shot by unknown persons or as- 
saulted by unknown persons? Name all cases and if any or all persons were 
black negroes or white whites and cause of trouble. Negroes are hated in the 
South, also bad men of both colors are very common in the thinly settled 
States or woods and settlements of Florida and they boss the v/oods and waters. 
I have had a little experience there and got away with my life only and some 
of these men are rich and some are poor. 

"Can you refer me to any guide in Florida who will inform me about 
these matters and can you refer me to guides you can recommend who you know 
to be honest men and not scoundrels who v/ill lie, cheat, steal, deceive, and 
especially murder campers and hunters? Can you inform me of any place where 
it is safe for a small man to gather Spanish moss alone in the woods?" 


DISPRIJT 7 ( Jo; to ) 

I t is, ~]st im ated th-it 2G t u x, . p ^ppl,; used the White Mountain R)rest for recre- 
ational purposes on Labor Day, September 5, 1922* The National Forest reg- 
ister ior 1921 at Glen 31 lis Rills gives a total of 10,420 people who visited 
the falls during the 1522 season and of course the entire visitation did not 
register. In this record wury represented 41 States, Alaska, Porto Rico and 
14 foreign countries. From May until August 10, 1922, the registration at 
this point was 7,759. Applying the 5-1 ratio used out Y/est this means that 
50,000 or more were visitors at one of at least a dozen equally popular points 
within the White Mountain Forest during this season, 

d istrict 6 - AyysKa. pi strut 

Fo x, f arms :' Present regulations require all for farm permittees in the Alaskan 
forests to post notices in conspicuous places about their islands. The S3rv- 
ice furnishes a neatly printed cloth sign for this purpose Without cost to 
•the permittee. Islands under permit for fox raising range . in size from a few 
'acres to as much as 10 ,000 acres or more. With theso signs posted at all pos- 
sible landing places it will eliminate the pos sibility .of trespassers spring- 
ing the time-worn alibi that they did not know the island was occupied as a 
fox ranch. 

This industry has grown by leaps and bounds on the coast of Alaska 
the past few years. All the suitable island's on the Chugach are now occupied, 
and applications continue to reach the office in almost every mail. If any 
of the Forests in the States have a few odd islands that they don't know what 
to do with, the Ohugach can make good use of them. 

All islands are being appraised this year, and before another season 
a new rental schedule will probably be put into effect. — L.O.Pratt. 


Defaced it stands'. I do not know your name, 

Who - peeled this birch-bark tree, but ah, the shame'. 

You wanted on a bit of bark to send 

A maudlin little message to a friend? 

To make a napkin ring, or some such trash? 

ji.nd so with pocketknife you nedds must gash 

A ghastly wound, aijd peel a birch-bark tree. 

Out of my thoughts , oh you, who e'^r you bet 

— Llargaret Clarke Russell. 


Vol. VII, No. 10. Washington, D. 0. Earch 5, 1923. 

PO HEStn 4 N £ OUR LAO P |0 ItS M 
By Henry C. T/allace, Secretary of Agriculture 

American agriculture has received a terrific jolt during the 
past four years. Changes both at home and abroad brought about by the 
war and by economic developments since the war make it necessary for ■<.. 
us to resurvey our agriculture. Those of us who are living pretty 
close to the farmer and his problems during these trying times have 
become convinced that the expansion of cultivated land in the United 
States is due for a slowing up, that tillage will have to be contracted 
on a lot of the poor land along the margin of successful farming, and 
that for some time to come American agriculture will tend to concentrate 
oapital and labor upon the best soils and in the regions most favorably 
located in relation to the principal food markets. We must find a profit- 
able crop which can be grown cheaply, with little labor, on land which 
the plow will pass up. On much land of this kind Nature is ready with 
the oro'p - timber; and the needs of the day are ready with the market. 

Long before the great war reset the stage on which the American 
farmer must play his role, the necessity for plan-wise growing of timber 
as a staple crop was very clear. An enormous acreage of logged-off land 
had piled up on which there was not the remotest prospect of cultivation. 
It is still piling up at the rate of four or five million acres a year. 
The abandonment of plow land in a good many States was throwing other 
millions of acres out of employment and partially depopulating the re- 
gions which contained it. The pasture pine in New Tingland and the old- 
field pine of the South bear testimony to the reversion of large areas 
of plow land to the chance forest sowings of Nature. In the decade 
between the last two census years the area under cultivation decreased 
in 19 States. New England lost 32,000 farms with a shrinkage in improved 
farm land of 1,140,000 acres. New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania 
lost 43,230 farms. The old order of land use was changing and is still 
changing in many of the densely populated States of the Hast. A new 
order of land use must take its place. The realignment of agriculture 
forced upon us by the great war will give it tremendous impetus. I can 
conceive of nothing more important than an intelligent coordination of 
rural effort that will afford profitable crops for lands which can not 
economically be tilled. 

And just as the land economist was wrinkling his brow over this 
problem came the national need for timber knocking at the door, indeed 
bursting right through it. While the old order in American farming, 
under which men reached out constantly for more raw land, has changed 
into a new order which impels contraction, our national timber supply has 
been silently and steadily disappearing. One forest region after another 
has been swept over. The average carload of lumber has had to be hauled 
farther and farther from the sawmill which made it to the farmer or city 
man who put it into his home. Last year, I believe, the country hauled 
something over two million carloads of lumber an average of 485 miles 
and paid C 275,000,000 in lumber freight bills. 

foi reSTUT A ND OU R LAUD gPXBLZM (Cont. ) 

And meantime our dependence, as a people, upon our forests has in- 
creased enormously. We use five times as much forest-grown paper per 
capita now as we did 30 or 40 years ago. V/e manufacture half of all the 
lumber produced in the world and use 95 per cent of what we manufacture 
right here at home. American factories make more things out of wood than 
the factories of all the rest of the world combined and use more wood 
between them than the factories of all the rest of the world put together. 
Zvery year our keen business men and scientists discover how to make new 
things from wood to supply human needs. Our national life and commercial 
supremacy have been built up upon the liberal use of forests - and our 
forests are rapidly disappearing. 

The answer is so plain that he who runs may read it. Here are two 
big birds of ill omen to be killed by one stone. V/e can put our unplowed 
acres to work grov/ing a profitable crop for which there is no glutted 
market; repopulate our deserted forest regions and abandoned farm dis- 
tricts; give both the earth and the people something to do; and meet the 
impending shortage of forest products by growing v/ood, east, west, north, 
and south, as part of a rational scheme of land use, with somewhat the 
same intelligence and skill that we put into the growing of cereals and 
fruit. National reforestation should command the interest and support of 
every thinking American citizen. (To be continued. ) 

By S. 3. Clapp, Washington 

For the 10 fiscal years 1911 to 1920, inclusive, the average value 
of timber cut in commercial sales was between $2 per M and $2.25 per M. 
The fluctuations were narrow, with low points in 1914 and 1917 of $2.05 
'and $2.11, respectively, and high points of $2.25 in 1911, $2.16 in 1916, 
and $2.24 in 1920. Since 1920, however, there has been a noticeable in- 
crease in the average value of timber cut in commercial sales, culminating 
in a figure of $2.59 per M for the calendar year 1922. To a considerable 
extent this increase is probably due to the very large increase in the 
volume of yellow and sugar pines cut in District 5, but there has also 
been a noticeable stiffening in the price of white pine in District 1 and 
some increase at least in the average price of Douglas fir in District 6, 
as well as of yellow pine in the eastern part of that District. It seems 
doubtful whether the average value of timber cut will go below $2.50 per 
11 in the future, although cutting on large sales of pulpwood in Alaska 
may tend to offset further increases in the average value of timber cut 
on all Forests, or even to cause temporary reductions in the average. 
The cutting of large quantities of low-priced material, such as acidwood 
in District 7, or larch and fir in District 1, would show a similar effect. 


The event of the season, in truth of many seasons both past and 
future, among the Washington aristocracy occurred last Friday evening at 
the King Pin alleys. All the star bowlers of the Nation's capital partic- 
ipated except "Old Rip" himself, Col. Greeley, Nr. Sherman and "PR" Smith, 
foremost members of the Reserve Corps. They were understood to have been 
in Chicago staging a little practice set with Charley Bluin, preparatory 
to the big match set for this week. 

It was worth the price of admission many times over if only to see 
the dignified but agile chief of Grazing, the Hon. Will C. Barnes, cavort 
all over the field. He was particularly expert in playing the corner 
pockets, the only trouble being that said rockets were not located half 
way down the alley. It was a treat to see him heave one off, however, 
because it invariably produced that famous Santa Claus smile and on rare 
occasions a little "pointed remark." But the real treat was his "special 
delivery." He used all of his hands and all of his feet and ail of the 
alleys in starting the ball on its journey, but he surely got a wicked 
curve on it, a regular rainbow curve. 


TM 5Li,:oys BOWL I EG GAI.IE (Cont.) 

Senors Garter and Headley were determined that their colleague 
from the sixth floor "should not run off with all the honors, so they put 
their heads together and staged a few little specialties of their own, 
consisting mainly of throwing the balls behind them. These little gratu- 
ities were like Babe Ruth 1 s home runs in that they were not announced in 
advance. But, on the other hand, they were cleverly sprung as surprises 
on each and. every occasion affording the gallery considerable excitement 
as well as some real good exercise. Senor Headley* s delivery was grace 
divine, in fact more than that, but it pains me to say in this connection 
that it was hinted that perhaps he took a little unfair advantage of the 
others, as his light fantastic hop-skip and jump approach suggested that 
possibly he had concealed his youngster's Pogo stick about his person. 

In fairness, however, it should be recorded that Glapp played second 
fiddle to none of his competitors when it came to purring over graceful, 
rhythmic movements in the performance of his bit. He had a wind-up iden- 
tical to a Roman discus thrower, or perhaps I should say to two discus 
throwers. Every now and then, however, the ball slipped, which explains 
how these comments happened to be written this week instead of next. 

Ebrcross came to the game laboring under the disillusionment that 
bowling alleys were built along the lines of Washington city street alleys, 
but he soon learned otherwise, much to his chagrin. TTot only had the howl- 
ing alley people overlooked installing the usual center drainage system, 
but to the contrary, Norcross alleges that when his turn came to perform 
the alley immediately took on a crown in the center as high as any class A 
road project he ever inspected. Some took exception to Teddy's alibi, con- 
tending that he merely suffered a little attack of stage fright, alley work 
being entirely out of his line. 

Dr. Kneipp performed after his usual highly approved fashion, scoop- 
ing up the grounders and nailing his man on each occasion with deathlike 
precision, but could we properly expect less from the chief Recreation boss? 
He is unquestionably the leading exponent of the greatly developed art of 
bowling in these parts, which is as it should be. That is admitted by 
Kneipp himself, but, to slip you a little inside stuff, it has proven the 
source of intense jealousy in all quarters, and we are now striving desper- 
ately every day in every way to avoid further bloodshed. 

Districts 1 and 6 sent on their emissaries to make absolutely cer- 
tain that nothing was slipped over on them. It was unquestionably a very 
wise move, for no doubt they learned a great deal* They were observed mak- 
ing notes continuously of the especially strong points possessed .by our 
men, which information it is understood they immediately phoned to their 

districts over special wires chartered for the purpose. 


Sick leave slips and liniment have been much in evidence around the 
office since the match occurred. — Ed. • 


Supervisor Y/inn of District 5 sends us this: "During the Rangers' 
meeting held in the office this week, we were very much surprised to find 
that due to a great overturn in personnel during the past year and a half, 
not one of the field force was a member of the Government Employees' Re- 
lief Association. The matter was therefore called, to their attention, 
with a result that five out of the seven made their applications, which are 
enclosed herewith* It is my understanding that one may put in a claim, for 
the $1,1,0 initiation fee on each application, but this is not desired, and 
in case it has to be refunded to anyone, it should be to the applicant him- 
self. This has not been requested, nor is it expected by any, A personal 
check of each applicant is enclosed herewith, I wish to state further 
that we have three members of the Gila force still to work on. If you see 
fit, you may send a blank application and financial statement and such 
literature as you may have in stock to the following: V/m. Gox, Silver 
City, N. Mex. • G. H. Gurrie, Buckhorn, N. lex*; Henry Woodrow, Giiff, 
N. Hex." 



By C, G. Smith 

Boston Common was set apart in 1634 as a "place for a trayning 
field and the feeding of cattel." 

The stockmen were on the job early, as this occurred four years aft- 
er the founding of the town and two years prior to a resolution passed by 
the town overseers relating to building restrictions, streets, "and for 
the more comely and commodious ordering of them." 

The next reference,- furnished by Mr. Rachford,- is found in 
Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, Volume 4, Page 98, in respect 
to the settlement of the valley of the Connecticut River in 1636, and that 
for 75 years cattle were kept in a common herd, cared for by herdsmen and 
paid for jointly in proportion to the amount of stock cared for. 

The Acting Forester pro tern had a touch of the grippe and made us 
cut out large chunks of Bulletin dope. We had to hunt new stuff, which 
ain't so easy to do these days. This teaches us that we must always be 
patient with our Superiors. — Lightnin' Liz (SNT) 

By Roy Headley, Y/ashington 

The following figures result from an analysis of Ranger diaries 
made during the fall of 192<s. The number of diaries varies from three in 
District 5 to eight in District 1* 

Average total days Average total days on 

on administration effective field work 

District and fire in field including improvement 

4 132 172 
2 112 140 
1 101 119 

5 97 151 

6 55 154 

Average total days 
on headquarters, 

headquarters im- Average total days 

District provement and office on offioe only 






Beating the RR's: A rate of 30 cents per hundred or $.942 per mile was 
recently quoted on telephone wire by a number of shipping concerns for 
coast to coast transportation through the Panama Caral. It is probable 
that the telephone wire for Districts 5 and 6, and possibly that for Dis- 
trict 1, for 1924 fiscal year requirements, will be shipped by water from 
some eastern point. — E.W.K. 

"the Forestry Service 
A Musical Aspirant : /Dear Sirr i am writting to You at Your address in the 
Sunday school Paper stating that You wanted a good Cook and a Vioelien 
Player and a Guitar Player i believo i can do Your Job alwright so i 
thought i would write to You about Your work so i will close my letter 
hoping to hear from You Soon from" 

Cii mbine: Jhipmunks; Having disposed of the Mountain Lion subject, let's 
tackle the humble but lively Chipmunk. There has always been discussion 
as to whether this little animal climbs trees. 

Washington note s ( Cont . ) 

Climbing Chipmunks (Cont.) 

In his annual grazing report the Supervisor of the Montezuma National 
Forest says they do. He saw them climb trees in four separate instances. — 

T he , For est er's Re p ort : "Thank you very much for your thought fulness in send- 
ing me this report. I was greatly interested in the sections dealing v/ith 
Alaska, and I believe that the declarations made therein were very acceptable 
to most Alaskans. I know they were to me." — B. D. Stewart, Super. Mining 
3ng. , Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Mines. 


K eeping th e Turp enti ne, Ind ustry, in the United States ; A deal to use for five 
years 2,000 trees of second growth longleaf and slash pine for naval stores 
experimentation, just closed by the Southern Sorest Experiment Station, is 
an important step in our experiments to improve turpentining methods in order 
that we may continue the productions of such supplies as turpentine and rosin. 
If we don't get results it is certain that within a few years we will cease 
to produce 70 per cent of the world supply, as we do now, and we will have 
to depend on other countries for these products. From work done by Austin 
Cary, Miss Gerry, and others, we know that young pines can be used success- 
fully, but just how they can be worked to best advantage mus t be learned 
through further experiments. That the French, who turned a barren into a 
forest, are alive to these opportunities is indicated by a recent letter 
from a prominent French engineer; 

"As you know, the southwest part of France is as to forestry the most 
interesting of our country which is not rich with forest. In this region, 
we have more than 1 million hectares (2,471,000=acres ) covered with pines 
containing large quantities of resin. 

"These pine plantations have the advantage to be in very flat country 
and to be generally cut down methodically. 

"Actually big capitals are joined in order to set up a large mill to 
farm Landes pine, but a question rises. Shall we handle this wood to obtain 
only paper pulp and use in this case soda sulphate process v/ith recovery of 
soda, rosin, turpentine from liquors? Shall we, on the contrary, try to ob- 
tain from wood by distillation or other process, all products it contains, 
and esteem pulp as sub product of this industry? 

"I think that in your laboratories they studied all these cases, and 
I should feel very much obliged if you send me all documentation you may ob- 
tain on the subject." 


forestry , Associa tion:At the annual meeting of the Colorado Forestry Associa- 
tion held in Denver in January, a number of very significant resolutions 
were passed which point the way to a year of real accomplishment. A commit- 
tee was appointed to take up with the American Forestry Association the possi- 
bility of closer cooperation, and, if possible, actual affiliation of the two 
organizations. Closer sympathy with the welfare of the State Fish & Game 
Association was evidenced and resolutions were passed indorsing both the gen- 
eral work of the State Game Association as well as the present game refuge 
program in which the Game Association is interested. Among other resolutions 
passed were those favoring bills at present before the Colorado legislature 
with regard to the duty of sheriffs in fire fighting and the responsibility 
of the State in defraying expenses thus incurred, and with regard to the de- 
facement or removal of fire signs posted either by the State or Federal For- 
est Service. 

One of the most significant resolutions passed during the whole even- 
ing was one favoring the removal of the State Forester's office from Ft. 
Collins to Denver, where this office could function more as a State Forester's 
office and less as an office of instruction, as it does at the present tims, 
in connection with the Colorado Agricultural College, Such a change as this 


DISTRICT 2 (Cont. ) 

Forestry Associa t ion ( Cont. ) 

would be a decided step forward for forestry in Colorado and make possible 
a much closer and more effective cooperation between the State department 
and the Federal Forest Service, 

p -2 Welcome s Smith Riley; Forest Supervisors of D-2 have had the pleasure 
of renewing acquaintance with Smith Riley, who has been in attendance at 
all the sessions, representing the Biological Survey and the particular 
interests of wild life. 


Bid s; Do bids pay? We say they do. A voucher accompanied by five bids has 
been received from the Sitgreaves National Forest to cover the construction 
of a drift fence. The lowest bid of $92 . 00 a mile was accepted. The other 
four bids were, per mile, £95.00, 1 100.00, &120.00 and $ 200.00. It is hoped 
that the lowest bidder does not weaken. 

W hy They Like It : Lumberman (who has visited Iladison Laboratory): 

Experiments show that hydrolysed sawdust makes a really nutritious 

cattle food. Cattle eat it like corn or bran. 

Jbrest Examiner: But what makes it palatable? 

Assistant Silviculturist: Why, the grain of the wood, of course. 

Wood,. and, Post Sale; A five hundred and thirty acre tract estimated to cut 
4,2oO cords of Juniper cordwood and 8,400 fence posts on the Tusayan Forest 
is being advertised. Minimum rates are 50^ per cord and 5$ per post. This 
timber is located on the Verde-Ash Forke Working Circle, where a consider- 
able recovery in the woodland cordwood and juniper post business is being 
made after the serious slump of two or three years ago. 

Still Think of Us : Ex- Forest Service employees retain their interest in 
the Service, as has just been illustrated by receipt in this office of a 
new map of Liberia, based upon surveys by Mr. Lee 0. Daves, who was formerly 
a surveyor in District 3. Mr. Daves is now Chief Engineer of the Liberia 
Boundary Survey, ^he triangulation and plane table work in connection with 
this survey was made by him and the drafting was done during the past sum- 
mer in Washington, D. C, by LSr. W. H. Gill, who was the Chief of Drafting 
in this office a few years ago. 

Forme r. O fficer' s Pictu r e Us ed: A picture showing former Supervisor Hoyt of 
the Sitgreaves and present Clerk IJcClosky locating a fire on the Sitgreaves 
fire map is used to illustrate a very readable article by Will C. Barnes 
entitled "The Girl Behind the Fire Line" in the January issue of American 


Horse R ound -u n: Ranger Stock is to be congratulated on the success of his 
horse round-up. He has made a o lean-up of all the horses on his District 
on the Marion and Dry Creek Association ranges, a total of 212 head of 
horses were gathered, all of which except 5 were turned over to their right- 
ful owners and were mostly G-5 and permitted stuff which had not left the 
Forest at the close of the grazing season. The 5 head will be sold under 
the State lav/. Ranger Stock was fortunate in getting cooperative assist- 
ance. He had a total of 64 riders in the round-up. on the :iarion Division 
alone there were 100 head less horses this year t?ian were gathered last 
year and none against which trespass proceedings will be instituted. These 
round-ups are getting to be popular at Oakley, and are certainly in the 
interests of the Government. The only cost in connection with this round- 
up, which covered something like 120,000 acres, is the expenses ajfl salary 
of the Ranger. It is expected that the 5 horses which will be sold under 
the State law will cover ail costs in connection with their disposal. Ex- 
cellent progress has been made and next year Ranger Stock expects to have 
another such round-up, for it is a help to the community and a help in the 
elimination of trespass after the close of the grazing season. — Jiinidoka. 


DISTRI CT 4 (Cont. ) 

Munic ipal. P ark in Logan Canyon; The plans for the Logan Canyon park are pro- 
gressing favorably, and Hanger L. 0, Smith is to be commended for the work 
he has accomplished. At a recent meeting held at the Chamber of Commerce, 
a number of representative business men were present. Hay or Crockett acted 
as chairman and a careful examination was made of the plans prepared "by Mr, 
Emil Hansen, the landscape architect from the Utah Agricultural College. 
The present plans call for a park of about 10 acres which will be on the 
south side of the road opposite the State Fish Hatchery, and a part of the 
plans will include a lake to be used in connection with the fish hatchery, 
tennis court, band stand, and a considerable area to be used for lawn and 
grouping of 'desirable shade trees and shrubs. It is expected that a 5-inch 
pipe line will be laid from the mouth of Beirdneau Canyon, a distance of 
3 , 50 0 feet, which will furnish ample water for all purposes. — Cache. 


".Far. Pr om, the,. Madding. Crowd"; One of the most interesting and instructive 
motion pictures that has ever been seen around San Francisco was Mr. Donald 
R. Dickey's "Game Trails of the North Woods," recently presented at the Uni- 
versity of California. This was an animated record of wilderness lives, and 
represented the results of ten years' work on the part of the author. The 
scene was laid in New Brunswick, on the headwaters of the Nipisiguit and 
Tobique rivers - "a cosy corner of the unspoiled out-of-doors; a last accessi- 
ble land of game, wit?iout fences or reserves; a land of sparkling little riv- 
ers; a place to invite one's soulc" The scenes taken in this last outpost 
of wild life depict deer, moose, caribou, partridge and snowshoe rabbits in. 
their native haunts, photographed from land and canoe, by sunlight and flare, 
and made doubly realistic by the use of the ultra-speed camera, which showed 
in every detail the wonder and grace of movement of the wild creatures of 
the woods. Perhaps the one outstanding feature of the reels was the giant 
bull moose, seven feet high at the withers and with a spread of horns well 
over 60 inches, which led Mr. Dickey a merry chase for more than three sum- 
mers before he was finally able to photograph this king of the northland in 
the open. To see such pictures is to realize more fully what a tremendous 
asset is the wild life of our National Forests. 

Cooperati on that Counts ; The city of Pasadena has authorized us to expend 
not to exceed $2,500 in the construction of a lookout house and 19 miles of 
telephone line in the Arroyo Seco Canyon. The Los Angeles County Board of 
Flood Control will contribute about $-600 for the purchase of material, and 
when the projects are completed they are to become the property of the Serv- 
ice. 2he city people want the lines for fire protection and the flood con- 
trol people that they may ascertain how hard it is storming in the back coun- 
try so that they may open or shut their flood control reservoirs. — R.H.C. 

Dollars that Brought Result s-. Two or three years ago the Automobile Club of 
Southern California gave us money to develop a public camp in Bouquet Canon 
on the Santa Barbara Forest. That this money was well spent is indicated by 
the figures for last season furnished by Forest Guard Biddison. Between 
April 16 and October 29 there were 2 V 702 automobiles containing 10,800 
people that stopped at this camp on Sundays and the Fourth of July only. 
No count was made on week days. Guard Biddison issued 602 camp fire permits 
to people using this camp. 

The Numb er of People who passed through the Ferry Building, San Francisco 
(in which the Forest Service is located) for the past year was 48,617,601, 
according to figures compiled by J„ K. Bulger, supervising inspector of 
steam vessels. 


Publicity for "Products"; A leading feature article in the magazine section 
of the Tacoma Sunday Ledger recently was devoted to the work of Albert Hermann 
of the Liadison Laboratory and C. V/. Gould of the Portland office of Products, 
who have been conducting a series of experiments in the kiln-drying of Douglas 


DIST R ICT 6 (Gont. ) 

Publicity for "Products" (Gont.) 

fir common at the Tacoma plant of the Wheeler-Osgood Company. The article 
was illustrated by a number of photographs taken by the Ledger staff photog- 
rapher, the photographic layout, together with the accompanying text, making 
a full half-page "spread" in the newspaper. — G. E.G. 

Primary Co ntrol Record for District 6 ; W. B. Brewer, of Maps and Surveys, is 
now occupied in preparing a comprehensive record of all triangulation data 
within the District. This record will be held in over a hundred books, which 
will contain oards fully describing every triangulation station in the Dis- 
trict. When this record is completed, it will be an easy matter to provide, 
at a very short notice, answers to any questions raised with reference to 
the primary control of the District. The record will also be of great value 
as a quick and easy reference in the preparation and compilation of new maps. 
The record is being copied from the originals, which were prepared by the 
Forester's office. 

New Project; The Portland Railway, Light and Power Company is actively en- 
gaged in the development of the Clackamas power project on the Oregon Sorest. 
Twenty miles of broken stone road have been built between Cazadero and Three 
Links Creek. Total expenditures of the company to date are nearly $700,000. 
Clearing for the transmission line will begin at once. The transmission line 
is built first in order to obtain power from existing plants for use in con- 
structing the new plant; the building of a temporary plant for construction 
purposes is thus avoided. 


A 50% Timbe r Estimate ^ Last fall a one hundred per oent cruise was desired 
on an experimental plot of 5.6 acres in Louisiana. Every tree over 12" dbh 
was tallied and volume tables used to get at the stumpage on the ground by 
species. Strips one chain wide were run back and forth. All odd-numbered 
strips were kept separate from all even-numbered strips, thus obtaining two 
5ofo estimates; strips 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 comprising one set and the even- 
numbered strips the other. 

On the whole plot the tally was: 

Loblolly 113 trees 

Shortleaf 40 " 

White oak 57 " 

Lliscellaneous- , 44 " 

All species fi54 " 90,856 11 " 

The error which would have occurred had either 50/o estimate been 
doubled to secure the actual cut on the whole area would have been 4.5/i. 
Using the odd-numbered strips as a basis, we find that loblolly overran 
the average by 4/£, shortleaf by 13/*, miscellaneous by 6/5, and white oak 
underran by 4/». — L.W. 

52,160 bd. ft. 

14,635 »' " 

16,200 " " 

7.660 « " 



U. S. For est Servi ce. 

(Contents Confidential) 


Vol. 711, No. 11, 

Washington, D„- C. 

March 12, 1923. 

By Henry C* Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture 

It would doubtless be best for the country if some law could be 
passed under which forthwith everyone would proceed to grow trees. But 
we know that great economic changes of this kind affecting the habits of 
people in the use of their land necessarily move slowly. It can not be 
accomplished in a year or by any single piece of legislation. 

As such things go in the attitude of nations toward their natural 
resources, we have already moved pretty rapidly. It was only about 30 
years ago that the first National Forests were created. It was only 25 
years ago that the first ideas on the protection and management of pub- 
lic forests was written on our statute books. It was only II years ago 
that we started to buy forest lands for t3ae protection of navigable 
streams. Within the last dozen years 15 States have enacted laws dealing 
with the protection and regrowth of their forests and the area of private 
forest land receiving some sort of protection has increased from 61 
million to 166 million acres. The country is taking its forest problem 
seriously and ground has been gained pretty rapidly. Nevertheless, be- 
yond any question, the time has come for another step forward. We still 
have a long way to go in evening things up with our forests » As long as 
we are cutting them down at the rate of 5u cubic feet per acre every year, 
while something less than 15 cubic feet is being grown, as long as our 
private forest land, one- fourth of the soil of the country, is largely 
threatened with idleness, we are headed for disaster. 

The final answer to all these questions doubtless will require 
rather far-reaching legislation under which the care given to forest lands 
and the regrowing of timber upon them will be under a measure of public 
control. I doubt, however, if this answer can be written until the peo- 
ple have been more thoroughly educated on these questions and have 
thought them out to a more mature and more generally accepted conclusion. 
Meanwhile, we should lose no time in going right ahead with the obvious 
things that should be done. We can write another chapter in the national 
forestry policy of the United States right now along the lines of what 
has been well tested and found good. This will not be the last chapter, 
but it will represent real progress. 

The first thing which it seems to me the Federal Government should 
do is to consider its own opportunities. It is illogical, not to say ab- 
surd, for the nation to be buying forest lands in order that they may grow 
timber, and for the nation to be preaching reforestation to private land- 
owners, while at the same time failing to protect and conserve the forest 
growth on large areas of land which it owns itself. The logical expan- 
sion of the National Forests to embrace all of the lands in Federal owner- 
ship most useful for timber growing or water conservation was blocked 
several years ago by opposing interests and statutory limitations. There 

10 RES TRY AND CUR LAND PxfrBL3LM ( Cone luded ) 

are at least eight million acres of such lands in the continental United 
States, besides an enormous area in the interior of Alaska. There are 
large areas of timberland in Indian reservations which are now well man- 
aged, but will ultimately be liquidated as tribal properties are opened 
up for general disposition. There are considerable areas of forest- 
growing land in military and naval reservations, which should produce 
continuous and well-grown crops of timber, while at the same time serv- 
ing the purposes of national defense for which they were established. 
A policy means an established principle which toverns action. It ought 
to he an established principle in the United States that all lands which 
the nation itself owns or controls and which will render their greatest 
service in growing timber or conserving streamflow shoiiid, after this 
fact has been authoritatively ascertained, be incorporated in the Nation- 
al Jbrest system. 

A second line of development which has already been well tested 
is the extension of the National Jbrssts by purchase on the watersheds 
of navigable streams. It has been a great revelation 'to me, in my 18 
months as a member of the National forest Reservation Commission, to 
see what a valuable public property has been built up during the eleven 
years since the passage of the 7eeks law, and to learn in hov: many ways 
these purchased lands are helping to work out the forest problem of the 
country* And it has also shocked ma to find out that the denudation of 
forest lands is going on seven times as fast as public forest ownership 
is being extended. While the national government and the States and 
municipalities, all combined, have been acquiring about 10 million acres 
of public forests or forest parks, 69 million acres of timberland have 
been cut over and to a large extent denuded and fire swept. 

Obviously, the national government can not acquire all of the for- 
est land in the country nor any considerable part of it* Obvicv.sly, for- 
estry practice must .reach and grip the private timber owner. Neverthe- 
less, the creation of more National forests on key areas is a mighty 
sound and helpful thing. Ey key areas I mean limited tracts where federal 
ownership will be of special value in protecting stream sources t g; owing 
timber, and giving the local people a practical demonstration of fire pro- 
tection and good forest management. I would like to see National Jbrests 
in all of the forest regions of the last such as we have now in all of 
the forest regions of the 7est. Sach of them would become an educational 
center of the highest value. Around, each of them would grow up coopera- 
tive arrangements with landowners for forest protection, practical ex- 
amples of growing and harvesting timber, the inculcation of the forestry 
idea. Practically every nation of 3urope has built up its; forest policy 
around a core of publicly owned forests; and the United States should 
profit by their experience. Y/e ought to lay out a program or' fr rest 
acquisition, adjusted to the resources of the Treasury, lender which this 
work can go forward steadily without the yearly peril of interruption. 
And we ought to encourage States and municipalities to do the same thing. 

by Col. V/. B. Greeley 

5brest fires are hard to pin down to facts. But in "jbrest ?lres 
in California, 1911-1920: An Analytical Study, "Show and Kotok have pinned 
down a decade of fires and made them tell some mighty interesting and valu- 
able things. They have taken the records of over 10,001/ fires, classified 
them, analyzed them, and drawn forth some lessons wa must take to heart. 
The job justifies our belief in the permanent value of individual fire 
records and of their careful analysis. And the methods used in this study 
are applicable not only to California, but to all other regions. 

This bulletin is being sent to every man in the Service and I want 
every man in the Service to read and study it. It diagnoses a lot of our 
fire troubles with precision. It shows every Supervisor, Ranger, and ?ire 
Chief how to diagnose his fire troubles. It shows that fires of different 
origins have different characteristics and demand different kinds of treat- 
ment. It carefully classifies areas of hazard from different causes. It 
kills the "let-burn" theory and properly emphasizes damage as a major 



element of real cost. It clearly brings out that we must at all costs 
keep Class 0 fires to a low percentage of the total number. Here enters 
our old friend "elapsed time:" slowness in getting to fires, coupled with 
incorrect or indeterminate policy; is one" Vf the chief causes of bad fires. 
The other chief cause is lack of elasticity of organization to meet a bad 

I merely touch on a few high lights of this study. It is one of 
those bulletins that come : f'rom time^to time that ought to be deeply pondered 
by the entire Service, and I want to ask supervising officers to make sure 
that this is done. 

by Theo. Shoemaker, B-l 

Word arrives that the Idaho forestry bill failed of passage. How- 
ever, much good is bound to come from the effort. "The committee which 
framed it held six 2-day meetings, a total of more than 25 sessions. It is 
safe to say that there were nearly a hundred hours of discussion of forestry 
between foresters, lumbermen, stockmen, irrigationis ts , and State officials. 
The discussions were full, free and above board. Cards- were laid face up 
on the table. Facts and conditions, and the evils to be corrected were 
dealt with, and costs and metr-ds were considered, Foresters were continu- 
ally being asked 'for fact's and opinions as to what good forestry practices 
require. Cne hearing was had before the Governor and State Land Board. 
As a means of education and building up interest in forestry, it is doubt- 
ful whether anything is more effective than- to get leading men of all fac- 
tions together for earnest informal discussion. 

Evidently the people of Idaho are not ready for forestry, which means 
they are not informed as to need for it'. : il 3?hey must be educated, and there 
should be consolation in the belief that all the time and thought and energy 
that went into this effort are not really wasted, but will count in the long- 
time program of education that mustJform the foundation of forestry in the 
State. '.**,.. • y- «*•'.••' •' t •••• • 

by Ress Philips, Pike 

In order to correct any erroneous impressions which may have been 
conveyed by Mr. Barnes' article "The Gart before the Horse" in the January 
22 Bulletin, 1 want to explain the difference between the Fish and Game Re- 
port and the Annual Grazing Report as they are compiled on the Pike. The 
former report is cumulative and the 'edition mentioned by Mr. Barnes contains 
all data gathered from 1914 to 1922 inclusive. In justice to Mr. Barnes, 
I want to say that it consists of 84 instead of 54 pages, but some of these 
pages are not yet completed. There are 54 numbered and 3C lettered pages, 
the latter representing the inserts added since the first draft was written. 
It is often necessary to rewrite a few pages in order to bring the report 
up to date, and hew pages for the cumulative tabulations must be added each 
year. However, this is not a big job when compared to the Annual Grazing 

For the Fish and Game report, I have 84 pages of tabulations and 
descriptive matter which show by years the .game census, number of fish fry 
planted, location of plants and results of past work, a brief statement of 
policy to govern future plants, a short cumulative history of extension 
work by the Forest Service, summary of recommendations for changes in game 
laws, name and description of Game Refuges, a list of local sportsmen's 
organizations and clubs, a cumulative list of game law violations and action 
taken, and perhaps other cumulative data in addition to a rather lengthy 
discussion of the habitat of the principle game animals which is the result 
of the experiences and study of the entire force. 

These data are assembled, tabulated and indexed for ready reference 
and comparative purposes, and I can get what I want from them i$v a few min- 
utes. The complete and up to date report is kept in the current files and 
shows progress or the lack of it. 



From 1914 to 1922, inclusive, eight annual grazing reports were sub- 
mitted (parts 1 and 2 for each year except 1918) containing a total of 496 
typewritten pages of descriptive matter and tabulations. These old reports 
are kept in the closed files and it would take days to review them all. 
Even then it is difficult to compare one year with another or to determine 
jus t where we are going. ! ' 

I am not boosting the Pike Fish and Game report. It is not perfect 
by any means and the local force fully recognizes its shortcomings. However, 
isn't the cumulative idea a good one and couldn't it be applied to the annual 
Grazing reports with beneficial results? 



• P 

On spite of the fact that I was born on the state of Iowa, I defy 
you to oall me a barbarian. X have since lived long enough on the civilized 
State of Illinois, on the city of Chicago, and I have spent odd years on 
the University, where at least a small part of my time was spent on English 
classes. Hence I deny your right to criticize and fulminate against the use 
of the word "on" in connection with National Crests. I here affirm and 
shall continue to do so, until my mouth is stopped by death or something, 
that "on" the National Forests . is as good usage as ''on'' the District of 
Columbia or "on" a sv/ivel chair or "on" love or "onciigestion. Onveighing 
against "on" is as oneffectual as trying to get a P. S . man to write "data 
are ." or "someone else' s . " 

Being "on" a National Forest is like being on jail - you feel secure. 
Saying it the other way makes you feel like you were onexorably and onfer- 
nally ontoxicated. 

Unfeelingly yours, 

to a paappsiTiuN 

Rudely turned up by P' s Plough, February 51, 1923. 

If "in" is "on," then up is down, 

And out is in, I ween; 
And upside down is downside up 

And across is in between. 

Over is under, above is below 
And through is round-about; 

Off is on, and upward is down 
And inside of course is out. 

I might keep this up for half a ream 
To make it perfectly clear - 

if I seem to be "off" 1% really "on" 
VTien it comas to "in," old dear. 


Be Careful: "As a servant, organization is excellent; as a master, it marks 
the beginning of the end. 

"Keep organization in its place and do not permit it to check 
progress, originality, or new ideas. "—American Lumberman. 

Th e Uttermost in Sheeplessness; The National Zoo here in V/ashington is pl«JV 
ning to get a few specimens of sheep so the kids hereabouts will know what 
the critters look like. No doubt to many Rangers in the Rocky fountains 
aiocg about ttoutiting time the District of Columbia would seem an ideal aan#rcr 
district, and it is regretted that applications /or a transfer can not be 
acc epted. 



Mr. George H. Lautz . Assistant Chief Engineer, has returned to Washington 
after an extended trip to all Districts. On this trip Mr. Lautz discussed 
all engineering work, particularly maps and surveys, with the District For- 


Assistant Secretary. Pug sley , Vi s its the. Laborat or y ; Assistant Secretary of 
Agriculture Pugsley recently visited Madison and, in spite of insistent 
calls for his attention elsewhere, spent considerable time at the Laboratory. 

P roducing Colored Fl ames: Perhaps some National Forest user may want to at- 
tempt to improve on nature by producing "different colored flames as he burns 
the pine cones in the fireplace of his special use cottage or in his summer 
camp- If this is the case he might be interested in the following list of 
organic salts which could be added to color the flames. 

Sal t Color 

Potassium chloride Violet 

Sodium chloride Yellow 

Strompium chloride Red 

Copper chloride Yellowish green 

Lithium chloride Red 

Other salts such as nitrates or sulphates may be used, although in general 
best results will be obtained with the chlorides. 

Pine cones commonly burn with an illuminous and smoky flame on ac- 
count of the resin which they contain and this might prevent the full effect 
of the colored flames produced by the materials added to them„ For obtain- 
ing colored flames by the addition of various inorganic salts it is also 
necessary that the temperature be fairly high. 

B uilding Requ i rements for Small structure s: In these days of high building 
costs and scarcity o" material, the report of the Building Code Committee 
of the Department of Commerce on small house construction is a valuable 
addition to the builder's library. The first edition of 10,000 copies was 
exhausted in two weeks, and a second edition of 5,000 copies has been ordered. 

John A. Newlin of the Timber Mechanics Section of the Forest Products 
Laboratory was the only Government official on the committee, and most of 
the material on wood construction is the result of Forest Service research. 


Airplane Patrol in Idaho : An experiment in airplane patrol will be carried 
on by the Potlatch Timber Protective Association during the coming season, 
according to an agreement recently made between the association and Mr. 
N. B. Mamer, a commercial flyer of Spokane, V/ashington. 

Mr. Mamer agrees to furnish two new planes, specially designed for 
this particular kind of work, both equipped with radio telephone sending 
sets capable of sending messages at least 100 miles, and a receiving set 
for the landing field. He will furnish pilots, mechanicians, parts, replace- 
ments, gasoline, oil and grease all for $ 950 per month. He agrees to fly 
2-|- hours a day including Sundays and holidays and will put in overtime, when 
called upon to do so, up to five hours a day at the rate of f 11.00 per hour. 

According to the terms of the agreement, other associations and the 
Forest Service will be allowed to participate in the arrangements by fur- 
nishing an observer and by paying Mr. Mamer at the rate of $12.50 an hour. 

The Forest Service does not plan to participate in the arrangement, 
but will watch the experiment with a great deal of interest. 



Supervisors ' Ban quet; As a fitting culmination of the Supervisors* meeting 
in Denver, a banquet was held at the Shirley-Savoy Hotel on Friday evening, 
February 9, at which about 90 members of the Service and wives were present. 
Seven of our more : histrionically inclined Supervisors put on an enjoyable 
entertainment pitppb ri fug 1 to fee a reurion of ex-Supervisors in 1933, after 
the Forest Service h&ef been talcen over by the Department of the Interior 
and all the former Forest officers had resigned ar>d (according to these 
reunioners) gone into new professions ranging from bootlegger to poet, not 
to mention a lean shark* an iVW-.V/i agitator, and an aesthetic dancing 
teacher. Another feature of the evening was the community singing, which, 
although feeble on the part of some, was at least sufficient to make the 
roof of the banquet hall tremble. 

Photogr aphic , Contes t has been held, 12 photographs being sent in from each 
Forest, and first,- s econd and third prizes given under the various headings, 
Conditions, Activities, Scenery and Game* The contest this year showed 
that a greater number of individuals have taken an interest in photographs 
and have won prizes than in any previous year. 

Peridermium Harkn e ssii , Zradication ; In accordance with recommendations made 
by Dr. Hedgcock of the Bureau of Plant Industry, a crew of men has been en- 
gaged this winter in clearing out the Peridermium infection in the Halsey 
plantations on the Nebraska Forest. This consists of removing all branches 
which contain secondary lesions which are apt to develop into fruiting bodies 
next summer. Three vacant statutory ranger positions were temporarily given 
to the Nebraska Forest for use in this work and have been filled by ranger 
eligibles. It is expected that the infected area, which consists of 200 
acres of yellow pine plantation from 5 to 15 years of age, will be thoroughly 
cleaned up prior to the opening of the planting season. 


Colorado River Proje ct: Mr. Herbert Hoover, Chairman of the Colorado River 
Commission, says in an article in the Southwestern Stockman Farmer for 
December 30, that the Colorado River Basin is the greatest single asset of our 
undeveloped national resources. The full use of the Colorado River will 
double the population of the Basin States from Wyoming to Arizona. There 
are J% million acres now under irrigation in this territory, states Mr. 
Hoover, and it is possible to develop a further four million acres, making 
it an agricultural area larger than the State of Maryland. In addition 
there's the possibility of developing four million horsepower of energy, 
which is twice the amount generated in the whole Sierras. He sees an agri- 
cultural expense capable of supporting three million people. D-3 will have 
to hustle to make the timber crops rotate fast enough to furnish lumber for 
the hay barns, corn cribs and residences as well as for the fruit boxes and 
vegetable crates that such a population will demand. That's our job, how- 
ever, at least to the extent that nature has provided the land, and all these 
gigantic figures show there isn't a stick of timber or a blade of grass for 

Rapid Growth on Cut - over Land : In order to determine the effect of cutting 
on diameter growth of trees in the 3ngelmann spruce type on the Carson 
National Forest, increment borings were taken from a number of trees on an 
area cut over ten years ago. The compilations show that the average amount 
of growth during this period was about 0.9 of an inch' It is interesting to 
note that this amount of growth is also about the same in all diameter 
classes, i. e. , from four inches to fourteen inches D.B.H. inclusive. 

Borings taken from trees of the same diameter in the virgin stand show 
only a growth of 0„5 of an inch in the same ten year period - or only about 
one-half as much as the trees on the cut-over area. It is expected that the 
accelerated growth of trees on the cut-over areas will be maintained for at 
least thirty years. In other words, the trees retained will have grown 1,8 
inches in that time. 

Borings taken from trees on cut-over areas in the Douglas Fir and 
Yellow Pine types show similar results in acceleration due to removal of part 
of the stand. 



Saw tooth Progres ses With,. Debarred jj^stgm: Hanger m. Minear, of the Taw- 
tooth Fbrest, reports that the Camas Unit Grazing Association has adopted 
a five-year rotation for baud ling its deferred areas. Their allotment has^ 
been divided into five units, one of which will be deferred each year. This 
association, comprising fifty permittees, is the largest on the Bbrest, and 
grazes some 2,500 head of cattle under one management. The total operating 
costs last season, including herding, salt, and grazing fees, were §1.96 
per head, Losses were lc5S$. The association has an excellent 400-aore 
pasture for gathering beef. Numbered salt grounds are numerous on their 

Age of Bntering the Service; Operation has recently made a little table in 
order to show what the effect would have been if we had had an entrance age 
of 21 to 35 years, as is proposed in the new manual, instead of 21 to 40 
years, as has been the case in the past. There are 47 rangers who entered 
the Service between the ages of 21 and 25, 6o from 26 to 30, 33 from 31 to 
35, and 23 from 36 to 40. in this last 23 there are some of our best rangers 
who could never have been accepted under the proposed new regulation. 

Allotment Conferences; The allotment conferences are over, and every Forest 
headquarters, exceptTthe Kaibab, was visited. At least two members of the 
District visited each Forest except two. 3ighty-one District Hangers and 
seven other Rangers were in attendance. V/e have one hundred and sixty-two 
districts, which means exactly. 50 /o of the District Hangers were in attend- 
ance. Needless to say, the Supervisors were out in full strength. 

The meetings were more than allotment meetings, and in many cases 
became real live ranger meetings. Special attention was given to the rangers' 
job sheets and the way the men are talcing hold of them is gratifying. Quite 
complete discussions of Forest work in all branches was had, as well as the 
work of the District men as seen by the men on the Forests. Information 
secured will be used in formulating job sheets for the District men. 

Sta r Valley R esidents Interested in Forestry ; Forest Assistant Gibson is con- 
ducting a school for certain interested residents of Afton and vicinity. 
Literature pertaining to Forestry will be taken up and studied under Mr. 
Gibson's instruction. 

Mr. Gib non has secured the cooperation of the newspaper of Aft on in 
disseminating Forest Service work and has published one article which appears 
as an editorial in the paper. — Wyoming. 


gatur e in the Discard: Cecil B. deMille, the movie king, has made pictures 
fourteen times in the redwoods, and yet he says that the redwoods of Cali- 
fornia are photographed adequately for the first time in Jeanie Macpherson' s 
'Adam's Rib," which is now being filmed for Paramount. And all because he 
did not go to xhe giant forests, but built his own right in the studio'. 

This forest is said to be one of the real marvels of recent cinema 
construction. It is 112 by 252 feet, the largest set ever built inside a 
studio. It covers over 26,000 square feet. It has a 20u-foot running 
stream with a fall of 16 feet, a pool, a fallen tree and a cave. There are 
45 huge trees, twelve of which are over fifty feet in circumference. Twelve 
thousand ferns were needed and nearly six tons of Oregon moss. It is said 
to have talc en 400 carpenters and plasterers 24 hours a day to make this for- 
est. It cost thousands and thousands of dollars. And it will return thou- 
sands, believe the producers, for it permitted the placing of lights and 
properties in a manner to produce eye-pleasing results where ITature is some- 
times kind to the vision but very, very hard on the more exacting camera lens. 

DeMille himself is convinced that within ten years "going on location" 
will be almost a forgotten phrase. 


PI ST dl J T 5 (Jont.) 

Eldorado. Echoes: Mrs. Anita Baldwin, one of the largest property owners at 
Lake Tahoe on the Eldorado, has made a contract to have a fire line built 
around her entire property, a distance of about nine miles. It will be 
made according to the following specifications: through heavy, mature tim- 
ber, 25 feet in width, with everything cut out under four inches in diameter 
and the ground raked to mineral soil; all trees left trimmed to a height of 
8 feet and all refuse piled and burned. Through the brush areas the line is 
to be 50 feet wide, with the same specifications. The work is to be done 
under the supervision of the Forest officers, and no money is to be paid the 
contractor until the work is accepted by them. 

When Duty Gall s; Hanger J. J t Libeu of the Santa Barbara averaged more than 
14 hours a day for 25 days on Fire Suppression during August last. His 
diary for the last two days of the month carries the significant entry, 
"Sick." And still there are people who like to go into ecstasies over the 
fascinating life of a Forest Hanger'. 


One Way to Find Your Way out of the Woods: A traveling man stopping over 
in Albany gave one of the local force an Indian's idea of proper procedure 
when lost in the woods. 

Said the Indian: "Mebbe- so you get lost in the woods - You walk around 
and around; then you sit down and rest; pretty soon you walk some more, then 
get heap tired; rest again and make little fire and wait long, long time; 
nobody come; then make dam big fire and pretty quick Forest Hanger come and 
get you." — O.C.H. 

M any Spe cies p ut ; The office of Forest Management has just figured up that 
the 211 million feet cut from the National Forests of this district last 
year came from twenty-four different speciese Douglas fir, of course, leads 
the list in the amount cut, comprising 42/ a of the total cut. Western yellow 
pine is second with 30% 9 while western red cedar, western hemlock, Sitka 
spruce, western larch, Port Or ford cedar, and lodgepole pine come in the 
order named with much smaller amounts. The hardwoods,- oak, alder, maple, 
madrone, cot tom/ood, and cascara,- are among those present, but none with 
large amounts. — T . T . M. 

Land .Exchange s: The following number of land exchange applications have 
been received to date: 

Cra ter 

3 Oregon 


Umat il la 



8 Hainier 





1 (Selec- Santiam 





3 tion area ) Siskiyou 

• ■ 1 

Wena tehee 



16 Siuslaw 





2 Snoqualmie 


There are 

, therefore, 85 cases to 


including special For 


acts and under the general exchange law, although a few of these are inter- 
forest and counted twice. Fourteen cases have been rejected by the Dis- 
trict Forester, 

Fourteen cases have been approved and gone to patent, under special 
Forest acts, involving 53,529.86 acres of base and 40,159.49 acres of selec- 
tion. The net National Forest area has been increased 13,37i . 37 acres by 
cases which have either gone to patent or are in the hands of the General 
Land Office for final action. • ' 

of course a large number of inquiries and especially personal calls 
have been received in the District office on the part of owners desiring to 
get the Forest Service attitude on the exchange work. There are apparently 
a great many small timber holders who desire to soleot quickly salable tim- 
ber and convert it into cash. — C.J.B. 


— #h — 


U. S.Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 

1 H 

Vol. VII, No. 12. Washington, D. 0, March 19, 1923. 

g 4 3. 1 S 1 ' -S Y A I 2 0 U 3 LANS PHOBLEM 
By Henry C. Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture 

Among the foolish and' thoughtless wastes to which the American 
people are prone, 1 doubt if there is any more senseless than burning 
up year after year millions of acres of young forest growth, to say 
nothing of the merchantable timber and homes and lives frequently de- 
stroyed. To permit this to continue, with the scarcity of timber now 
so plainly written on the wall and with the known inability of most of 
this land to grow any other crop except timber, would be inconceivable 
national apathy. We have already made a good start. Twenty-six States 
are nov; cooperating with the Federal Government in plan-wise forest pro- 
tection, which covers in a way about half of the privately owned wood- 
lands of the country. We ought to build on this foundation with a Fed- 
eral law which states the policy mere clearly than has yet been done and 
gives the Department of Agriculture a mandate to ask every State which 
contains forest lands to join forces with it. Once forest fires are 
brought down to a point where timber! and insurance becomes feasible, we 
shall have gone far in actually restocking our cut-over lands and in en- 
couraging reforestation as a commercial undertaking. 

There are, of course, other things that ought to be done without 
more waste of time. The national Government ought to expand its facilities 
for research in timber growing and timber use. The time is ripe for inter- 
esting American business in growing wood. The necessity is here for inter- 
esting America business in the most economical and efficient use of wood* 
These practical needs of the situation ought to be met to a fuller degree 
than the public agencies are now able to do. The nation would do well to 
make a special point of encouraging the planting of forest trees. We are 
now planting about 35 million every year - States, landowners, and Nation- 
al Forests, all combined. But this represents less than 40,000 acres, and 
with our enormous accumulation of burned and idle land, that is indeed a 
small drop in a big bucket, I would like to see the Federal Government 
offer financial cooperation to any State in growing and distributing for- 
est-planting material at cost. 

There is an urgent call that we make ourselves a forest-growing 
nation. Our day of timber mining is over. Our idle lands are calling for 
something to grow. Our markets are calling for a larger supply of forest 
products. We can not do everything at once. Here are some specific things 
that we can do, that have been well tested by experience, that will repre- 
sent more ground gained. Perhaps they are still too incomplete to be dig- 
nified by such a term as National Forestry policy. At all events, they 
constitxite to my thinking a workable and attainable program. 

Some people seem to have the notion that the National Forests should 
be administered simply on the theory of disposing of the timber after the 

RjRPSTRY AND oU3 LAi T D PRoBI/fri (Cont.) 

manner in which private forests have been administered. The Department 
looks upon the matter very differently. 3ipe timber should be harvested 
as it is needed, but in such a way that other trees will grow to be har- 
vested in the future. For years our forests were treated as if they be- 
longed to the present generation. Now we see that conservation of our 
forests is one of the greatest of cur national problems. 

by C. G. Bates, Fremont Exp. Station 

During the recent Supervisors' meeting at Denver, there was con- 
siderable discussion of the "salesmanship" and "advertising" necessary 
to d ispose of our National Forest timber, one speaker even went so far 
as to suggest that by proper advertising a demand for such timber could 
be "created" which would not otherwise exist, just as a demand for chew- 
ing gum has been created by national advertising, for which no real need 

Is not this going too far, and is not any salesmanship or advertis- 
ing of National forest timber which will increase, by a single board, the 
present consumption of timber a direct flying- in- the- face of the facts we 
are constantly preaching? 

In a recent meeting of the Service Committee, Mr. Smith made a 
statement which is quite well known to all of us but evidently will bear 
constant repetition, namely, that while forestry propaganda, successful 
fire prevention and other natural factors have given us a good start on 
the production of young growth, there is bound to be a wide gap between 
the time when this growth will be a factor in lumber production and the 
time when existing stands of virgin timber are essentially exhausted. Is 
there any way in which this gap can be bridged except by reducing the 
present rate of cutting and consumption? Of course there is not. How can 
the Government reduce the present rate of consumption? obviously, the best 
way would be to put all the forests of the country on a sustained-yield 
cutting budget, both as a whole and regionally. The day when this can be 
done is, I fear, far off, and action will not be possible soon enough to 
prevent a large degree of famine. A second possibility is by price fix- 
ing or price raising. The former is much to be preferred because it al- 
lows an equilibrium to establish itself, while any price fixing is certain 
to create inequalities. But suppose, for example, that the Forest Service 
should decide at one stroke to double its present stumpage prices. Pri- 
vate timber owners wtiuld at once realize the coming speculative value of 
their holdings and would do likewise. The immediate increase of several 
dollars per thousand in the price of manufactured lumber could not act as 
other than a deterrent on all lumber uses. Such an increase, however, 
would not materially affect National Forest sales, since the larger margin 
of profit would make merchantable much of our timber now considered inac- 
cessible. This arbitrary act, however, we fear would meet with much objec- 

Let us now consider the third possibility, saving our National For- 
est timber for that rainy day not far off. Granted that much of this tim- 
ber is ripe for the ax, are we not justified in saving it until its value 
to the people of the United States has doubled or trebled? Who is going 
to have any appreciable amount of timber to sell twenty years hence, if 
not the Government? Look at the following hypothetical case which will 
represent, it is believed, a fair average of National Forest growth facts: 
assume a rotation of 160 years; assume, generously, that the stand left 
after cutting will double the average growth rate of the virgin forest, 
which is Ir^/o per year» 

I f Saved I f Cut Now 

Present stand, BM per acre . . . 30,000 ft. 30,000 ft. 

Cut now, 6u/£ 0 18,000 " 

Value to-day, £.3 per M 0 $54.00 

Left as growing stock ..... 250,000 ft. 12,000 ft. 

Added growth in 2o years , 

2-§-/£ increase per year . . . . 10. 6 ,0 30 ft . 

Available to cut in 2b years . . 18,bOL ft. 6,0uo ft. 

Value, at $6 pep M $108 $36 

Total value $180 $90 



The idea which should be emphasized is that we are constantly de- 
luding ourselves as to the time when a second cut can be had, equal to 
the first. If we eat the cake now, we shall certainly have nothing but 
crumbs twenty years hence. Why make the silvicultural sacrifices we are 
constantly making in order to keep up our cut now? A glance at the fig- 
ures above will show that to keep our virgin stands even approximately 
intact, to yield a full return 20 years hence, the present cut should 
not reduce the growing stock more than 33/o. To impose this restriction, 
alone, would go far toward accomplishing all of our objectives. 

by Geo. B. Sudworth, Washington 

The Monterey Cypress (Cupress us macrocar pa) , a relative of the Old 
World Cypress tree (G. sempervirens ) of the Egyptians and Romans, is one 
of several other California conifers that grow naturally over very lim- 
ited areas. The range of Monterey Cypress is confined to about two miles 
of California coast south of Monterey Bay, in a belt about 200 yards wide 
extending from Cypress Point to Point Lobos. There seems to be no evi- 
dence that it ever occupied- a larger range, although various conjectures 
are extant that it once grew in a wider coastal belt, part ox which is now 
submerged. It does not appear that it is in irrminent danger of soon dis- 
appearing from its rocky and sandy habitat, for it is constantly .reproduc- 
ing itself from seed. Moreover, the tree is extensively cultivated in 
the Pacific Coast from Washington to Lower California, while i ! t is a famil- 
iar ornamental in European gardens, in mild climates of South America and 
in Australia and New Zealand. Its ability to thrive away from the coast 
and at elevations up to 2,0l0 feet was tested nearly 20 years ago in the 
San Bernardino Mountains by T. P. Lukens of Pasadena. 

The longevity of this cypress has been long a matter of conjecture, 
with but little opportunity of determining the age of large trees, which 
are from 50 to 70 feet in height and from 3 to sometimes 6 feet in diameter. 
Fortunately, last year the long-looked for opportunity came of learning 
something definite about the age of these trees through Mr. E. L. Guppy 
of Pacific Grove, Monterey Co., California. The severe coastal storm of 
1917 uprooted a number of medium and large-sized trees in the Cypress Point 
grove. As the trunks were being sawed into sections Mr. Guppy counted the 
stump rings of three trees which, respectively showed ages of 200, 250, and 
30 0 years, the oldest tree having a trunk diameter of nearly 6 feet. 
Strangely enough, however, two other trees of unusually straight thrifty 
growth showed respectively only 50 rings for a stump diameter of 2 feet, 
and 75 rings for a diameter of 3 feet. Evidently the Monterey Cypress 
grows very rapidly in easily permeable soil, the situations occupied by 
the latter trees, and much more slowly in rocky situations, the. sites occu- 
pied by the older trees cited. 


R ecla s sification; The long deferred reclassification of Government employ- 
ees was finally enacted into law in the last hours of the- session of Con- 
gress just closed. Much to the disappointment of the great body of em- 
ployees whose compensation would be directly affected thereby, the salary 
schedules established by the Act will not become effective until July 1, 
1924. The reclassification embodied in the Act applies only to civilian 
employees in the executive departments and independent establishments in 
the District of Columbia, but the personnel classification board, con- 
sisting of representatives of the Bureau of the Budget, the Civil Service 
Commission, and the Bureau of Efficiency, is required to make a survey of 
the field services and report to Congress at its next regular session 
schedules of positions, grades, and salaries for such services which shall 
follow the principles and rules of the compensation schedules now provided 
in so far as these are applicable to the field services. This report is 
to include a list prepared by the head of each Department, after consulta- 
tion with the board and in accordance with a uniform procedure prescribed 
by it, allocating all field positions in his Department to their approxi- 
mate grades in the schedules and fixing the proposed rate of compensation 
of each employee thereunder in accordance with the rules laid down in the 
Act . 



R eclassification ( Cont . ) 

The classification board organized immediately after the passage of 
the Act and is now engaged in working out the procedure necessary to se- 
cure the detailed information from the heads of the Departments upon which 
the Bureau of the Budget will base its estimates of the cost of reclassi- 
fying the field services to be submitted to Congress at its next session. 

Speci a l Wave , Lengths for, th e , .forest Service ; Steps are under way for the 
assignment of a special wave length to the forest Service for its use in 
sending radio messages. The control of such assignment falls to the 
Bureau of Standards under its special regulatory powers in connection with 
radio telephony. — P.D.K. 


L ab. Take s Second Priz e in Win ter Carnival Parade ; Second prize was taken 
by the Laboratory in the v; inter sport3 carnival parade February 8 at Madi- 
son. in this parade were many floats, and 2,o00 people representing the 
various commercial and other interests. On the Laboratory float were two 
logs, both from Alaska, one very large and the other much smaller with a 
placard, "Through research the small log does the work of the larger one." 
Paul Bunyan, carrying a huge ax and mounted on a mettlesome steed, attracted 
much attention, tne small boy was heard to say, "Did he write "Pilgrim's 
Progress?" The eighty men and women representing the Laboratory, in for- 
estry green and white uniforms with the words, " Pores t Products," across 
the front of the caps, were a big feature of the parade, the girls espe- 
cially being responsible for the prize. After the parade, which took place 
at 4« 3o in the afternoon, the Queen of the Carnival was crowned and the spe- 
cial program of skiing, skating, ice-boating ^ and other winter sports began. 

N ew Mexico Vis i tor ; Earl V/, Loveridge, Supervisor of the Carson national 
Pores t, spent two days at the Laboratory on his way home from Washington, 
D. C. 

Januar y. 15 Edition of Technicai,.Np_tes; Of special interest to most foresters 
and laymen in this latest issue of Technical Notes is No, 187, entitled 
"What is Meant by 'Hardwoods' and 'Softwoods.'" How many foresters can 
answer this question? Another popular question is answered by No. 189, 
"Differences Between Heartwood and Sapwood," which gives the distinctions 
between heartwood and sapwood. The results of one of the recent laboratory 
studies is given in note No. 188, entitled "Kiln Drying Douglas Sir Common 
Lumber." Other notes are as follows: 

181. Moisture-Besistant Coatings for Wood. 

182. .Details of Nailing for Common Styles of Boxes. 

183. Metal Straps on Boxes. 

184. Utilization of Blue Stained Lumber. 

185. Action of Water on Zinc Chloride in Wood. 

186. Coatings that Prevent End Checks, 


Pro tection Cos ts .-What is believed to be the highest price ever paid for 
protection of private timber is reported by some of the fire associations 
of northern Idaho this year. As much as 42 cents an acre was paid by 34 
timber owners in the Coeur d'Alene Timber Protecti7e Association. 

In every respect except in the presence of logging operations and 
areas of slash, the fire hazard on adjoining National forests is probably 
greater than on this private land. In most cases the method of handling 
fires is different from that employed by the forest Service, and this differ 
ence makes a comparison of costs for a dry season like 1922 very interesting 
The total expenditure per acre for protection for four associations is given 
opposite the amount per acre expended by the nearest National forest. 


D ISTRICT 1 (Cont.) 

Pro tection Costs (Cont. ) 


per Nat*l Cost per 

A ssn . Acre. Forest A cre 

Pend Oreille 11^ Pend Oreille 5.6^ 

Coeur d'Alene 42^ Coeur d'Alene 8.1^ 

Potlatch 26$! St. Joe 11.6^ 

Clearwater 8^ Clearwater 9.1^ 

The protection of 1,465,000 acres of private land cost $350,000, 
while for 2,680,000 acres of National Forest adjoining these areas the 
Forest Service spent for protection only $227,000. 

The protection plans of the Clearwater Assn. are quite similar to 
those of the National Forests, which may or may not account for its favor- 
able record. 

In results obtained, the difference is also in favor of the National 

Forests, as is shown in the following comparison: 


4 Nat'l 

1, Cost of protection per 1,000 acres protected 

: $231 ■ 


2. Area burned over per 1,000 A. 

. 26 A* 

; 5 A/ 

3, M.B.F. merchantable timber dest, per 1,000 A. 

. 108 11 « 

18 M 

4. Damage done per 1,000 acres 


i $51 


The Ann ua l Pla nti ng Report for D-2, which was submitted to the Forester on 
March 1, shows that a total of 4,115 acres was planted during 1922. This 
is the largest area ever planted in this District in a single year, al- 
though the area has been exceeded in the past when large areas of direct 
seeding were being done. 

Among the outstanding features of the year's work, may be mentioned 
the large area planted on the Minnesota Forest - 1,760 acres at an average 
cost of $4.38 per acre. Supervisor Marshall is speeding up the job and 
hopes to complete the reforestation of all denuded areas within the next 
five years. 

On the Nebraska Forest, 947.6 acres were planted at a cost of $21.22 
per acre. The average cost of planting on the Bessey Division, $21.22, was 
$8.03 cheaper than 1921 and $17.36 cheaper than the peak prices of 1920. 
It is expected that the average cost will soon be reduced to $15.00 per 
acre because of more efficient methods and a greatly increased output. 

The report shows that there were 11,297,000 trees on hand in the 
nurseries on December 1 and that 3,986,000 were distributed during the year. 

The total area planted in this District to the end of 1922 was 
27,400 acres. The direct seeding amounts to 25,133 acres, grand total of 
52,533 acres. It was estimated recently that the area of successful planta- 
tions, including all areas half-stocked or better, amounts to 31,617 acres, 
or 60 ,a of the area forested. The area of successful plantations is good 
when one considers the amount of seed that was scattered to the winds years 
ago without any experimental data to indicate that this method of reforesta- 
tion was practicable. The early failures on the Nebraska and other Forests 
also helped to swell the total area of failures. 



Pirst Ari z ona bawmill : According to John A. Johnson, in the TIMB3RMAN, the 
first sawmill of any importance in Arizona was erected in Flagstaff in 1881 
by Mward Ayers. Two years later it was taken over by the Riordan Bros. 
This sawmill is one of the oldest established manufacturing plants of any 
kind in Arizona. The investment in Arizona mills, of which there are thirty- 
one, is estimated at ten million dollars and the value of the yearly out- 
put at slightly less than five million dollars. The Arizona lumber mills 
operate 175 miles of railroad, seven locomotives, and three hundred log 

forestry Missionary : Assistant District .Forester Kircher has probably 
talked forestry to the Brazilian Minister of Agriculture. He stated in a 
letter, written January 20, that such an arrangement was made for the next- 
week. "Brazil is the big reservoir," says Kircher, "from which future 
supplies of lumber will come. Some day a lot of it will reach the United 
States and I'd like to venture the guess that development will be largely 
by American capital. V/hen the time comes I hope that foresters will take 
a prominent part in the development and perpetuation of these wonderful 
resources. Most of the Brazilians realize that there is a great deal to 
be learned from the United States and they are anxious for information." 

Wild Dog s; Last summer one of the boys on the Black Range Crest trail crew 
had his female Airedale in camp, which mated with a police dog. Her owner 
was called on to augment the protective force at Diamond Peak, and when work 
was over he returned home with the Airedale for only a short time before 
going to Hurley to seek work. The Airedale evidently thought he had re- ' 
turned to Diamond Peak and she went there to find him. While there, she 
gave birth to nine puppies, according to Hugh Hodge of the Diamond Bar 
ranch, although one died shortly after birth, as it was found in the den. 
The result was as usual. A mother with eight puppies to feed must have 
something to eat. She naturally did what she knew to be wrong - calf 
killing - and thus evaded man at every turn. Since her puppies have be- 
come larger, their range of territory is widening. Their tracks have keen 
seen seven miles down on either side of the Black Range and, unless already 
captured, hunter Inman, of the Biological Survey, is having his hands full. 
At last reports, Mr. Hodge said it was nearly impossible to trap or to ap- 
proach close enough to shoot these dogs. — Gila. 


" The. Girl Behind , the Firing Line "; Yesterday afternoon a meeting of the 
whole office was held at which Miss Rosalie Ho lb erg read a story by Mr, 
Will C. Barnes, "The Girl Behind the Firing Line," which appeared in the 
last "American Forestry." If you have this magazine around your office, 
be sure and read it; if you don't, you can read the mimeograph reprint 
which we are going to send out soon. This is a great story for clerks and 
stenographers and for forest rangers' wives, too. It shows how these people 
who perhaps are often just about forgotten in the forest Service organiza- 
tion and who are considered as just somebody to handle the routine without 
balling it all up, can really be essential parts of the Fbrest Service ma- 
chine and take a real live interest in the broader work of the Service. 
It is a great, story. We expect all the girls around here to come to work 
with bobbed hair and short skirts and use all kinds of snappy language, 
besides taking a better interest in the essentials of the work of the For- 
est Service after hearing this story read. 

Timber Sa le Business Pickin g Up ; forest Management expects a busy season 
ahead and lots of work in timber sale business. At'the present time there 
is an informal application for 44 million feet on the Payette. On the 
Boise preparations are being made for a 30 million foot sale, while a large 
land exchange i» pending with the Boise Payette Lumber Company. The Targhee 
Forest will have a 62 million foot sale, v/hile on the Manti there is appli- 
cation for about 47 million feet. Inquiries are being received regarding 
the Grays River timber, as well as a flood of inquiries regarding the possi- 
bilities of the Provo River timber amounting to 104 million feet. The 


DISTRICT,^ (Cont. ) 

Timber Sa^L e, Business Picking Up (Cont. ) ; 

promised development of steel business at Springville is stimulating these 
inquiries. The Park City mines have decided to become satisfied with 
native timber and are demanding large amounts from the Wasatch and Uinta 
forests. %e Standard Timber Company is asking us to get ready for an 
application for SO to 100 million feet of timber in the upper Green River 
region for next year. These are the larger operations, but there is also 
a considerable increase in small timber sale business, and a number of 
sales which have been dormant for several years are coming to life again. 
Not so bad for a treeless district. 


F. S. inhibit at Pacific Auto Show: The R>rest Service fire exhibit was 
shown in cooperation with the California State Auto Association at the 
Pacific Automobile Show, San Francisco, in February. The setting con- 
sisted of a raging forest fire shown on a circular painted background, 
with burned stumps and logs and the figure of a ranger with shovel in 
hand in the foreground. The scene is lighted by flashing red lights, 
with flames produced by strips of colored silk agitated by electric fans, 
and smoke made by chemicals, The speotacular exhibit formed the piece de 
resistance in a large room which was converted by the Auto Association into 
an outdoor setting, with painted mountain scenery on the walls, real tree 
trunks and an overhead canopy of green branches. On one wall there was a 
mountain pass with miniature automobiles climbing the different grades; 
another wall showed fertile valley land with mountains in the background, 
while in a corner an auto-camp scene framed in trees added realism. The 
entire layout was conceived by Paul Fair of Pablic Relations, the painting 
done by Frank J. MacKenzie, and the greenery furnished by the officers of 
the Plumas National Forest, who '.vent out into five feet of snow to secure 
the trees and branches which added so materially to the attractiveness of 
the exhibit, A tally of visitors, made daily, showed that over 45,010 
people viewed this exhibit during the week of the Auto Show. 

A rbor lav: California Tree Planting Week was celebrated March 4-10 and 
Arbor Day on March 7. The latter was first observed in this State on Novem- 
ber 27, 1886, and has been held annually ever since, the date having been 
changed by the State legislature in 1915 to coincide with Luther Burbank 1 s 
birthday. The history of this celebration is rather interesting, running 
as follows: 1,500 years ago, in a little Swiss village, the decision was 
reached to plant an oak grove on the common and a special day set aside 
for the work, in which everyone in the town took part. In the evening 
there was a festival for the grown folks and a wheaten bun was given each 
child. The State of Nebraska was the leader of Arbor Day observance in 
America through the efforts of former Secretary of Agriculture J. Sterling 
Morton, who in 1872 suggested to the Governor that a day be set aside for 
the systematic planting of trees. 


F rom t he m Seattl e L ab . Mr • Zimmerman is working on a report covering strength 
tests of various species of telephone poles. The report will cover tests of 
fifteen groups of poles running fifteen and twenty to the group. Strength 
data covering the following will be shown: western red cedar from Idaho, 
Washington, Oregon, and Montana; northern white cedar from Minnesota; lodge- 
pole pine from Colorado, Montana, and California; western hemlock and Doug- 
las fir from Washington, and 3ngelmann spruce from Colorado, Comparative 
strength data will also be shown for tests made by the Forest Service stand- 
ard method of testing telephone poles and the method formerly employed by 
the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company, 


DIST RICT 6 ( Cont. ) 

A Going Hound : A. man who was employed as a Hanger upon the Colville several 
years ago was called on to run the lines of a homestead claim on unsurveyed 
land. When asked later how he did it, with utter frankness, replied: "I 
surveyed the claim by leaps and bounds." Also the following was reportad 
by the same scholar when seed collecting was being carried on in this Pur- 
est, "I have now collected twelve sacks of pine combs." 

Valuable Contacts : Supervisor Weigle of the Snoqualmie will take a prominent 
part in affairs of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce for 1923. He has been 
elected chairman of the Committee on Mountains and is also a member of two 
other committees - Tours, and Smoke Nuisance. 


Return ing the Favor: In 1907 the New York Zoological Gardens sent out to 
the Wichita Game Preserve 15 head of buffalo, representing four distinct 
strains. Under the favorable conditions existing on the Oklahoma preserve, 
the buffalo have thrived and the hard has been increased to 145 head, in- 
cluding 39 which have been given away to various outside agencies. On the 
other hand, in this period of 16 years the New York Zoo herd has steadily 
declined, one contributing factor being that the 15 head sent to the Wichita 
were probably the very best of the herd at that time. In addition, the Zoo 
has furnished excellent specimens to various other herds on different occa- 
sions. Some time ago the Zoo imported a number of buffalo from the Yellow- 
stone Park hard, but these encountered difficulties in acclimatization and 
the importation was not successful. As a result, the Zoo is now requesting 
the fbrest Service to supply it with breeding stock from cur Wichita herd 
and two bulls and four cows will be furnished this spring. 

National Imprest Examiner C . B. Brereton . who has been in charge of Law En- 
forcement in this District for the past three years, is now in Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, having been detailed for some time to the Arkansas Forest on ac- 
count of the incendiary situation there. Instructions from District Tor- 
es ter Heed state that he wants the fire situation in the South looked over 
and a report made to him in order that plans to introduce Law Enforcement 
in District 7 may be made prior to the fire season, 



U. S. Tor est Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 

Vol. VII, No, 13. Washington, D. G. March 26, 1923. 

WHAT JfrfiEST HAD \TS S LARGEST 'glMBSH ;flt;CES:. 1 M8y. HY3_lSA33L 

By Sc U, Cartel*, Washington 

If the business is measured by receipts, the Coeur d'Alene leads 
all the rest* If the yardstick is volume cut - Wrong! It is the Tongass. 
Standing seventh in total timber sale receipts for the five fiscal years 

1916- 1922, inclusive, it leads all Bbrests in volume cut for the period 

1917- 1921, with a reported cut of 196,000 M for the period. The 1922 
figures ar 3 not yet available. And now comes a report from Juneau saying 
that "The outlook for timber sale business this season is better than ever 

The Tongass has not waited for the development of its certain pulp 
and paper industry to do business. Sawtirnber and piling are sold in quan- 
tity, for use chiefly in the fish industry. That industry has recovered 
from its depression, and this spring is demanding a lot of piling to re- 
build its fish traps, and has loaded the local sawmills with orders for 
bo::es. 3arly starts this season are the result and the cargo export of 
lumber to foreign markets may be dropped, after a good start, to meet 
local needs. 

The srrall pulp mill on Port Snettisham has been running all winter. 
Advertisement of the equivalent of two billion board feet has began, in 
the expectation of the establishment of a large paper mill on Thomas Bay, 
Other projects look more certain than for the past two years, as the ris- 
ing price of pulpwood, pulp and paper in the j]ast make consumers and pro- 
ducers squirm uneasily and consider Alaskan opportunities more seriously. 

Even the shingle people are getting interested, and there is a 
plan for establishing a shingle mill at Ketchikan. This would solve the 
problem of a market for the small percentage of red cedar in the typical 
stand of sawtirnber or pulpwood in the southern part of the Tongass. 

The Big Twelve in timber sale receipts 1918-22 - Coeur d'Alene, 
$ 500 , 20 0; Whitman-Mi nam, 1456,500; Kaniksu-Pend Oreille, $441,375; 
Coconino, $331,800; Plumas, $315,-660? Crater, $296,400; Tongass, §297 , 300; 
Stanislaus, $256,375; Lassen, $253,950; Shasta, $238,900; Medicine Bow, 
$232,200; Arkansas, $204,960. The hyphenated forests hold their places 
if the appendices are dropped. 

By H. N, Wheeler, D-2 

At a recent Commercial Club meeting in Denver, a circus-advertising 
man held forth on ways and means of filling the "big top." The only way 
to get a man to go to a circus is to make him want to - not admittedly, 
to all intents and purposes it's to give the youngsters an outing - naver- 
theless, the only way to get the prospective attendant to see past the 
long street car ride, the dusty walk to the 1st, the jostling crowds, the 
hot, stuffy tent and hard seats, is to make him want to see the show. To 
do this, convincing arguments, reason, logic are less than nothing. But 


in every adult there is a remnant of the 12-year old brain, susceptible 
to the touch of 12-year old methods. After seeing the bright colored 
posters every day for two weeks, we just can't resist. 

Without creating a desire for forests, we can argue and reason 
through eternity, with no more effect than water on the proverbial duck's 
back. But create in the nostrils the perfume of the pines, in the mind's 
eye the joyful sight of forest-clad mountains, season it with a few trout, 
maybe a grouse, or even some big game, and we have an ally. It is not the 
12-year old mind and emotions, but the stone age mentality and instincts 
which, in this case, command the faculties of reason. I;lany of us feel 
that this isn't forestry, neither is designing and tacking up posters 
much of a circus stunt, but it fills the seats. The bell merely swings 
in its tower till there is an ear to hear it - then it rings, 

By Ward Shepard, Washington 

following an insistent public demand, Congress has appropriated 
$50,000 for two new forest experiment stations - one in the Northeast 
(New England and New York), the other in the Lake States. In New England, 
S. T. Dana, formerly of the Jbrest Service and now State Forester of Maine, 
took the lead in the fight for a Federal station. In the Lake States, 
several public service associations did the bulk of the work. Much credit 
is due the American Forestry Association for helping to bring about in 
these regions a wider popular understanding of what forest research is 
and why it plays a necessary part in restoring our forests. This under- 
standing was the basis of the campaign that has now ended in success. 

Steps are already being taken to draw up a sort of "eligible list" 
for the staffs of the two stations. V/e have also asked the opinions of a 
number of competent foresters, university authorities, etc., as to suit- 
able locations for these stations. The plan will be to have, in each 
region, a central headquarters and several substations in the main forest 

One of the outstanding needs in the Northeast is to coordinate the 
forest research under way there, to which will now be added federal re- 
search. In both regions there is a fine chance for leadership, and both 
stations will offer unsurpassed opportunities for foresters who are in- 
terested in silvical research. 

Two more stations have thus been added toward the Department's 
goal of 10 or 12 regional stations for the entire United States. Western 
foresters who are impatient of the slow financial advancement of the west- 
ern stations should remember that these four new eastern stations are the 
result of public understanding of forest research and of the forest prob- 
lem, combined, of course, with anxiety about the shortage of timber in 
the Bast, 

By H. T. Gisborne, 
Priest River Experiment Station 

An Associated Press dispatch recently announced the discovery of a 
method of causing the disappearance and precipitation of clouds by spray- 
ing electrified sand into them from an airplane. This has just been veri- 
fied by an interview in the New York Times by Orville Wright, who wit- 
nessed one of the tests. In cooperation with the Army Air Service, two 
investigators, Dr. Bancroft of Cornell and L. F. 7/arren, have been con- 
ducting experiments at McCook flying field for a year and a half, chiefly 
with the object of removing clouds and fogs over aviation fields, cities 
and harbors. This new development should be of interest to foresters, 
because of the promise it holds of application in fire fighting during 
cloudy but rainless weather. 

In the experiments an airplane was used, carrying about 80 pounds 
of sand, of about 15b mesh, with a wind-driven electric generator operating 
a device for charging the sand with high voltages. The sand was given a 
charge of .0006 electro static units per grain, and was scattered through 



the action of the plane propeller at a height of about 500 feet above the 
tops of the clouds, the plane traveling at ,a ; rate of about 100 miles per 
hour. The time taken to precipitate and destroy the clouds from the period 
of the first attack to the period of disappearance rarely exceeded lb tnin- 
utes,, ' 

Fire studies by the Forest Service have found that a high humidity ■ 
acts very quickly in raising the moisture content of forest floor materials. 
Higher moisture contents in turn mean lower inflammability and greater ease 
of control of a going fire. It very often happens, however, that cloudy 
weather occurs during the time of fighting a large fire, yet the accompany- 
ing high humidity may not be alone sufficient to extinguish or even materi- 
ally kill down the fire front. With the successful application of the new 
process of precipitating the moisture in clouds, it is conceivably possible 
for an airplane to fly over the fire front and cause a measurable precipi- 
tation of moisture from clouds which otherwise might fail to produce rain. 

In the numerous tests at McCook field, the investigators have re- 
peatedly dissipated clouds. These clouds varied in size from several thou- 
sand feet in length and breadth to several miles; in thickness from 500 to 
1,500 feet; in altitude from 2,800 to 10,00o feet, Light, fleecy clouds 
of no great moisture content were dispelled without precipitation reach- 
ing the ground, the moisture being absorbed by the lower, dry air levels. 
These experiments may prove of great' value to the Forest Service when the 
detailed methods have been perfected. So, far as known, this method has not 
yet been tried out with a view of dissipating thunderheads and breaking 
up electrical storms. 

. By The Editor 

Tor the best story oh 'the subject "My Most Exciting Experience as a 
Forest Ranger," American Forestry offers the following prizes: 

First prize - A No. 956 Hamilton Watch in 25-year gold case. 

Second prize - A Winchester Model *94 Carbine, chambered for 32 
special Winchester cartridge. 

Third prize - A Comfort Sleeping Pocket, with air mattress and 

pillow inclosed within a waterproof, felt-lined 
cover. Weight, 12 pounds. 

Fourth prize - Choice of a bait or fly model Bristol Casting Rod. 

All forest gangers employed by the State and Federal services are 
eligible. Rangers should not hesitate to compete because they think they 
can not write. This is not a contest for "fine writing." Select what you 
consider your most exciting experience as a Forest Ranger and tell it - 
on paper - in your own way and in your own language. Manuscripts should 
not exceed 1,200 words. ' 

Forest Rangers' wives are also to have the opportunity of competing 
in this contest. For the best manuscript on "The Forest Ranger's Wife" 
the following prizes are offered: . • , .. . 

First prize - Fifty dollars. 

Second prize - Thirty-five Dollars. 

Third prize - Twenty- five Dollars. 

Fourth prize - Fifteen Dollars. 

Y/oman' s part in the saving of American forests is an unwritten story, of 
which the outside rcr]d ""mows little or nothing. Her problems, her hard- 
ships, fc©r loneliness, the conditions under which she must often live and 
rear a family, the ways in which she helps her husband with his forest 



work, what she enjoys most in the forest life are all vital human elements 
in America's forest movement. The contest is open to all women who are 
wives of forest rangers in the State and Federal forest services. Manu- 
scripts should not exceed 2,500 words, Where photographs, illustrating 
any phases of the life of the ranger's wife or the conditions under which 
she lives, are available, they should accompany the manuscript. 
The following instructions apply to both contests: 

1. Stories must be based on actual experiences relating to work or 
life as a forest ranger or as a forest ranger's wife. 

2. Manuscripts may be written in longhand or on the typewriter, 
but one side of the paper only should be used. 

3. If possible, accompany manuscript with several photographs 
showing striking activities of forest life. These need not bear directly 
upon your story, but if they do, so much the better. 

4. Write name and address plainly on the manuscript and mail it 

to AMERICAN FORESTRY, 914 Fourteenth Street, N. W. , Washington, D. C, so 
that it will arrive before June 1, 1923. Mark "Hanger Story Contest" in 
lower left-hand corner of envelope. 

Manuscripts which do not win prizes will be considered for later 
publication in AMERICAN FORESTRY, but unaccepted manuscripts will not be 
returned unless accompanied by return postage. 

By W. C. Barnes, Washington 

In his annual game report, the Supervisor of the Colorado Tores t 
reports the presence there of what is known as the Kaibab squirrels. 
This mas rather a surprise to us, as we have always had the idea here in 
the Washington office that the "Kaibab" form of the beautiful white-tail 
squirrels found in northern Arizona on the Kaibab Forest belonged there, 
ani there only. 

There are two varieties of this white-tailed animal: The Abart - 
named after Lieut. Abert, who explored northern Arizona many years ago-- 
and the Kaibab. 

Looking the matter up in different works on the subject, and more 
particularly Mr. E. W. kelson's "Smaller Mammals of North America," pub- 
lished in the National Geographic Magazine for May, 1916, it is learned 
that while the Abert species is found in the yellow pine regions of the 
Rockies, from central Colorado south through New Mexico to and into Old 
Mexico, along the Sierra Madre Mountains, they are also found in the yel- 
low pine regions of Arizona south of the Grand Canyon. 

Mr. Nelson believes that originally the two species were one, but 
that the Kaibab form became cut off from the Arizona family by the Grand 
Canyon, where its isolation resulted in the development of marked peculi- 
arities and substantial differences in coloring, etc. 

It was doubtless the Abert squirrel that was noted by the Colorado 
Supervisor - a very natural mistake when the two are compared. If, how- 
ever, it was the Kaibab, then the range of that variety will have been 
greatly extended. 

The Abert squirrel exists in comparatively large numbers in the 
National Pbrests on the south side of the Grand Canyon in northern Ari- 
zona, while the Kaibab squirrel is found only on the north side in the 
Kaibab Forest. They are very much alike to the ordinary observer, but a 
study of the illustrations in Mr. Nelson's book shows that there are marked 
differences which should be remembered. The Abert squirrel has black ears 
and white belly, while the Kaibab squirrel has red ears and a black belly; 
the ears of each are tufted; and both have beautiful, long white tails, 
though my observation leads me to believe that there is more white on the 
tail of the Kaibab squirrel than on the Abert. 

It would be interesting to have all of our Supervisors keep their 
eyes open during the coming summer to ascertain just where in the various 
Forests these squirrels may be found. They are not very numerous anywhere, 
and apparently do not seem to be increasing in numbers to any great extent. 


By Arthur K. Abbott, D-l 

Did you read the Fire Eater's article from Dist. 5, page 2, Feb. 
26 number of the Service Bulletin? 

Has the writer been using a correct measure to judge by? How much 
difference is there in the number of man-caused fires for the several 3 or 
5-year periods since the Forest Service assumed charge of the Forests? 
And what is the corresponding difference in the number of Forest users, 
that is, campers, visitors and permittees of one sort or another? What 
is the attitude of the average Forest user compared with the attitude of 
the Forest user five, ten or fifteen years ago? As a matter of fact, is 
there not a very noticeable improvement in the care exercised by the Gen- 
eral -Public? That there is yet ample room for improvement is no question, 
but there is equally no question but that we are getting good results with 
our present methods of fire prevention propaganda. Are not our man-caused 
fires, considering the increased number of Forest users, proportionately 
far less than in the past? 

For District One the following figures are pertinent: 










No. fires 
per year 






The three-year average is but 82 per cent of the 15-year average 
in spite of the fact that many more people use the Forests than formerly. 
There is also the fact that fires are reported much more closely during 
the last three years than formerly. What is a correct "measuring stick?" 


Theodo re Shoe maker, who has been on a six weeks' detail in the Office of 
Public Relations, will return to District 1 next Saturday by way of the 
Madison Laboratory. 

The Latest Forest Service Film ,_"Red . Fnemy, " which was made in cooperation 
with associations in District 6, has been sent to Portland. The Office 
of Motion Pictures of the Department hopes to secure a commercial distribu- 
tion for this film. 

From time to time request is made to the Washington office for cop- 
ies of Dr. Sampson's "The Reseeding of Depleted Grazing Lands to Culti- 
vated Forage Plants" (U. S. Dept. Agr. Bulletin 4). The stock of this 
bulletin is exhausted both in the Washington office and at the Superin- 
tendent of Public locurent's office; unfortunately, the plates of this 
publication were inadvertently destroyed so that a reprint can not be ob- 
tained. Any members of the Forest Service who have copies of this bulle- 
tin that are not "working" will render a favor by shipping such into the 
Washington office. 


Ki ng "Tut" A3. sp , W as , a Wood User; When the ancient Egyptians of 3,50o years 
ago equipped King Tuta»3chainen for his long journey through the spirit world 
they provided him with nany articles made of wood* The time-resisting qual 
ities of the material, r2?cp&r.Ly protected, are indicated by the splendid 
condition of these f urn innings of long ago, Many of the boxes are of wood, 
the four chariots are almost entirely of this material, as are also the fan 
tastic effigies of sacred animals. Zbony has freqnently been mentioned in 



King "Tut" Al so Was a Wood User ( Co nc lu de d ) 

the cable reports from Luxor, and apparently various hardwoods are repre- 
sented. The identification of these woods is awaited with interest. 

Laminated Map Boar ds. Withstand Service- on Lookouts; Reports from the field 
indicate good service from the Laminated map boards prepared by the Labor- 
atory for use at lookout stations. One Supervisor writes: "These boards 
have been uniformly better than ary heretofore in use on this forest, and 
without exception have behaved very well under test of actual use. It is 
believed that these boards have not been in use long enough to determine 
whether there is any difference in the wearing qualities of them." 

The boards vail be reported upon again after this year's service. 


Timber Sa les, in D r 2 ; A sale of approximately 4,000 cords of aspen on the 
Rio Grande Forest has recently been made to the Nepsa'Coc arage Company, 
Denver, stumpage rate being 35^ per cord. This company h 3 recently estab- 
lished a cooperage plant in Denver which is the first ind try of this 
character established in the Rocky Mountain region., Ther are extensive 
areas of aspen in Colorado for which only a limited mark a exists and in- 
dications are that there is a possibility of a decided increase in the 
utilization for such products in the future. 

The. Dep ression in t he Cattle Industry seems to be hitting ill phases of 
the business and is net excepting the thoroughbred or registered business. 
One of the best thoroughbred herds in the State of Colorado and which has 
taken, perhaps, as many ribbons at the National Western Stock Show in re- 
cent years as any other, in the past few days has been sold over the block 
in its entirety, leaving the owners with a very extensive ranch property 
on their hands fully equipped for this particular kind of business and 
good for no other activity, 'There seems, however, to be a general feeling 
that the situation must get better and those who are able to hold on will 
eventually come out of it. 

New_..S.ig;ns for D-2:A. L c Richey, Supervisor of the Holy Cross, has spent ten 
days in the^Dis trict Office, following the Supervisors 1 Meeting here, pre- 
paring pattern copy and specifications for 1,000 signs required to sign 
this District. 


Tonto Office Moves t o Phoenix; The headquarters of the Tonto have been 
moved from Roosevelt to Phoenix, and hereafter all mail for that Forest 
should be addressed to Forest Supervisor, 311is Bldg., Phoenix, Arizona. 

G rowth; Forest officers are often asked how long is required to produce a 
tree of a certain size. The following table was prepared from measure- 
ments taken on the Sitgreaves National Forest. The conditions of growth 
on this Forest are rather favorable: 
























































DISTRICT 5 (CSont. ) 

Road Signs : The Mi ami- Superior Highway is one of the few roads within the 
National Pb rests of the Southwest which has been kept free of advertising 
signs. This fact has been commented upon quite favorably by tourists and 
local people who have occasion to travel this road. The absence of signs 
is due very largely to notices which Supervisor Swift has had posted at 
conspicuous points along the road and at the forest boundary. These 
signs are in standard color and inform the public that posting of signs 
is prohibited. It v/as necessary in one instance to go so far as to se- 
cure an order from the Attorney General authorizing an occupancy tres- 
pass in order to secure the removal of advertising signs on rocks along 
this road. It v/as not, however, necessary to press the suit as the offend- 
ers removed the signs. It is believed that similar signs along main high- 
ways on the National Jbrests would result in very greatly reducing the 
advertising sign nuisance. 


The. Union Pac i fic Ra ilroad has become mush interested in the development 
of the scenic attractions of southern Utah since it has acquired the Salt 
Lake and Los Angeles route- A branch line is being built to Cedar City 
which is promised to be operating by July 1„ The railroad plans to spend 
$535,000 in developing tourist accommodations at Cedar Breaks at once. 
They are also greatly interested in the Kaibab Rxrest, Bryce Canyon and 
Zion National Park, although conditions do not warrant the development 
of definite plans for improvements at these points at this time. 

S oap and . Screw Holes ; If you have a meddlesome wood rat in your storeroom 
and his removal is desired, simply suspend a dried prune three inches above 
the pedalo of a No. 0 trap and the rat is your victim. I had been combat- 
ing wood rats all winter, trying to trap them or entice the pests to eat 
poisoned cheese or grain, but with no success. The cat and Airedale dog 
gave chase time and time again, but there was always something in the road 
to obstruct their hot pursuit. I removed everything in the storeroom to 
assist in the chase, but at that the three of us were too slow. I was 
conversing with a woodchopper when the subject of wood rats came up; ha 
related his success and secret of trapping wood rats with dried prunes. 
I tried it and caught one every night until they were exterminated. If 
they harbor in your storeroom you try it. The only drawback is that the 
"bounty" is extremely low. — Ranger Wells (Humboldt). 


Pis trict Fi ve Sets Anoth er ; Hi gh r . Iviark; District 5 has submitted a land ex- 
change proposal which contemplates the conveyance to the Government of 
2,838.36 acres of privately-owned land containing half a million feet 
of timber in exchange for 27.79 acres of cut-over National Pbrest land 
upon which there remains an estimated stand of 50,000 feet of timber. 
In other words, the Government acquires more than 100 acres of land for 
every acre which it grants and 10,000 feet of merchantable timber for 
every thousand feet it gives away. 

Barrett, with his customary caution, appends a brief note praying 
that the Washington office will not take this case as a precedent for 
District Five land exchange values, but, nevertheless, the Washington 
office does entertain the fond hope that the District will eventually 
surpass even this shining record. — L. P.K. 

3§°?^^ion_P^n^tj_in_D-5: A check of the Annual Statistical Report on 
special uses shows that on December 31 we had a total of 3,4ol recreation 
permits in effect on this district, as compared with 2,822 permits at the 
close of 1921. This is a gain of 579 permits in the year, or about 15 
per cent. There are now 3,073 summer home permits in effect, and 288 per- 
mits covering hotels, resorts, municipal camps and other recreational fea- 
tures. The leading «brests in the order named are the Angeles, ZLdorado, 
Sierra, Stanislaus, Sequoia and Cleveland. These 3,401 recreation permits 
produce an annual revenue to Uncle Sam in rentals of over !|j>5o t OOO, and the 
estimated value of the improvements is in excess of ^5,000,000. 


DISTRIC T 5 (Cont. ) 

."•ang ers V/ar on Fore st Ou tlaws; Forest Rangers last year killed 274 mountain 
lions, coyotes and bobcats on the National Forests of California. The de- 
struction of these forest outlaws will save many deer and other game, as 
well as thousands of dollars worth of livestock, all of which are preyed 
upon by these varmints- The Santa Barbara National Forest in Southern 
California heads the list with a kill of 105 coyotes, 53 wild cats and 
41 mountain lions. The destruction of predatory animals is one of the 
many cooperative activities of the Singers in the interests of the users 
of the National Forests. 


The. Grazing Business on the V/enatchee is 10 0 per cent to the good. All 
grazing permittees have paid their fees for the season of 1922. The 
total amount received for the Sheep and Goats permits is $6,427,88, total 
amount for Cattle and Horses is $ 559.16. 

Matz Comes to Portland ; National Forest 3xartiiner Fred liatz has been trans- 
ferred from the Crater to the District office to take charge of Timber 
Surveys, Matz brings with him long experience on several fbrests as Dis- 
trict Ranger, Deputy Supervisor in timber surveys, and Officer in Charge 
of the largest sale in the District. — T.T.LI. 

Good Story Spoiled : ""^urlr 1 - the. heavy December snows, Ranger Kirkpatrick 
sent in word that the town of Randle was snowbound, and requested per- 
mission to use Forest Service road tractor, trader, etc.;, in relieving 
the blockade. The necessary arrangements were made, and ■. permission 
grantedc Later we wrote Kirk for a story of the affair for the Six 
Twenty-Six. " He replied; "Recent warm rain took away the snow, so the 
equipment was not needed. Providence probably spoiled a mighty fine 
story, " — G.J3.G. 


The Jam es River Road Proj ect w hich runs through the Natural Bridge N ation- 
al Forest for a distance ox 6.7 miles ard was constructed with Section 
8 funds, was formally accepted by the Bureau of Roads ergineers on:Febru- . 
ary 10, with the understanding that the brush burning be completed on a 
one-half mile stretch of the road. In attempting to burn this brush on 
February 14, during abnormally dry and windy weather, the contractors 
allowed the fire to' escape to the adjacent forested land, and before it 
was controlled had burned over 59o acres of National Fbrest land and 30 ' 
acres of privately- owned land. Due to the time of the year and the mois- 
ture in the leaf litter, the damage was comparatively small, amounting 
to only C 125. 90. The cost of suppression was 0192.93. It is expected 
that settlement for the trespass will. be made without question. Three 
men were on the ground when the fire broke out and nine more men arrived 
within ten minutes after the fire originated, but the wind was so high 
that the fire could not be controlled, although ordinarily at thi3 time of 
the year a fire should have been controlled without difficulty by one man. 
This fire proved beyond any doubt that, under certain conditions, fires 
are absolutely unmanageable and had the fire occurred in April it would 
have burned over five or six times the acreage. In giving some idea as 
to the velocity of the wind in, the James River gorge, it might be well 
to state that it blew spray from the river at least 30 feet into the air 
and the footboards from a ibrd truck carrying fire fighters were blown 
from their moorings. A^t°^ being replaced several times they were placed 
in the rear of the truck to reduce wind resistance. Innumerable trees 
were uprooted and the road was blocked in several places and had to be 
cleared to transport men and provisions. V.. 




evbite Bulletin 

U. 5. Forest Service: 

(Contents ,Coafidenti^l ) 

Vole VII, No. 14. Washington, D. G. April 2, 1923. 

By 0. R. Tillotson, Washington 


Some recent correspondence with the Federal Land Bank of Spring- 
field, Massachusetts, indicates that one very strong agency is at work 
in the New England, New York, and New Jersey region which is likely to 
do more toward putting over the idea of forestry to the farm woodlot 
owner than all other agencies have been able to accomplish with the 
means at their hands, At the present time this bank has loans aggre- 
gating over ( 21,L-tO ,000 on 7,0u0 farms, on at least 5o per cent of 
these farms the value of the woodlot is sufficient to warrant taking 
into consideration when the loans are made. Most of the loans are for 
a period of 33 years, and, as our informant stated in his letter, "it 
is quite important for us to do whatever we can to keep the woodlots 
in as good condition as possible." If 5u per cent of these farms, as 
the Federal Land Bank states, have woodlots, the total area in forest 
growth must be considerable, perhaps as much as 200,000 acres. The 
bank has been in existence only since 1916, and is constantly increas- 
ing the amount of its business. The potential effect of its policy, 
which will be discussed a little later in respect to the management of 
farm woods, is bound to be enormous, not only in the particular woods 
which are affected by its loans, but in neighboring woods whose owners 
will gradually come to see the good effect of the management suggested 
by the bank. 

After a loan is made upon a farm in which the timber value of the 
woodlot is taken into consideration, the owner must obtain permission of 
the bank to out wood or timber other than a small amount for domestic 
use bex^ore he can do so, In giving permission, the bank usually requires 
a special payment to be applied in reduction of the loan, the amount and 
terms depending upon the kind and amount of forest products to be re- 
moved, the method of cutting, the use to be made of the proceeds if 
products are sold, the bank's margin of security, etor This, in effect, 
is a brake upon cutting operations , In order to get a line upon these 
questions, the farmer is requested to furnish detailed information as 
to what product he is going to cut, when the cutting is to begin, size 
of the area to be out over, age of trses to be cut, diameter and kinds 
of the trees to be cut and to be left, whether the woodlot has been 
pastured, whether there is any evidence of injury from various sources, 
and whether after the timber is removed he intends to let the tract 
grow up to timber again or devote it to other purposes. Accompanying 
this questionnaire is a 2-page mimeographed article entitled, "Care of 
the Woodlot," in which the principles of cutting and protection under- 
lying sane management are very well expressed, ancj the idea also ad- 
vanced that the value of timber on the farm is nofc generally fully recog- 
nized, and that, if properly handled, the -woodlot nay be so developed as 
to pay off the loan. 

ANJ5Fj3Jg.iy3 ALLY 30 R P^RM XR DST *MM*MM& Uont. ) 

In order to assist the farmer in a gooH wording knowledge of the 
amount of wood and timber on his land, the bank has designed and made 
up two measuring sticks, une of these is for use in estimating the 
volume in board feet and cords of standing trees; the other is for 
use in scaling logs. The two are offered for sale at a price of $1. 
Apparently, these sticks are designed largely from information taken 
from U r S. Department of Agriculture farmers' Bulletin l2lo, "Measuring 
and Marketing farm Timber." 

It seems reasonable to hope that the lead taken by this Spring- 
field bank will be followed by Federal land banks in other districts. 
It will certainly be a boon to farm forestry if such a thing should 
happen. The northeastern section of the country is, of course, the 
logical one for such a movement to start in. Its inception there, how- 
ever, may be partly due to the fact that the President of that bank and 
the Executive Assistant who made up the scale sticks were both formerly 
employed in the Office of Farm Management of the Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try, and are somewhat familiar with what forestry means. 

By W. G. Barnes, Washington 

On the Mono National Forest in Jalifornia a number of young steers 
averaging about 18 months were turned loose on June 15, 1922, after being 
weighed, the bunch averaging 550 pounds, on September 13 they were again 
run through the scales preparatory to shipment, and the average was 7ti 
pounds. The gain for exactly three months thus amounted to 15u pounds 
per animal, or 50 pounds per month. 

Professor Henry, in his book* Oi- Jeeds and feeding',' gives a num- 
ber of instances as to increase in the weight of cattle under pasturage 
conditions. The average in over a thousand cases involving the handling 
of yearlings for a period approximating six months showed a gain of 47 
pounds per month at a cost of 1.6 cents per pound. For 2-year-olds the 
monthly gain was 52§- pounds at a cost of 1.9 cents per pound. These 
gains were on grass alone. 

Based on a 3-months' season at 54 cents, or 18 cents per month, 
the National Forest ranges put 150 pounds of flesh on to the above cattle 
at a cost of approximately one- third of a cent per pound. If Professor 
Henry's figures are right - and they are accepted as so by ail students 
of cattle feeding - then this showing for the National Forest ranges is 
an excellent one. 

By V/. R. Mat toon, V/ashington 

The paper industry is said to be heading the campaign for growing 
timber as a crop. Various concerns at least are known to be taking active 
steps toward the better handling of their forest lands, all of which in- 
dicates that the future supply of pulpwood is regarded as precarious. 
Most of the activity is in spruce, although the Mead Pulp & Paper Jompany 
of Dayton, Ohio, is conducting extensive experiments to determine the 
best species and methods for growing pulpwood in the Ohio Valley, which 
is essentially a hardwood region. Following is a brief description of 
the establishment of a demonstration in the growing of Cottonwood on 
farm land not well suited to agriculture - perhaps the first commercial 
plantation of cottonwood in the Northeastern States. 

Ten years ago a farmer in central Pennsylvania set out 250 cotton- 
wood seedlings along the border of his farm. He watched these grow to 
their present size of 6 to 12 inches in diameter and 40 to 5u feet in 
height. A little meditation and calculation convinced him that these 
trees had made him more money than had his corn and hay. They required 
no outlay of labor and attention and yielded a commodity of constantly 
increasing value. In fact, their product is now worth t5 a cord in the 
standing tree as pulpwood. This served as a demonstration and suggested 
the idea of growing cottonwood for profit. 


m'SWWXUUD IDA ■ AJLP ( Cont . ) 

In the spring of 1922 the farmer, Mr. Lynn A. Brua of Hollidaysburg, 
set out a 60-acre field v/ith cottonwood on which he had continuously grown 
farm crops for 20 years. The soil was stony and subject to wet spots and 
in part to floodirg from a stream flowing around two sides. In prepara- 
tion the land had been plowed in the fall, and it was freohC& disked in 
the spring before being set with 10-inch cottonwood cuttings spaced 9 feet 
apart each way, or at the rate of about 500 per acre. Thus, a total of 
3o,OuG cottonwoods was set. The cost of the entire operations, including 
the careful preparation and accurate marking- off the land for plant spots, 
amounted to C'6.GU per acre, as follows; 

Average Cost per Acre af Est ablish ing Plantation 

Plowing and harrowing (reharrowing in spring) ........ i $1.50 

SOU Cuttings, including cutting and "heeling- in" over 

Wint er ...... ....................... » » » ■ * 50 

Setting 5oo cuttings (including marking the spots) 

labor, 1-1/5 days at. $3 per day ........ Ji.00. 

Total cost per acre (exclusive of taxes and interest).. $6.00 

During the first summer (1922), the land was cultivated and the . 
trees hoed- to keep down a troublesome morning-glory vine at' a cost of 
about $5 an acre. This feature could easily have been covered, if desired, 
by growing beans or some other crop -between the rows of trees; no further 
cultivation, it is believed, would have been necessary. 

How much timber will the 6u acres produce and what will it be worth? 
In 2o years, at a fair estimate., there should be not less than 47c trees 
per acre, each with an average yield of one- fifth cord of pulpwood. This 
makes a total of 94 cords an acre - a large figure, but not believed too 
large by any of the 5 or more different foresters who have looked over the 
ground. Assuming this yield and a stumpage value of $5 per cord (the 
present value), the gross return will be $1 a tree, or £'4 70 an acre. A 
large paper mill is located at Tyrone, a distance of only 14 miles by a 
trunk line railroad, practically assuring a market. It seems likely that 
in 2o years the stumpage value will be double this amount. In 1921 the 
average cost of cottonwood pulpwood at the Pennsylvania mills was $>22.58 
a cord. 

•In view of the growing scarcity of pulpwood, the rapid growth of 
cottonwood, and small cost for establishing plantations, it is believed 
that Mr. Brua' s example will be followed by other farmers having bottom- 
lands of relatively low value for ordinary farm crops. One man - Mr'. Brua - 
has seen the light, and seen it first-hand for himself. Last summer, in 
visiting the plantation, the writer expressed to Mr. Brua the conviction 
that in planting these forest trees he had become a pioneer whose example 
wouia be followed to an increasing degree. 

notes on pimjs st_iobus hi ejboph: 

By v. r . Dayton, Washington 

Among the addresses befors the Biological Society of V/ashington 
recently delivered at the Cosmos Club, was a very interesting talk by Dr. 
Ferley S L jaulding of the office of Bbrest Pathology Investigations, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, on a recent trip to Europe in connection with the white 
pine blister rust. 

Dr. Spaulding states that there are quite extensive plantations of 
Pmus strobu s in places in northern and western Europe; that the value of 
the species before the war was probably somewhat underestimated by European 
foresters, but that, as a result of the war, he believes the species is 
probably a little overestimated at the present time. This, he thinks, is 
especially true of Switzerland, where the species is apparently held in 



great esteem. Blister rust infestation is very extensive (perhaps espe- 
cially so in Switzerland), the average for Europe being nearly 10 per cent 
A tree once attacked by the fungus is doomed. 

Bhotan pine ( Pinus ex celsa) of the Himalaya Mountains is being grow 
in Europe as a sort of understudy of Pin us strobu s. It is probably more 
blight-resistant than s trobus . but on the other hand sustains much greater 
damage from snow. This, Dr. Spaulding said, is very noticeable in Switzer 
land, where s tro bus remains uninjured, or practically so, in the regions 
of heaviest- snowfall. 

In Great Britain, Douglas fir leads among the American tree species 
so far as extent or success of plantations is concerned. Pinus strobu s, 
Dr. Spaulding said, ranks about second, while a close third is a very in- 
teresting canker-resistant hybrid larch that has been obtained from cross- 
ing the European and Japanese larch. , The Japanese larch is fairly canker- 
resistant, but the hybrid offspring seems to possess this resistant charae 
ter to a much greater degree. 

Dr. Spaulding said that there is a very striking relation of cer- 
tain animals in Great Britain to the reproduction of conifers. The Euro- 
pean jay feeds largely on the seeds of conifers and is an effectual agent 
in limiting tree reproduction; the rabbit is very much of a pest, so that 
it is necessary to establish rabbit fences if ref^roduction is to be ob- 
tained at all in many parts of Great Britain. Dr. Spaulding states that 
the European squirrel has acquired a marked taste for the sugary exudate 
from rust-infested white pines, and that this rodent frequently girdles 
the trees in searching for this sugar. 

Dr. Spaulding states that sugar pine appears to be much more re- 
sistant to the white pine blister rust than is western white pine, but 
that apparently no white pine is quite immune to this parasite. 


By G. L. Pbr sling 

As many of you doubtless know, there is an experiment being carried 
out at the Great Basin Experiment Station to determine the effect of graz- 
ing upon erosion and streamflow. 

In 1918, a bulletin entitled "Range Preservation and Its Relation 
to Erosion Control on Western Grazing Lands" was written by Sampson and 
7eyl, which discussed the early results of the experiment. 

The two areas chosen, A and B, were grazed for four years so that 
the relation of erosion and streamflow on the two areas under identical 
conditions could be ascertained. As a matter of fact, there was a great 
deal of difference between the two areas on account of the character of 
the gullies, and especially the density of vegetation, which was only ,15 
on Area A against .4 on Area £ at the beginning of the experiment. 

The seriousness of the erosion may be judged by the fact that on 
Area' A, an average of 1,725 cubic feet of soil was washed off from the 
lo-acre tract each year. Area A has now been entirely protected from 
grazing for three years, and the density of vegetative cover has risen 
to .35. Due to this change in vegetation, the run-off produced by 
storms has been reduced 36 per cent. The total run-off from the heavier 
storms which the ground has been unable to absorb completely, has also 
been reduced 36 per cent. The muddiness of the water has been reduced 
so that the amount of sediment washed from Area A is about 60 per cent 
less than what it was during the first four-year period. 

There are a vast number of difficult points connected with this 
experiment, and the figures given above may not ba entirely accurate, 
although they doubtless express substantially the results obtained by the 
protection of Area A- 

By G. V. Cooke, Harney 

Yes, they do climb trees. During the summer of 1921, the Drew 
Ranger Station was badly infested with chipmunks, and i sp^nt a number cf 
Sundays and evenings practicing on them with a rifle. On two occasions I 
remember distinctly of shooting them out of trees, once at an elevation 
of about twenty-five feet.-- 


WaSHI N GTqN h otzs 

A Complaint from the Alps ; "There is a tendency to make the forests a jack- 
of-all-trades; mathematician and engineer, administrator and trader, farmer, 
scientist, hunter and fisherman; and why not also, I ask, wine maker and 
confectioner, so that he can offer the hunters after the roast and ragout 
thsir dessert and wine?" — Journal forestier Suisse. 

Jows on the flange Don't All Die of Starvation; A tally kept of unusual 
losses among livestock on the National forest ranges during 1922, as shown 
in the various annual reports, lists the following: On one forest four cows 
were found dead with their noses and lips sticking full of porcupine quills. 
The poor animals in their efforts to dislodge the spears had only rubbed 
them still deeper into the flesh and evidently died of starvation. 

Sixteen head of cattle died from eating dynamite left by careless 
miners on boulders, stumps and logs, Wo, Josephine, they didn't fall over 
a cliff and explode after eating the stuff but were poisoned. Why a foolish 
old cow will insist on eating dynamite is one of the unsolved problems of 
the day, but she does - and dies for her peculiar taste. 

A large number ox' cattle were reported killed by careless hunters. 
California reported the most, which indicates that their hunters out on the 
coast need information as to the difference between a deer and a cow. A 
man, however, v;ho can't differentiate in such matters is not a safe person 
to handle a gun. — V/.C.B. 

Col. Gr eeley has just returned to Washington from a trip to New Orleans, 
La., where, he attended the hearings of the Senate Committee on Reforesta- 
tion, which is holding meetings at various places to investigate forestry 
conditions. This is the committee appointed by the Senate on the resolu- 
tion introduced by Senator Harrison of Mississippi. 


I nterest in De-Inking; Pape r: An average of one to two letters daily asking 
for information on de-inking are still being received. It is safe to state 
that we have answered 1,500 letters and furnished half of our correspond- 
ents with the mimeograph on this subject. 

a Joliet, Illinois, paper mill is using a carload of wilkinite every 
two months, but after an adequate water supply is obtained for their presses, 
7u tons of wilkinite per month will be used to de-ink old papers. A Wis- 
consin mill is about ready to begin operation, and indications in general 
are that the increase in the use of wilkinite will be as rapid as can be 
expected with the introduction of new prices. 

We may now expect more inquiries from foreign countries, as a for- 
eign press service has sent a release of the story to a large number of 
papers in Hurope, the orient, and Latin America, jrora the clippings re- 
ceived it is evident that French papers found the subject interesting, 
which seems logical because of the high price of pulpwood there and the 
compa-ratiVto of old newspapers. 

Waste in fonce Posts; The sum of $100,000,000 annually wasted in fence 
posts is a conservative estimate of this loss. If to this is added the 
cost of replacement, the foregoing figure is easily doubled. The huge 
sum given is based on what might be termed a turnover of 5o0 ,000,000 posts. 
According to another estimate, 900,000,000 posts are used each year, equiv- 
alent to 825,000 ,000 board feet of lumber. Practically all are used with- 
out treatment, but if they were preservatively treated, the average life 
could easily be doubled and an annual saving of 412,000,000 board feet 

Lab. Entertains Woo d Prese r vers : .forty- five representatives of big timber- 
using industries from all parts of the country recently assembled for an 
all-day meeting at the Laboratory, These men were invited to discuss with 
forest Service officers the plans for next year's wood preservation studies. 

over ?'30,000 is being spent this year by the forest Products Labor- 
atory on strictly wood preservation studies. At least $20, out more is being 



spent on projects which closely relate to wood preservation. There is a 
continuous demand from the whole country for more information on wood 
preservation, and frequent requests are made that new investigations be 
started, as it is quite evidently impossible to cover the subject ade- 
quately with the money available, the idea was conceived of having these 
men visit the Laboratory to see how the money is being spent and what is 
being accomplished. This first-hand information ard the intimate ac- 
quaintance of the various representatives with the needs and problems of 
the industry resulted in many valuable suggestions for the future program. 


Forest L egislation in ITebr aska : A Bill is now pending before the Nebraska 
State Legislature which provides for the establishment of a State Bureau 
of Forestry which will be under the direction of the College of Agricul- 
ture of the State University. The Bureau of Fbrestry will be composed 
of the Chancellor of the University, the Dean of the College of Agricul- 
ture, the Director of the Department of Conservation and Soil Survey, and 
the State For ester. It provides for the appointment of a duly qualified 
expert forester by the Chancellor of the University. By the terms of the 
Bill, the State Forester's duties consist of offering advice on the proper 
methods of handling -vvoodlots and in planting, in the eradication of forest 
insect pests and diseases. The Bill further provides for the maintenance 
of a State nursery where trees will be raised for planting on State lands 
as well as for sale to citizens of the State. 

The Bill was introduced through the efforts of Col. McCullough, 
Editor of the Omaha Bee, who is also president of the State Forestry Asso- 
ciation. It contains many suggestions made by the Fbrest Service and is 
very much in advance of any forest legislation that has bean heretofore in- 
troduced in this State. At this writing, its chances for passage are un- 

Rise u x. -q,.- Fbrest S ervice Man; Announcement has just been made of the ap- 
pointment of 73. B. Tanner as Chief of the Timber Section of the Bureau of 
Internal Revenue to succeed Carl M. Stevens, who resigned recently. Kr. 
Tanner entered the Fbrest Service in 190 7 as an Assistant Fbrest Ranger 
on the Bitterroot Fbrest, in 1910 he was given an appointment as Scaler, 
and in 1913 he was promoted to Lumberman. In 1914 he was transferred to 
D-2 and in 1917 was promoted to Logging Engineer. Mr. Tanner resigned 
from the Forest Service in 1918 to accept a position as manager of the 
Trinchera Timber Company with headquarters in Denver, but left this com- 
pany shortly afterwards to enter the timber section of the Bureau of In- 
ternal Revenue. Mr. Tanner's rapid rise in the Fbrest Service, as well 
as in the Internal Revenue, is the result of perseverance and hard study, 
and should be an incentive to all men in the Fbrest Service. 

The F ores t Service Exhib it a t t he Denver A uto Sh ow caused a greatbdeal of 
favorable comment and the comment was further supplemented by requests to 
repeat the exhibit in the future. The exhibit depicted a forest scene 
showing a summer home and an automobile camp ground. 


ASign of Spring: "Having donned my suit of winter-weight plate armor and 
whetted up my trusty battle ax, I step three paces forward and deliver my- 
self of the following creed: D-3 is the best District in the entire United 
States Fbrest Service. The Santa Fe Fbrest easily knocks the spots off all 
the other Forests in D-3, and the Cuba District is one beside which all 
other Ranger districts are mere waste places, forgotten of God ard shunned 
by man. "--3. L.Perry of the Cuba District. 


2£STH£OTJ3 (Cont.) 

Pueb l os , o f New Ile x icq; There are nineteen Indian Pueblos located in New 
Mexico. All except one are on the Rio Grande watershed. These pueblos 
are: Taos, Picuris, San Juan, San Ildefonso, Pojoaque, Nanibe, Tesuque, 
Pecos, Cochiti, Santo Domingo, San Filipe, Jemez, Sia, Santa Ana, Sandia, 
Isleta, Laguna, Acoma and Zuni. These pueblos are within a radius of 15u 
miles of Albuquerque and are all accessible by automobile roads. 

The Management Pl an Repo rt for the sawtimber type on the Coconino National 
Forest has just been approved by the Forester, The entire Forest is thrown 
into one working circle, to be managed on a 200-year rotation, which will 
produce yellow pine sawtimber of an average size of 21 inches d.b.h. , con- 
taining 340 board feet of lumber* This rotation was established by a growth 
study. The Forest will be cut over twice during the rotation. The cutting 
cycle is, therefore, 100 years. Jutting has oesn in progress for many 
years and the report shows that So years of the first cutting cycle has 
passed, leaving 7u years in which the remaining accessible timber avail- 
able for cutting, estimated at two and three- fourths billion feet, will 
be removed. The Forest will be managed on a sustained annual yield basis 
and the indicated cut is four hundred million each 10-year period. 

Deligh ted Datil: Comments sometimes speak volumes and sometimes they leave 
a lot unsaid. The Datil Bulletin chirps "V/e are delighted to learn that 
New Mexico is to have a woman Game Warden," and leaves the world to draw 
conclusions, in the same subject, the Gila Bulletin reflects, "After hav- 
ing tried the game warden system in New Mexico, we decided on a change and 
will try a State Game Matron." Maybe the Gila is hilarious but that is not 


E ffe ct of Treatment on Tie Re new a ls ; In 1911 the United States Census 
Bureau reported that the average tie renewals per mile of track in the ' 
United States for that year was 336. In 1921 renewals on the Boston and 
Maine 3. R. averaged 270 per mile, while for the ten-year period ending 
this same year, the average was 278 per mile. Per the 10-year period from 
1911 to 192o, inclusive, the average renewals on the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford 3. R. were 330 ties per mile, while for 1921 their reports 
show 372 per mile. Compared with these figures the following roads, on 
which preservative work has been in use for some years, reported as re- 
newals for the year 1921: 

Per mile 

C« ! v.Oo & St. L . R. R« , .»',«,..,... ...i o .v... . 80 

N.Y.C. R.R. ........ ................. 17£ 

Rock Island lines .............. „ „ ■ , , . . . 169 

The A. T. & S. P. R. R. reported a reduction for the 1 '3-year period 
1904-1915 inclusive, from 261 to 179 tie renewals per year, or an annual 
saving of practically $700,000 in the purchase and installation of ties 
alone, this being particularly interesting to notice, considering the mate- 
rial increase of ton mileage per mile of track during that same period. 

That's Grat itude'. Forest Assistant and Mrs. Gibson went in dignified fash- 
ion to ^emmerer, when in the canyon a few miles north of Cokevillo they 
came upon fires burning viciously in the willows by the creek. The couple 
dashed valiantly out, and with the aid of a canvas water bucket and canteen 
were socn combating the flames. Bearing, even in this lurid hour, the firs 
manual in mind, the worthy pair deduced that the fires had been deliber- 
ate y set, and their indignation mounted high. Mr. Gibson succeeded in 
getting one fire under control and started for another, leaving his witfe 
tc complete the subjection of the first, As Mrs. Gibson was returning from 
the creek she saw two men come on to the road from the willows. Convinced 
beyond doubt that they were the culprits, Mrs. Gibson dashed another bucket 
cf water upon the flames, and prepared to fight to the deaths One of the 

DISTRICT 4 (Jont. ) 

men approached, asked the reason for her actions and admitted building the 
fires . Then ensued a word:' battle* Taoh demanded the other's authority 
for the other' s actions. Ilea ther could prod ace it. Some slight advan- 
tage lay on the- side of Mrs* Gibson, as the mere man seldom got a chance 
to speak, but when he did, intimated that tits, Gibson was "hard-boiled," 
which helped noue. 

Eventually Mr. Gibson came back, having put out the other iare, and 
explanations were in order. It seems that the State Highway Commission had 
ordered the willows burned to improve the view of the road and the men had 
been praying for a wind to fan their fires for two days, then along came 
the Purest Service when they were just doing nicely. — Mrs. A.L.G., Wyoming. 


~,'Tew DeveIonments__in_Pire Suppression-. At the recent joint Hangers' meeting 
held- at Residing, the question of new developments in fire suppression was 
given consideration Particular emphasis was laid on the use of the pump, 
the ITewb'egin extinguisher, the plow and scraper. The use of the pump on 
fires was demonstrated to the Facest officers and an interested crowd of 
citizens of the town. Two types of pumps, the 7onder and the Zvinrude, 
were placed in the Sacramento ?.jver and the water pumped to a height of 
75 feet. Comparative tests were made, in each of which the ^vinrude was 
the favorite. It was far easier to start, delivered a larger stream at 
longer distances and had more power at all ranges from 200 to 1,000 feet; 
another feature in. its:fayo» was its compactness and the fact that it weighs 
only one-half s-s much as the Tender. 

Mr. SFewbegSn demonstrated his fire extinguisher in the following 
way: a large box ^'xlO'x?.' , open at one side, and. in which were placed a 
number of sticks heavily soake,d with kerosene and gasoline, was set on fire. 
Belching flakes 2p to 36. feet high "-ere iaBvsa.l&ttrly ©jy ingvished by the ap- 
plication of -5 lis. of the 17ewc\.eg-i.n material, vhic-h i s 'a'<' brownish powder . 
Newbcgiu actually walks into tin*, flames, tlcowj/fg. the pewder before him. 
A test of a burning snag and a. -brush pile was not so effective. Partner 
detaixed experiments with this material will be made in the near future. 
The more . recent developments in the use of the plow and drags were also 
considered by the meeting.-., . ■ . 

Some Land 3xcharge_: The Secretary .of Agriculture has approved the proposed 
land exchange' with the Weed Lumber Company on the Shasta Porest. By this 
transaction the Ibrest Service acquires 2,628 acres of cut-over land in 
exchange for 26 acres of similar character, or more than 100 acres for one. 
It happens that the 28 acres are near a new logging town being started by 
the 7eed Lumber Company, and in order that they might control all land near 
the town, the company was willing to pay our price. 


t . ■ ; . 

otanton G , Smith, formerly Supervisor of the Snoqualmie Jbrsst, is a stock- 
holder in the Paine PeJdspar Jom_jany and manager of the company's grinding 
plant and quarries. His address is Box 94, Auburn, Ila. Smith is a member 
cf the Rotary Club and president of the auburn lotary Jlub, and president 
of the Auburn Gomriunttv Servics, and as such ran a successful winter carni- 
val and ski- contest this winter. He still feels a great interest in for- 
estry and the Service, and especially the Pacific Northwest, as these ex- 
tracts from a recent letter show; 

"The 10-6 News Letter is always of great interest, as I prize it more 
than any other publication I receive. 

''There are probably few Service men who have stepped into as good a 
business as I have, yet I find it next to imx^ossible to put the heart into 
it that we all did in forestry." 

Gcnp_"orth: p ?.n~*~ j. a- Thayer of the Jascadia District has been trans- 
ferred from the Santiam to the Tongass National cbrest , Alaska. 


U.S. For est Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 


Vol. VII, Nov' 15, 

Washington, 3. C, 

April 9, 1923. 

" By C. Jo Buck, 3-6 

TIr. 0. Go Smith 1 s article in the February 12 Bulletin is having a 
dampening effect on Forest officers' enthusiasm, or rather would have did 
such enthusiasm at present exist. Forest officers are just now trying to 
get at what the land exchange business really is - policies and procedure. 
It is a brand new thing, which looks' good to the National Forest interests 
when Viewed in large perspective* But, like everything else, it may have 
a "nigger in the woodpile." Mr. Smith* s art idle will be Supposed by some 
to uncover said "nigger."' 

' The exchange' business is yet too young to have produced either a 
large enthusiasm' or to have uncovered- even a small nigger. The enthusiasm 
will come, however, as soon as we all see with our own eyes what the ex- 
changes" will do for us in- increasing the productivity of forest land, in 
removing the obstacles in all lines of work coming from private holdings, 
and in extending the Forest boundaries to adjacent for est- producing land. 
The Forester has well said, that the l and ex change law is the most impor- 
tant p iece of National Forest legislation obtained in recent years. 

Let each man read the new land exchange manual, as each man is 
now doing in District 6, and if he isn' t enthused over the prospect, well - 
he hasn't much forestry in his heart. 

Now, let's get down to brass tacks. Mr. Smith's article showed 
that in the Florida exchanges the Government secured 33,000 more acres 
than it released, or that on the average the forest area was more than 
doubled by each trade. This is a real and lasting accomplishment. It 
means better fire protection and timber productivity over fores t-growing 

The., trend of Mr. Smith's complaint on the Florida Forest is that 
it takes too long to get patent and that private owners are consequently 
discouraged. Can we get a quick schedule of action adopted by the General 
Land Office where land titles with abstracts, mortgages-, etc., are in- 
volved? Where the' title is good, we have had exchanges approved and pat- 
ents issued in four months after being sent to the land office. The de- 
lays are largely due to imperfect titles and the long time it takes for 
private Owners to have them rectified. One means of avoiding this delay 
has already been adopted, viz., have the local Assistant to the Solicitor 
examine the abstracts while the local negotiations are going on with the 
Supervisor and the Ids trie t Forester. 

It is not agreed that the matter with land exchange is that it 
takes too long in the General Land Office. The matter is not with the 
exchange policy or procedure, but with you and me. Have we thought about 
this work - made our plans as tp what under the policy we can do now to 
make exchanges, in the public interest and in the interes t of th e National 
Forests, and have we then gone about getting the applications we want 
and getting the results? 


Land exchange business needs initiative iron every Purest officer. 
It needs thought looking to the upbuilding ox the Forest and pars 1st grit 
action to get results. It is not like a circular letter from Operation 
which hits you amidships and demands immediate action if you want to keep 
youroeif on the job. It does, however, call forth one's own initiative 
and persistence, and the benefits to the National Forests and to forestry 
are such as to warrant the expenditure of our greatest energy. 

By W. C, Barnes, Washington 

The reading of more than 150 annual grazing reports might be a dull, 
routine job were it not for the fact that Supervisors generally do not con- 
fine themselves tc more bald statements of fact, but inject into their re- 
ports an immense amount of personal point of view, relating little newsy 
items and occurrences which make their reports full of human interest. 

The Supervisor of the Sevier, for instance, mentions the fact that 
the cattlemen have had a great deal of trouble with the registered bulls 
becoming foot-- sore, as the ranges are extremely rough and rocky. Some in- 
spired owner conceived the idea of shoeing the animals. This was done with 
excellent success, the bulls immediately rambling off into distant parts 
of the Fores', where they had heretofore hung around the watering holes 
on the soft ground. The scheme proved a most satisfactory one, indeed, 
and can well be copied by stockmen in other Forests. 

This brings to my mind the things we used to do in the "old days" 
in Arizona, when we drove our steers across what is now the Tonto National 
Forest, a journey of 250 miles. Many of them were bound to get tender- 
footed, and when they got to a point where we couldn't punch them along 
any farther, we used to lay them down on their sides and tack old worn-out 
saddle horseshoes on to their unwilling feet; after that they pranced along 
at the head of the trail herd. I can recall nothing funnier than to see 
several cars of our steers unloaded at a feed yard and several steers who 
had been shod on the trail but had not yet lost their shoes rambled out of 
the cars and tramped across the board unloading platform with a noise like 
a cat on a tin roof. To say that it interested the men around the stock 
yard is putting it mildly. 

By Hermann Krauch, Fort Valley Exp. Station 

In marking timber in the western -yellow pine type of Arizona and 
New Mexico, it is , frequently necessary ''to retain large mature trees for 
seed. Many of these ; trees may, also have' some form of injury or defect, 
such as fire scars, heart* rot, or dead tops. , 

In order to determines' the rate of decadence in such trees, an experi- 
ment was initiated by the Fort Valley Station in 1910. Thirty-three trees, 
ranging between 26" and 42" L.B.H., were selected. and tagged in a virgin 
stand naar the Fort Valley Experiment Station, and 34 trees ,' between 22" 
and 38" D.B.H. , on another area nearby, but which had been logged twenty- 
five years previously, 

Following is the gist of a report based on compilation of data col- 
lected in the fall of 1922; . 

Eight trees, or 24.2-/0 of the total number, in the virgin stand, but 
only one, or 2.9$ of the total numb er » on the cut-over &£ea d:-.eO. during the 
twelve-year period. The much lower mortality on the cut^ove'r area ts- as- 
cribed chiefly to the fact that the . trees retained here were, on the whole, 
more thrifty than those in the virgin stand - a condition to be expected 
in view of the fact that in logging the largest and pldest trees are out. 

Table 1 shows the average growth in diameter .of the present live 
trees during the past 10,. 25, 50 and 100 years. This was determined by 
counts made on cores extracted by means of an accretion borer.' 


IN Vlkj'lK STAIID5 .AI^jjQN CHT-0V33 A32AS (Cont.) 

Table 1. — P eriodic I n crease, in Di ameter (Inches) 

Virgin Stand 

gut-over Area 

10 _25_ _50_ _100 10 _25_ _5_0_ _100 

Per tree 0.51 1.27 2.63 6.C5 1.02 2.26 3.78 7.03 


Annual .050 .051 .053 .060 .102 .091 .076 .070 

It will be noted that the trees in the virgin stand were growing 
fairly v;ell even up to ten years ago. The mean annual growth has re- 
mained about the same during the past 50 years and is not much less at 
present than it was 100 years ago. The trees on the cut-over area grew 
considerably faster than those in the virgin stand. The mean annual 
growth was greatest during the last 10 and 25-year periods and almost 
twice as great as for trees in the virgin stand during the same periods. 
This shows how cutting in virgin stands causes acceleration in growth 
of the trees retained. 

Table 2 shows the average increase in diameter of the trees 25 
years before and after the year 1895 - i. e., the year in which the cut- 
over area was logged. 

Table 2. — Periodic Increase in Diameter - 25 Year s Befor e and 

* T . After Year 1095 

Per tree 

Virgin Stand 
Before After 
1895 1895 
1,36" 1.27*' 

.,09" — 

yut- pver Area 
Before After 

1895 Diff. 
1.43" 2,28" *-0o85" 

In the virgin stand the growth was somewhat less during the last 25 years, 
there being a difference of about 6,5/£, On the cut-over area the grovvth 
was considerably greater during the last 25 years, being 58/o more than 
during the first period, i. e., before cutting. Fifteen of these trees 
standing at a considerable distance from any cut at the time of logging 
grew 32$ more, while thirteen of them standing naar the stumps of cut 
trees grew 82^ more during the last period. The average increase in 
diametar of these trees 25 years after the area was logged was 1.55 inches 
and 3.12 inches, respectively, and an average of 2.28 inches for all as 
shown above. 

By 3. W, Eel ley, Washington 

The following tabulation shows in round numbers the value of sup- 
plies sent from the Ogden Supply Depot to Districts one to six, District 
8, and to the Madison Laboratory during the calendar year of 1922. 

The value of the fire equipment distributed last summer is included 
in the District office figures. It is not included in the total to for- 
ests nor in the average to forests. No freight charges are included in 
these figures. 


Total to 

Total to 

Average to 


Bis tricts 


forests Notes 








233 - What do small units have 

with this small figure? 






18 , 742 










627 - Why so large? 

' 8 






■ • • 

• • • 

*Weeks Law organization in District 2 considered as a unit. 
District 7 is omitted because,, it is largely supplied from the 
Washington Supply Depot. 


IX' IS THST ALHffMKT TK 1 0 GDZ3I? SfepLT D3E03 GO? (Cont. ) 

Eisrriber forests 

Uumber forests receiving Number of forests 

Die- receiving loss between -„ r .OO receiving $1 ,000 

trict than $50 0 worth and £999 worth worth or more 




























The Oregon Forest drew the largest amount, $1,516, followed by the 
Ochoco second at $1,418, and the Umpqua third at &I f 3o7. These three For- 
ests are the only ones that went above the £.'> 1,200 mark. The Flathead, 
latil, Idaho and the Crater all reaeh3d the $1,103 limit. 


Information is received that tv;o research assistantships , giving 
opportunity for graduate wort in forestry, are now available each year at 
the University of California, The announced aim is to give properly quali- 
fied men an opportunity to broaden their training in forestry and at the 
same tiuie perform useful investigations in forestry problems. 

Graduation from a school of forestry of good standing, in v.hich the 
requirements are not below those for the degree of Bachelor of Science [xn 
Ebrestry) at the University of California, is a prerequisite. Only American 
citizens are eligible. In addition to the' major problem to be studied, such 
graduate work will be registered for as may be necessary for the master's 
degree Research assistants will not help in the teaching work of the uni- 
versity, but each of them -will bo required to devote his entire time for 
ten months of the year to an approved problem of research in any branch of 
forestry except for time needed for regular courses. Each assistantship 
carries' an annual stipend of $500, payable in ten equal monthly install- 
ments. In addition, there is available a liberal sum to cover the cost of 
field travel and special equipment. 

Applications for research assistantships should be addressed to Prof. 
Walter Mulford, Division of Forestry, 3C5 Hilgard Hall, Berkeley, California, 
and should reach Berkeley not later than May 1, 1923, The foil owing informa- 
tion in the order given is required; 

1. Name and address, 

2. late and place of birth. 

3. College or colleges attended, and the principal courses pursued 
in each, with degrees received or to be received before July 1, 1923, 

4. Practical or investigative field or laboratory experience in for- 
estry or allied fields other than college courses. 

5. If a graduate, the nature of work performed since graduation, 
with names of employers. 

6. A photograph, taken not more than two years ago. 

7. The applicant's plans for his life work in forestry. 
8c The branch of forestry in which the applicant prefers to pursue 

research work as thu holder of a research ass istantship.. The special prob 
men, if any, in which the applicant may be interested. 


"Back to the land," an article by Col. Greeley, appeared in the Llarch 31 
issu;, of the SATURDAY EVENING IU5T, 

Afcbo r T a y: At the request of the Forest Service, the Commissioners of the 
Distnet of Columbia have j»ro claimed I'arch 24 as Arbor Day for the District. 


Thomas H. Gill has re turn 3d to Washington trojx a trip through South Carolina 
and Georgia. 

Nov/ Fores try Magazine: Number One, Volume One of "Mexico Forestai," the 
organ of the Mexican "Forestry Society, has just reached the library . The 
society was formed in 1921, 


White Leaves Laboratory: David G< White, v;ho for ten years has been connected 
with the United States Forest Service, left the Forest Products Laboratory, 
Madison, Wisconsin, April 1, to act as sales manager for the Sawyer- Servatius 
Lumbor Company, Chicago. 

Mr. White has been at the Laboratory since 1915. Before entering 
the Laboratory he spent a year in the Washington office and a year at the 
Products office of the Forest Service at Missoula, Montana. 

His now position will entail many duties with which he is very famil- 
iar, since his field work has been extensive in the lumber distribution and 
consuming fields, and since ho has done much special work in small dimension 

Woods Used for Cabinet Pro duction : Cf woods used for cabinet construction, 
the following native species are employed in greatest quantities; Oak, gum, 
map:.e, birch, yellow poplar, beech, ash, and walnut. Several foreign 
woods aro imported as fine furniture material; of those mahogany easily 
ranks first. 

Walnut has always been considered the premier cabinet wood of Amer- 
ican trees; and because of its various desirable qualities can hardly bo 
surpassed* Years ago walnut occupied first place as a cabinet wood followed 
by a number of years when the demand for this wood was vory slack. How, 
however, it lias again sprung into prominence and is in greater demand than 
any of the other cabinet woods, even surpassing mahogany. 

To Remove Old Paint, and Varnish ; The following formula produces a good 
preparation for the removal of old paint and varnish* 

1 pint of benzol 
1 ounce of paraffin 
1 pint of acetone 
1 pint of alcohol 

Dissolve the paraffin in the bonzol and add the acetone. This pro- 
duces a clear liquid. The alcohol should be added just before the varnish 
remover is to be used. This precipitates out the paraffin* The object of 
the paraffin is to reduce the volatility of the liquid. The preparation 
is ■ inflammable and should be kept away from fire. 

Lye is sometimes used for removing old varnish, but it is a dangerous 
material to use because it darkens the wood with which it comes in contact, 


Scouts Planting on Na tiona l Forest; The Boy Scouts of Colorado Springs and 
Denver are displaying considerable interest in planting trees on the Na- 
tional Forests. On March 24, officers of the Pike Forest supervised the 
planting by 65 Scouts of 4,000 Douglas fir seedlings in Waldo Canon within 
the Forest. Another bunch of boys wishes to have a chance at this work in 
order to win the merit conservation badge, and arrangements were made to 
plant 2,000 yellow pine in April on this area. 

The Boy Scouts of Denver are anxious to plant an old burn containing 
several hundred acres, which is situated on a steep slopo above their 
summer camp near Silver Plume on the Pike Forost. This is in the Ingelmann 
spruce type and arrangements will be made to have Forest officers sv.pervise 
the experimental planting of several thousand trees on this area early in 
June, and eventually the Scout officials wish to plant the whole burn. 


DISTRICT g {Ocnt. ) 

If the enthusiasm of tho Scouts continues, the Pike Forest will "be 
able to reduce their planting costs by having a largo number of trees planted 
froo annually, 

IV 3 Libra ry Growing M o re Popular : Rr om August 29, 1322 to December 31, 1922, 
there wore 69 books loanod from the library to men in tho field, and from 
January 1, 1923, to March 22, 1923, 60 have been sent out. 

By the above tabulation, it will be seen that the cmployeos of tho 
Forest Service arc making bettor use of our library all tho time* 

fla me Refu se, Bills Bo foro Governor : The present session of the Colorado 
Legislature has passed through both houses eight new game refuge bills and 
made amendments to two existing refuges. This is considered an important 
stop in advance in Colorado game protection. If the Governor signs these 
bills, v;o will have twelve game refuges in Colorado * Pour others cams up 
beforo the present session, but did not materialize, due to local absence 
of support. As usual, the constitutional question was raised and it looked 
for a time as if all refuge bills would be tabled. In fact, they wore 
tabled at one time and brought out again after the constitutional question 
was more thoroughly looked into when the majority decided that game refuges 
in Colorado would not be in violation of the State constitution as it re- 
lates to game and fish and so-called special legislation, 


This is the Way It's Done on the Co conin o: A compilation of the cut on Sec. 
25 on the P. L. Co. sale shows a total scale of 2,421 Li feet. The calipering 
crew during the winter found that a total volume of 1,06Q M feet was left, 
making tho total original stand on the section 3,481 U feet. Turning to 
our Timber Control Atlas, we find the estimate for tho section to be 3,481 M. 
We doff our cap in respect to this old-time cruiser, who on $75 per and beans 
and bacon turns out such an estimate. A few hundred feet above or below - 
but to make it a bul^s-oye - well, it inspires oven us'.— Coconino. 

Cattlemen V/ant Controlled Public _J3ojmaini Arizona Cattle Growers' Association, 
in convention at Phoenix, went on record by resolution as standing strong 
for leased control for grazing of unreserved public lands. The association 
regards the Forest Service as proper administrator of these lands and recom- 
mends laws to bring those conditions about. The convention suggests that 
receipts from grazing privileges on those lands above costs of "adminis- 
tration" be used for the construction of highways. The cattlemen are opposed 
to the retirement of range improvements built by permittees and to reductions 
to established outfits for the accommodation of new applicants. They favor 
ten-year puitaits and such adjustments of the grazing fees and rules as are 
necessary to stabilize the livestock business on National Forests. 


Q uick Results ; Ranger Thompson of the Prescott roports/tho now flood control 
dam on Cave Creek has been completed and has saved Phoonix from one flood 
already* About the first of February, 5 and l/lO inches of rain fell at 
the Ashdalo Ranger Station within 48 hours. Without tho Cave Crook dam such 
a rain as this would no doubt have given Phoenix another flood similar to 
that of 1921, when all of the low parts of the town, including the basoment 
of tho State capitol, wore under water. 

Nat ional Monuments of Now Mexico ; There are six National Monuments located 
in New Mexico. Those are Bandolier (Frijolos), Chaco Canyon, SI Mora, Gran 
^uivira, Capulin fountain, and Gila Cliff Dwellers. Two of the National Monu- 
ments arj located within National Forests and the others on Public Domain. 
Three of tho National Monuments are set apart to preserve the cliff ruins. 
SI Moro, xore commonly known as Inscription Rock, is to preserve the in- 
scriptions of the early explorers and Capulin Mountain is a cinder cone of 
recent geological origin. 


DISiVJCT 3 (Cont, ) 

^Bm^LSkSJ^a^mssJ^SS^ Mr. M. Bo Herms, for several years in tho Washing- 
ton ©fficG, has returned to this district and will ba assigned to tho Dis- 
trict iff ice of Accounts. 

if^^^^fenSfoll^t 52 * Las ?S month 26 sections were added to tho Ohupadora 
Division 01 the luanzano oyProsidontiai proclamation. 

3?h3 S ev3n_Mistak.os of Life:_ 

1. The delusion that individual advancement is made by crushing others. 

2. Tho tendency to worry about things that can not be changed. 

3. Insisting that a thing is impossible because wo can not do it. 

4. Attempting to compel other persons to believe and live as we do. 

5. Neglect in developing and refining tho mind by not acquiring the 

habit of reading fine literature, 

6. Refusing to set aside the trivial, that important things may bo 


7. failure to establish the habit of saving,— W.M.O. Uinta. 

fe-PorojLLSchooU. Louisiana State University will be the first in the South 
to have a couplet 3 course in forestry. This course will be opened next Sep- 
tember. Tho now course is an outgrowth of tho summer forestry camps con- 
ducted by Major jr. G, Lee of the Department of ^restry and Horticulture 
and Mr. V. . H. Sonderogger, State Forester of the Conservation Department, 
in various sections of the State. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 
southern timber conditions, better methods of lumber manufacture, closer 
| utilization, fire prevention, and reforestation. 

pateB & Stocfr^ /p^: Mr. W. N. McGill of Ely, Nevada, died on March 24, 
according to a letter rcc-ntly received from Mr. Vernon Motcalf . Ma-, 
Bctlill was one of the big stockmen of the 7/est, and had large interests, 
especially m Nevada, not only in the s to ck business , but also in mining 
and otner lines, do was a permittee on the Nevada Forest in the vicinity 
of wnich ho had large sheep interests, 


"LlLl£^IJ^lJo_Shino»' - Sometimes we in the Forest Service toast more or 
loss about the amount of publicity and educational matter, including letters, 
pamphlets, maps, etc., furnished the public in the course of a year, and about 
how many road and trail signs we have posted. However, there is one automo- 
bile club m California that sent out more of this material and posted more 
signs last year than emanated from ail tho hundreds of offices of tho Forest 
Service comoined. The Automobile Club of Southern California's record for 
1922 was: 

Touring- inquiries answered 844,650 

Maps issued 3,862^105 

This clue has now posted 93,000 metal- enamel signs on 115,608 miles 
of road m the West. This groat club now has 80,000 members and is one of 
our best cooperators. It has given us $4,000 to date for development of 
public camps, and makes it a practice to print our fire propaganda matter 
on the maps issued by the club. After reviewing such a record, we take on 
renewed hope of some day being able to convert the "stand-pattors" of the 
Service to the value of publicity.— L .A.B . 

b-S Spooi^ ys^^ginoss- fV iqP S : Tho following figures from our annual 
special use report may be of interest to other districts; 

The total number of permits in effect on Decomber'31, 1922, was 
6,642. This is an increase of 664 permits during the year. 4,421 of this 
number, or two-thirds, are charge permits, the other 2,221 being free. The 


DISTRICT 5 (Cont. ) 

Angeles loads with 2 t 476 permits; Santa Barbara is second with 533, the 
JTLdorado third with 513, Sierra fourth v:ith 462, and i±a Stanislaus fifth 
with 394. These five Forests have two-thirds of the special use business 
of the District. 

The fire loading uses ar3: summer homes, 3,095, pastures 701, water 
transmission 594, drift fences 547 and hotels and resorts 261. From here 
they trail all the way down to one permit each for a church, fishing, hunt- 
ing and trapping, fox and rabbit ranch, golf grounds, ice plant, mineral 
spring, electric railroad and observatory. Incidentally, this last permit, 
to the Smithsonian Institute of Washington, D< 0., covers the highest 
building in the United States, which is situated on the summit of Mount 
Whitney, at an altitude of 14,501 foot. Another interesting fact is that 
practically all of the annual increase was in recreation permits. — L.A.B. 


A, Gamev Bunoht During the last five years the Wenaha Game Protective Asso- 
ciation of the Umatilla Forest has killed the following predatory animals 
and birds: 15 lynx, 987 coyotes, 33 skunk, 49 badgers, 95 weasels, 187 
rattlesnakes, 144 wood rats, 2,357 ground squirrels, 2,950 pocket gophers, 
1,751 hawks, 553 owls, 61 kingfishers, 10,471 magpies, 1,194 crows, and 978 

Lay i ng t he ^ F oundat ion : Seattle Boy Scouts are showing an active interest 

in forestry. 

During the past six months Mr. Weigle has given 16 examinations to 
Seattle Boy Scouts seeking the merit badge in Conservation and Forestry, arid 
Mr, Treen has given seven. Advantage is taken of the opportunity afforded 
in these examinations to give the boys a better understanding of thw neces- 
sity of protecting the forests from fire. The final question in the Conserva- 
tion test requires that the boys give some evidence that they have been of 
some help in making effective the laws of their State for the protection of 
birds and animal life. In answer to this question, a great many of the 
boys state that they have reported or fought forest fires. 

Ryan - a .Runn pr^Up/. Six bids were received by the Colvilie for the Fisher 
Creek sale of western red cedar poles. The minimum price asked was -g^ per 
'ft. £>"x2b' to 7"x35 t , and Per ft. for poles 8"x35» and larger, llr. 
Ryan bid 1-f^ for the smaller stuff and 4-l/8^ for the larger. This price 
is unprecedented, as it is an equivalent of $13.75 per M ft. for some of 
the cedar and $4.99 per M for the remainder, 

Equipment Lockets.* As a means of segregating fire tools and equipment from 
improvement and administrative equipment, the Chelan Forest is going to 
adopt the plan of keeping all fire equipment in lockers. Each Hanger will 
plan the number and size of units of equipment he will need and a locker 
will bo built for each unit. 

The lockers can be built on the wall of a tool house or barn, and 
each will be labeled on the outside the unit of equipment it contains; also, 
Form D-6 List of Fire Fighting Equipment will be on the door. All equip- 
ment except supplies, standardized for the unit, will be in the locker. It 
will be branded as per instructions and will be handy for use or inspection 
at all times. If Ranger A is at some distant point on the district and gets 
a report of a fire, he can call up neighbor B ard say, "Go over to the sta- 
tion and get all the equipment in the locker marked "Ten-man outfit," and 
bring it to C s ranch by nine o'clock." He will know that if B brings 
everything in that locker, he will have a complete outfit. 


Vol. VII, No. 16. Washington, D. 0, April 16, 1923. 

Bg.. Johfi, -McLaren V. 1>2_ 

Because of opposition recently encountered from certain public 
sources toward building- roads in the Superior National Forest, I have 
had occasion to work Up comparative statistics relating to fire damage 
on forests where large numbers of visitors have come in following compre- 
hensive road and trail development. Possibly they may bo of interest to 
the field generally. 

The following tabulation indicates the fire record in the Minne- 
sota National Forest for the past five years, and also indicates the esti- 

;ed number 

of visitors 

annually for 

the past 

four years: 




Total cost 



N. F.Iand 





































100 ^9 50 _ 







Forty-six fires, or 35 per cent of the total number, were caused 
by railroads. 

Sxcepting the year 1918, when the big fires occurred throughout 
the State, it is noted that the area burned and damage are nominal. 

In fact, a large part of the area burned consisted of hay meadows 

only . 

Here, in a forest only recently well developed with roads, visitors 
have increased in great numbers, It is obvious that the greatly increased 
number of people has not resulted in a large increase in damage and area 
burned . 

The Colorado National Forest record is as follows: 





Total cost 

V? sitors 


N. F.Iand 





f i res 









$ 84 




$ 93 














435, 602 

19? 2 




l t gQl 









Fifty-two of these fires, 

or 46 per cent , 

<7ere railroad 

fires . 


number of 

visitors has 

increased annually, but fire 


loss has not increased proportionately. 

A large proportion of the 

damage and expen 

se in 1922 was 

CclUScU. Ujr 

six fires 

started by 

two escaped State convicts. 


San Isabel 

record follows: 





Total cost 














$ 2 

$ 78 




















r -0 


ini:- t 7Si 




$ 457 . 



Road development has progressed rapidly in 

recent years, 

and al- 

though the 

number of 

visitors has 

increased materially, it is not found 

that fire damage and 

cost are ris 


Nearly all the 

area burned, the damage and 

cost in 1919, 

was the 

result of a lightning 

fire which 

occurred in a remote part of the forest. 


Pike record follows.* 





Total cost 














$ 189 

$ 399 




























$ 312 

$1,667 1,339,858 

Twenty-four of these fires, or 13 per cent, were railroad fires. 
This forest is intensively used, Road development lias progressed 
rapidly, and although 1922 was an exceedingly dry year, all fires were 
suppressed before any ten acres in extent. Twenty-five of the 
thirty-four were suppressed on areas of one-quarter of an acre or less. 
Records of other forests might be cited similarly. 

This indicates clearly to me that the fear of increased fire damage 
following increased transportation development is groundless. 

As a matter of fact, that the reverse is true seers to me well 
established from the above records. There are but few guards employed on 
the forests listed above, and no increases have been made for protection 
since the more or less inaccessible areas have been opened up and eld 
roads improved and made more attractive to tourist travel. 

Those roads have without question been a distinct asset. 

Minutes count, and not only does a quick get-away influence the 
results in suppressing fires on small areas, but means of rapid transpor- 
tation are of even greater importance. 

The Superior Forest is now cne of the most inaccessible in D-2. 

Many fires must be reached by canoe and foot travel, supplies and 
equipment being, of course, transported in the same manner. 

There are more goards employed on this Forest than on all the other 
Forests in the District combined. 

No lookouts are employed on most of the forests in Coloiado and 
7/yoming; there are two on each of the Forests in South Dakota and three 
on the Michigan and Minnesota each. On the Superior we employ six, and 
three State towers afford detection for parts of the Forest. 

- 2 - 


We have invested in a v number of motor launches which are used on 
Birch Lake and along the Canadian border primarily for fire protection. 

There is a heavy investment in towers, canoes, silkaline tents and 
fire-fighting equipment, some of which is special. 

The fire record on the Superior for the past five years is indi- 
cated below; 





ft. F. land 



Total cost 






,. 1,363 
' 1,823 






'To tal 






Of these one hundred and thirteen fires, twenty-nine originated out- 
side the forest and twenty-one of these v/ere .kept from entering. 

Most of this expense and damage involved during the period came from 
these outside fires. 

There is a possibility of a bad fire in the forest any year. Light- 
ning caused nine fires during the past five years. Whether or not roads 
and transportation facilities are built and improved, we face the inevi- 
table problem of protecting the area with greatly increased numbers of peo- 
ple going through the forest. 

Traveling by canoe and afoot, these people get into localities where 
it is a slow tedious job to land fire crews, and a fire carelessly started 
by any one of these travelers may result in excessive damage and cost. 

Roads affording auto travel will simplify the protection problem 
greatly, and personally, I am wholly out of sympathy v/ith the fear that the 
fire damage v/ill increase through opening the forest areas to travel. We 
have' a distinct fire problem on the Superior and better transportation 
routes v/ill simplify it. 

The average cost for suppressing fires of various classes for 1921 


Class A CI as s_ B Class _ Q 

list. 2 $3.88 $25.71 $139.23 
Superior, Sorest 16^86 248.53 295.96, 

That the Superior is far abov9 the average is due primarily to its 

I am a lover of game and wild regions, but a nominal road and trail 
program v/ill destroy neither, and I am not prepared to admit that allowing 
people access to the forest via roads will increase the fire danger. 

By C* R. Tillotson, Washington 

The Tri-State Development Congress, made up of representatives from 
the States of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, recently assembled in 
annual convention, drew up some resolutions v/hich clearly indicate that 
influential men in those States are thinking along lines very similar to 
ideals which the Forest Service has distinctly in mind for that particular 
region. In respect to forestry, these resolutions are six in number. 
They cover the subjects of protection, regulation, taxation, conservation, 
acquisition, and farm forestry extension. The text of the resolution on 
each subject follows: 



"Genuine and feej fir & protection which will permit the maxi- 
mum possible volunteer of forest growth and maintain great areas of safe 
game cover. i .-, .'• ••. : 

R egulation 

"Rather than destroying the old forest and generating more idle 
cut-over land, some just way should be found to permit, encourage or re- 
quire that the remaining virgin. .timber to be lumbered so as to keep the 
forests continuously productive. 

T axa tion 

"Just timberland tax laws which do not discriminate unfairly 
against growing timber crops, wo advocate that fact finding investiga- 
tion agencies prepare reports which may serve as the basis for such laws. 


... -"-Protection of present State-owned and Federal forest land against 

short-sighted and selfish exploitation is imperative. 

Acqui si ti o n . . i 

."The .expansion of. the present State and national Forests so as to 
absorb more nonagricultural but desirable forest land is urgent. 

Farm For estry Ext ensi on 

"The millions' of acres, of woodlots included in the farms of the • 
Lake States will become increasingly important to. maintaining our supply 
of forest .products; the farm woods • are entitled to consideration and 
assistance along with other important farm crops. " 

It has long been contended by foresters, and this is particularly 
true of the State of Minnesota, that drainage of lands in the northern 
part of that State has been going ahead entirely 'too fast, and that these 
drainer], unoccupied lands have been a fruitful source of destructive for- 
est fires. The following resolution in respect to drainage is accord- 
ingly of interest; 

"Intensive forestry and intelligent drainage do not conflict with 
each other. Our best forests are on well-drained lands. She mischief 
has been done by the haphazard, partial drainage of peat marshes surrounded 
b.y natural forests. Here both the marshes and the forests are threatened 
with destruction by fire. After the settlors have fully reclaimed their 
lands by drainage, removed the inflammable rubbish, which nov: so fre- 
quently covers the same, the fire hazard will have. been reduced, but 
until that condition is secure, a vigilant fire protection policy is 
essential, and the inception of new, premature drainage projects should 
be postponed until the advance of settlers from the surrounding upland 
demands the drainage of the marshes and swamps for agricultural purposes." 


The Potlatch and ffioeur d'Alene Forest Protective Associations 
will enjoy the distinction of being the first patrol organizations in • 
the Forthwest to independently inaugurate air patrol to augment thair 
detection service. 

Arrangements have recently been perfected whereby each of these 
organizations will have intensive patrol of association territory during 
100 days 'from June to September. If results are all that are expected, 
other Forth Idaho protection units will doubtless scjc-Eraia like service 
for 1924. 



The plan involves the furnishing of planes and pilot's by an experienced 
avi-atoi-, the associations to provide landing fields and observers. 

Radio sets will be installed for reporting fires discovered by the 
planes, which, aside from patrol duty, will likewise be available for recon- 
naissance. *" 

Until .results of the coining -season' s operations are known, the full 
warden and lookout force of tho organizations will be maintained so that the 
air patrol will constitute additional protection to the forests. 

From reports submitted at Allotment Conference 


Pis trie t Forester 

Chief of Operation 
Improv. Specialist 
Fire . . " 
telephone Engineer 

»• s*v 

Chief of. Management 

Assistant 11 

hogging Engineer 
it ii 

Check scaler 


Chief of Grazing 
First Assistant 

. "L" 
Chief of Lands 


District Engineer 
Assistant 11 


Forest Assistants 
District Rangers 


District Foiostor 


Chief of Operation 
Improv. Specialist 

telephone Engineer 
ii gn 

Chief of Management 

assistant " 

Lagging Engineer 
<» 11 

Chaok scaler 


- In fie 

Id or 

Forest 1 


- Total 

away f 

rom head'quarters 



















■ a 


















• • 

• a 


204 ■ 

• a 

« « 

e • 

* • 

a « 

ft * 



85 • 


















4 » 

a « 



• • 

a * 

a a 

a * 



♦ • ■ ■ 

• • 

a a 

e a 

* a 













a « 

. • 

























ft a 





: io9' 









T 01 





» a 

a • 

a a 

k a 

» » 



• • 


« % 


#Six months 

service only 

*After June 



: : 6 




. B 















123 . 












• • 

a » 

a a 

a • 





• • 

. ft 

• • 

• * 





* ft 

. . 

» a 

♦ a 









, • a 

« a 

• « 

• a 

t • 

« * 

a • 





a « 

a a 

a e 

ft % 

a • 

« » 



• • 

* » 





• • 1 A 


Chief of Grazing 105 
First Assistant 165 

. ' • 4 . 

Chief of Lands 97 

District Engineer 
Assistant " . . 

Supervisors 118 
Deputies 111 
Forest Assistants 
District Hangers 

Mr. Herbert A, Smith left April 11 on his annual inspection trip to the western 
Districts. '*> 

Etique .tte^f or P rop agandist s; - The inventor of a device to anchor houses to their 
foundations so they won't blow away has tried to interest the Forest Service on 
the ground of saving timber. Ho sets a good example to all who indulge in 
"overdone propaganda": " "All this waste," he says, "can partly -be prevented to ' 
a limited extent." — W.S.. 

Paying . B ills P romptly; -Settlement for services rendered or supplies furnished 
by one department to another will hereafter be made promptly by the disbursing . 
officers,, Checks will be drawn in favor of the department concerned, and no' 
longer will payment be made by the long drawn out and tedious procedure hereto- 
fore in vogue known as "Treasury Settlement." In other words, each department . 
will pay its way as it goes and disburse its money by drawing a check and clos- 
ing the transaction promptly. — P.D.K. 


Fro m , t he En ds of the Earth ; Requests for information received in one mail by 
Timber Mechanics represent the world-wide recognition of our standing in the 
field of wood research. The i-nquir ies- came from South Africa, India, and New 
Zealand. . . • . > ** • 

. auto Body Makers Want to C o ope r ate with Us; Representatives of the automobile 
body manufacturers of the country,, in conference with members of the inspection 
rules committee of the National Hardwood Lumber Association in Chicago, unani- 
mously adopted a resolution for the appointment of a joint committee to coop- 
erate with the United States Forest Products Laboratory, and to defray all the 
expenses necessary to conduct a scientific study of sap stain in gum and in- 
terior dote in elm lumber with a view of improving stock suitable for the con- 
struction of automobile' bodies. 

This is the first time that industrial consumers and producers and con- 
sumers of hardwood lumber have joined forces to carry on such a scientific in- 


A Cnmmit^te e for Pu tting O ver Forest Pr otect ion Week in Colorado has been 
selected and $50 appropriated by the Denver Tourist Bureau toward defraying 
expenses of local printing, etc. The committee consists of Lou D? Sweet, 
President of the State Forestry Association, LeRoy -McV/hinney of the Colorado 
Mouna tin- Club , Warren Boyer of the Denver Tourist Bureaus, and H. D« Cochran 
of the U. S. Forest Service. 




. B - ■ 



A i • 









16-6 . 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • • 

« • 

102 ■ 

. ■ ; 85 














10 1 








. 217 


* • 

• • 


« ■ 




0 • 

• • 


• * 


• • 


• • 




DIST3Ip f .C 2 (Goat. ) 

Supervisors' Inspect ion Study. Course: A boramittef consisting of Supervisors 
Clark, Conner and Richey has been appointed to sp up the work of the Inspec- 
tion Study Course and submit recommendations. 

T he Abo rt, Squi rrel has finally been protected by law, the present session of 
the Colorado legislature having passed a bill closing the season upon them. 
This squirrel Is not numerous throughout Colorado, but appears in the" yellow 
pine district usually from 7,000 to 9,000 elevation* Black and. gray squirrels 
are born in the same nest and seemingly live together as though they were the 
same color. They have been noted on the Colorado Forest since its creation 
in 190 5. • j .. ;. (• 


Would Hpnor Supe rvisor ; In the construction of an auto road to the summit of 
Mount Graham on the 0>ook, the people of Safford, Arizona, propose to call 
it "The Swift Trail,". The newspaper announcement closes with this paragraph; 
"This road which is going to be of so great a benefit in the way of health, 
happiness and prosperity has been secured for us through the untiring efforts 
of Sorest Supervisor T c T. Swift, who for the last fourteen years has been 
in charge of the' office, here,, and who has always worked unselfishly and at 
all times for the best interest of the people of the valley and of Safford. 
We would like",' in 'order to show our apprec iation of all that he has done, to 
suggest to the Forest Service that this road be called "The Swift Trail 

flkali_ Ganges, and ..Salt;' "A theory , of long standing," says the Lincoln, "ad- 
vanced and sustained by. certain old-time stockmen to the effect that cattle 
will not eat and do not require salt on alkali ranges', has -been exploded." 
Hanger \V. H. Woods a rid. ,'some stockmen have-made a trial and the conclusion 
came in 'favor of the' service requirement. According to the story, the stock- 
men even -put up'a wager, but the eat tic, .though on a strongly alkalied range, 
were very glad to get the .salt. Supervisor A? thur has received a letter from 
one of the stockmen which completes the tale; "Dear Sir: Hanger Woods, IT. N. 
Turner and myself tried, out the salt on La Luz Allotment.' The cattle did eat 
it s so I take off my hat and apologize and will put out salt at once» Woods 
won but would not take the money, "^ours truly, Eli Moser." 1 

A Veteran ; Next month, Hanger "H. L„ Taylor of the Crook Forest will have been 
a member of the Forest Service 15 years and during the entire time he has 
served on the same Forest arid has been under the same Supervisor. Can it be 
beaten? i 

Porcup ines , Menace, "Frijol es" ; Supervisor Andrews of the Santa Fo is appealing 
to the Biological Survey for help. Porcupines have become so numerous and 
are c osjnitting such depredations on the pines in El Canon del Hi to de los 
Prijoles that the beauty of that canyon is actually threatened. According tp 
ifohger" Lomlav, who is custodian of the Bandelier national Monument within 
which the Fr'ij'oles Canyon is situated, the porcupines • attack old and young 
timber alike. • f 2hey-.kra. uaiC tob« -rrAkirc dangerous hoadway, and it "is feared 
ifhat unless the porcupines arp eradicated the canyon may be denuded of its 
pine timber. No doubt the Biological Survey has a remedy that will be effec- 


' -her e the -T ame C ame, .F rom ; The name of the Caribou National Forest is supposed 
by many to be derived from the graceful, fleet-footed animal of that name, in- 
dicating' that it formerly abounded in that region,. Although deer, elk, and 
badger ar . at home there and trout are plentiful in the streams , no" caribou is 
known co-'havj ever been seen in southern Idaho. y' M ' 

according to Frank IL Butler, a veteran ranger of the Caribou, the 
mountain and post office from whioh the Forest afterward took its designation, 
got th.-ir -name in. this wise: 


DIST?J.CT 4 (Cont. ) 

Whore the Hams, Came, From (Cont.): 

Origin of " Caribo u" 

( About the year 1871, a man by the name of John Pa ire nil d came to Soda 
Springs, Idaho, from the mining camp of Caribou in the British possessions. 
Ke was known to the general public as "Caribou Jack." He made a prospecting 
trip to what is now known as "McCoy Greek." This stream flows east into 
Snake Hivcr, about the middle of District lib. 2, Caribou national Bbrost, 
There he found gold in paying quantities which became known as "Caribou's 
diggings." Soon there was a rush to the new find, and the streams were named 
for the nun who located the best paying claims, viz., McOoy' Creek, Keenan 
Greek, etc. The most valuable claims wore found on Roc nan 'Jrcek, and quite a 
settlement was formed at the junction of Heonan and McCoy creeks and was known 
as Keenan City. At one time it had a population of 300 or more. 

"Caribou Jack" came to this locality alone and lived alone. He had 
very indifferent success as a miner, as he was of a shiftless nature. His oper- 
ations were placer. mining of a crude style. He sank one shaft eighty feet deep 
on the head of Keenan Creek, but failed to find bed rock. This old shaft is 
still in evidence. He continued in this vocation until about the year 1880, . 
when he followed a wounded bear into the willows on Bear' Creek, about two miles 
south of Soda Springs, where ho was killed by the bear. — Caribou Notes. 

Dis trict 4 foop lo in Washingt on: Winkler says that the Washington office is not 
such a strange place to one -coming from District 4 as 'might bo at first supposed 
There are lots of familiar faces there* He lists the following people: 

Our former District Foresters 5 L. P. Kneipp and E. A. Sherman, P. W. 9Uod, 
who was once Assistant District Forester here, Clinton G. Smith, ex-Supervisor 
of the Cache Forest., B„ V- .Reynolds of Lands long ago, J. E. Scott of Public 
delations, and Messrs. Baldenburg- and Cook, a't one time connected with Accounts 
in this off ice. . Then, also, there is W. B. Spar hawk, who was Forest Assistant 
in this District and worked on many Forests. Among the ladies are Mrs. Burn- 
ham, who at one. time worked in' Grazing, Miss Mary Moore, who was Mr. Sherman's 
stenographer, .Miss McDevitt who, a long time ago, was mail. clerk with Miss 
Patterson and. later worked in -the Supply : Depot , Miss Childs,onco of Lands, and 
last, but not least, Mrs. Sarah Gr. Totten whom we w.ll knew so well. 


Trut h is Mighty and Shall Prev ail: About a year ago we published in THC IIMBE3- 
MAN an article delving into the relative costs of sawing large and small logs. 
This was part of the general campaign to convince lumbermen that leaving small 
trees for seeding purposes is good business simply because of the excessive 
cost of manufacturing lumber from them. Our study showed a sawing cost per M 
of $5.65 for 8" logs and $1,57 for 40" logs. These figures, when presented to 
lumbermen, wore seriously questioned, and the implication was made that they 
wore unworthy of much credence. . . .. , 

In the AMERICAN LUMBERMAN for February '10 ,' 1923, page 63, are given re- 
sults of a similar study made by a representative of the Long-Bell Lumber Com- 
pany. His figures are $6.16 for 6" logs and £l.6t for 24" logs, or slightly 
above the Forest Service, estimates. — S.BcS. 

No Move at Sa n Francisco ; The possibilities of providing adequate quarters in 
the Post Office Building at San Francisco for the District offices have van- 
ished. The Area Coordinator submittjd an adverse report against having th„ 
Post Office Department shrink on -its space requirements and make room for the 
Forest Service. • .. 

The Perry Building will thoro fore continue to be the home for the Dis- 
trict office. About a year ago an investigation made seemed to indicate the 
possibility of providing office space for the District office if the Post 
Office Department could be persuaded to make some shifts. Had such accommoda- 
tion been made, the Forest Service would have been able to savo the money no- 
spent for rental for present quarters. 




Designed 6y S. W. WYNNE 

The tent shown in the picture was occupied by the construction crew. It has no other part 
in the scheme of affairs on Black Fox Lookout. 

iOgden-2-9-23— 2,050) 




erbi tt Bui 

U. S. Tor est Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 



vol. vLi,-m. 17, 

Washington, D. 0. 

April 33, 1923, 


By John H. Bit ton 
(Ggden Grazing Conference) 

•There are certain fundamental principles of organization within the 
Forest Service which are now generally agreed upon, I think, and which are 
Well for us to keep in mind in discussing" any division of accountability 
or responsibility among, the various classes of Service personnel. 

I think I may sum up in the beginning, the whole trend of the matter 
by stating .that it is the general policy, to extend authority and place re- 
sponsibility as much and as rapidly as possible to the man nearest the job 
or the. work to be performed; with only such oversupervision or direction as 
will make for the greatest efficiency and progress. ' This, I take' it, is 
the ideal or objective in Service organization. How closely the Service 
as a whole or any branch of the Service is getting to the ideal should be 
revealed by analysis. 

There is an old saying or proverb, and I think it is a correct one, 
that "responsibility is half of life." In other words, it makes for the 
rounding out of character and for higher efficiency., If this be true, it 
is something to be coveted or sought after rather than shunned. "Passing 
the buck" is a language entirely foreign to this principle. The officer, 
to grow and develop, should have responsibility pushed toward him, not 
pulled from him, and such an officer is willing to take it on even at the 
risk* of profiting by occasional mistakes or errors, or possibly losing 
favor by such errors. I think such mistakes, if made, would not be at all 
serious. In fact, I believe the more final the' .responsibility, the less 
likelihood for mistakes or errors. There will be greater care exercised 
in seeing that the job is finished and perfect than when the officer has 
the feeling that the next fellow will. catch what he misses. I think this 
is especially true in putting out policy statements. Established policies' 
will be more closely adhered to where responsibility is more or less 'final. 
This may sound like a travesty on human nature because human nature gener- 
ally likes to avoid the possibility of criticism. Nevertheless, I believe 
I am correct in the conclusions I've stated. 

Of course there are different degrees and spheres of responsibility, 
and there is such a thing as overloading the subordinate before he is 
trained or ready. I like, however, to think of the subject from this 
standpoint - of putting responsibility on the individual - not from the 
standpoint of making each officer from the chief down through the various 
subordinates to the man on the ground responsible in the last analysis for 
all the intimate details of the job to be done. 

In the early days of the Service we didn't hesitate to delegate re- 
sponsibility; and as I think back and recall how men we 'knew' little' about 
were put in charge of Forests with limited experience, few instructions, 
and little help, and how these men in practically every case made good, I 
believe we can afford. not only to pass out authority that wo kxiow men will 
redeem, but even go farther and take what seem -'cc- be chances, sometimes, 
on men making good. 

DIV ISION , OF RZ5 gD ITS 13 IL I TY iCont.) 

Contrast the entire procedure with that of to-day. Nov; we hedge 
about our personnel with voluminous memoranda „ We build up a record of 
plusses and minuses, positives and negatives, and we are very careful not 
to leave out any of the negatives and minuses. We put a slide rule on the 
officer and we measure his mental and personal characteristics, the shape 
of his legs and size of his feet, as it were, and we possibly get out of 
it a 5C or 60 per cent ranger. Then we go into a brown study and wonder 
where we are going to get material to fill the vacancies, 

I believe there is such a thing as the higher executive knowing too 
much detail. He is apt to try to do too much of the actual work himself, 
and thus detract not only from his own value as an executive, but he will 
not bring out the best in his subordinates. We hear of men coming up from 
office boy to president, and there have been and are noteworthy examples of 
this, especially in railroad and such organizations, hrt I wonder if a man 
may not become as valuable in organizations such as ours if he jumps or 
passes lightly over some of the intermediate grades. I believe he can, 
and perhaps be a more valuable executor than if he felt he must know and 
be able to actually do all the intimate details of every job. While it is 
usually desirable, it is not always necessary to come laboriously through 
every intermediate grade, in my judgment, although he should be given a 
chance to learn something about them. The biggest thing, as I see it, is 
the proper perspective and point of view, or the ability to get it. Give 
me that in an officer and I don't care whether he comes from New Zngland, 
or from Colorado or California - I was going to say in our grazing adminis- 
tration, I don't care whether he 'knows a cow from a steer, but I won' t put 
it quite that strong. But I do want to say this: That I don't care whether 
ha has served a long or short apprenticeship in every one of the interme- 
diate grades. In fact, I believe such men come to the organization untram- 
meled by the past or by old-time prejudices, and are in abetter position 
to look on things with a broader outlook, to get a better perspective and 
to show better discernment in picking out the essentials which make for 
advancement infi progress, 

From the ground up our personnel are rounded out, as far as actually 
Living about and doing the many detailed things necessary to do are con- 
cerned. They are not piece workers in the ordinary sense. Outside of cer- 
tain specialists the man on the ground actually does the work as well as 
his superior, if not better, and the main function of the higher-ups is to 
make available for general application not only the improved methods or 
things that he or his specialists find out, but to correlate and make avail- 
able and of general help the good ideas and methods discovered by the man 
on the ground who is doing the actual work, and who is really in a position 
to discover ways and improved procedure that no one else is in a position 
to discover. 

In one of his discussions Colonel Greeley said (and this seems to 
restate my first conclusion): "The most farsighted thing Mr, Pinchot ever 
did to insure the future growth and strength of the organization which he 
created was the establishment of the district offices shoving responsi- 
bility out into the field. Personal accountability is part and parcel of 
the same principle; we are simply giving it a keener edge." (To be contin- 
uede ) 

By Ward Shepard, Washington 

\7alter Lowdermi'lk' s career in forestry, begun as a student at oxford, 
continued as a ranger in Arizona, transferred to the forestry forces in 
Ptance during the war, and taken up again in the 5b rest Service as liaison 
officer in Research in District 1, now finds him a professor of forestry 
in the University of Hanking, China. Apparently Lowdermilk is bent on a 
sort of forestry circumnavigation of the globe, and a recent letter gives 
some interesting glimpses of his latest post; 


A HSSTKESS , (Concluded) 

"My work will have to do with the amelioration of the economic strain 
resulting from the wasteful usei of the natural resources of the country. The 
only remnants of the original forest cover are found within the Buddhist 
tenipie enclosures. As one might suspect, the Chinese type of civilisation 
has not made provision for forest perpetuation. The forest cover on- the hills 
has been repeatedly removed .and at. the present time forests are not permitted 
to regain their place, because the grass and every other vegetative cover is 
annually cut - literally shaved off - hound into bundles and carried. by 
coolies into the city for. fuel* This, grass fuel is used for cocking only. 
Pael for heating is practically unknown among the 'Chinese* . ... . . . . 

'"Along with the shortage of fprests are the other unhappy results of 
denuded lands. And it is this that we are hoping to be instrumental in 
remsdying. 1 am glad to tell you that a grant was given to the College of 
Agriculture and Ibrestry for the project of permanent famine relief, or for 
the removal of causes of famines. This grant is for $675,000 gold. It is 
mere than likely that much of this sum will be matched by funds from the 
Chinese. This means that our work is pretty well, provided for. We can go 
ahead with some sense of satisfaction'. 

. ' "At the present time I am 'studying the Chinese language 1- am only 

teaching three classes a week, for the language is supposed to take up .one's 
; time pretty fully, tfext year I shall begin the rather extensive trips for a 
general, survey of the problems." '•'•*' ' ■' ' '■'■"' '•' 


Ey E. E. Carter, Washington . v 

■ • ' ''.'" ' ■ . ' ••■ •- '.' ■ ■ ' '■... . '■'''■]' 

"MrV. C.' G. 'Sauers, Assistant to the Director, Department of Conserva- 
tion, Indianapolis, Indiana, ' states that Indiana wishes to seoure sih assistant 
to Mr. Charles C. D vh,.' State Forester. The qualifications of the '.man and 
the scope of the job as stated are; ' ' ' ' 1 " ; t • 

"It is necessary that this' man have some experience in- hardwood for- 
estry typical of. Indiana. He' should" have ' a good presence and bW&bie^to deal 
with the pv.tlicV We propose 'to 1 ' Use this man 'to . run the ibrestry . office t 
car :-7 on some experimental work' at ? the : State Eorest, assist Mr'.'-'Deam' in the 
ins pectibn 'of woodlands which - are ; to come under our taxation lav/, and to carry 
' on propaganda work." ; ,v ! • V ' ; ' . "' ':j,C''S ''".'' "' ' ' v ". " : 

' The" salary 'which the " State '• is willing to pay is $»1,800 to |E,000 and 
traveling expenses." If a man had wide experience and be particularly fitted 
for the work, this salary might be increased somewhat. 

If" anyone is interested in this po'sit ion and' can meet the 'qualifications 
described, he should' correspond directly with Mr. Sauers. ;'; 

;: J'-; ' WORDS V 'WORDS'. " . /•■ •" 

"Why- send a battalion of words after an idea when' -a Single sniper will 
do 'better?" This' epitomizes the worst 'fault in most writing - verbosity. 
That it is not limited to modern days is shown by - a translation of the 23rd 
Psalm made "in . 1689 'by an English ecclesiastic -No"* one will ever : fcrget the 
.simple beauty" of this familiar line-- f^om'-'the King James 'version*. "He maketh 
me to lie down in green pastures; he Seadeth' me beside the still waters." 
But the wordy Dean translated the' 1 passage thus", as quoted by a recent writer: 

"For as a good shepherd' leads his sheep in the violent heat to shady 
places, where they may lie down and feed,' not in parched, but in fresh and 
green pastures, and in the evening leads them, not to .muddy and troubled 
Waters', but to r pure and quiet streams'-' so hath He already made a fair and 
pledtifiit provision for me, which I enjoy in 'peace without any dis'turbanc.e. " 

S '-- 'd'if'fe^ncj©t The first "is so real as almost to iisemV'a thing 
rather than" an ir>.ea;' : ih3 second gives you a headache . It will pi'y anyone who 
Wants r,o improve hi s writing to analyze 'these, two passages and., determine y/hy 
one- will forbver grip the human heart" and the other '.remain burled;" in its own 
dust, '■ '■ : ' 

The Bulletin will give a free subscription for the answer that shows the 
best analysis in" the best English.— W.S . ' 


Mr, Bates' article "Is Our S--.12Z Policy Consistent," Washington Office 
Bulletin, March 19, gives cause for reflection. He makes the following points 
in his article: t ' . \ 

1. That increased sales of National Forest stumpaga will increase con- 
sumption which is -considered undesirable, 

2. Silvicultural sacrifices are being made in our sales practice to 
increase sales, 

3'. We are losing money by selling our stumpago now. 

4, That we are in fact practicing timber mining. I would like to offer 
the following, comments on those points: 

1, The placing- of National Forest stump age on the market will not in- 
crease consumption except as it influences price, and in ^iew of the present 
situation the Forests could serve no higher purpose. 

2, This point is not' clear for, as far as 1 know, there are no silvi- 
cultural sacrifices being made. It ia true that there are places where com- 
plete utilization is not being obtained, However, to say that a silvicultural 
improvement is not being made by the cutting does not conform with the con- 
ditions on the ground as I see them. 

3* It was. refreshing to note a technical forester who had separated his 
calculations from his compound interest tables. But why do so in this partic- 
ular case? If the $54 calculated as the immediate return were put out for the 
20 years at 4 pqr cent compound interest, the loss due to increased stumpage 
which, because of the immediate cutting, Causes all the loss shown by Hr. 
Bates, would be more nearly $> 2 5 thair&%. 

4. Conclusion III is not fair in that Mr. Bates assumes that we are not 
and will not practice forestry.. As a matter of fact, he can have no basis for 
assuming that we are not and will not get a sustained yield. • I know of no case 
in this District where the estimated yield is being overcutt. Mr. Bates him- 
self assumes entirely the viewpoint of the timber miner, in that he implies 
that we will go ahead and cut in 30 years and not operate on a sustained yield 
basis. If we can cut a million feet from a working c ire le now, how can we cut 
more 20 years from now if there is no growth in the meantime? We simply lose 
the interest on the money we get 4 from our present cut, as well as postponing 
the day when we can get our forests more nearly on. a normal basis. If Mr* 
Bates had assumed that he was clear cutting that acre and removing the 30,000 
feet and that there were 160 of those acres, one to be cut each year of the 
160 year rotation, his calculation would 'have more nearly fitted what v/e are 
striving for and are obtaining in a rough way and his figures would have shown 
a dead loss. In other words', if his hypothetical case had been based on for- 
estry practice rather than timber mining, his conclusions would have been 
entirely different. 


Mr.. Raph ael Zon of the Washington Office recently delivered before the Brook- 
lyn Academy of Arts and Sciance a lecture entitlad, "Forests and Human Life." 
This talk was not in the form of propaganda but consisted merely of facts and 

"What's Wrong With Cattle?" is the title of an informative article by Will C. 
Barnes appearing in the February issue of TH3 FI^LD ILLUSTRATED. 

Muchas. Kracias'. "Editor, 'Service Bulletin* 

"Dear Sir: Perhaps the enclosed remarks may be available for 
your ever interesting family journal. I always read it more carefully than I 
do the daily paper or the Atlantic Monthly." 

W&SHIH&TON Jfot'jSS (Concluded) 

Ano the r Shor t Qu tt Effective July 1, the letter of authorization from the 
Secretary of Agriculture to the Porecter will be modernised according to 
advance information, - In connection with the authorization for the publication 
of advertisements. At present timber sale, grafciiig and other gftveft tikements 
can' be placed only with newspapers approved in advance. Under 1 :- no* o£der 
of things it -..'ill be unnecessary in the future .to specifically it.^y-v *he 
various publications in advance of the publishing .' of advertisements therein. 
This new authorization is to be effective by the incorporation cf the follow- 
ing iiu.tite gonial ?to. the ' Forester: "to .authorize the.. publication of 
such advertisements as may be necessary in such newspapers as will best serve 
the need of the United States,"— P. U.K.-. 

"How Pbrests Fe ed th e Clouds." and "Pbrests and Human Progress," are t-ha titles 
of two lectures by Raphael 2cn, which will soon appear in a book of assembled 
lectures given by various men before the summer .school at Columbia - 
This bobk will be published by Xoubleday,' Page & Company' through' the coopera- 
tion of Dr.. Caldwell of Lincoln School at Columbia University. A copy will be 
placed free of charge in the library of every high school, of which there are 
two or three hundred thousands • :• 

PI STRUT 1 - N ORTHERN DI STRICT' -' ■■' ' 't , ■ 

A Personal &o h iev ,efflant:- Hot many men in ■••'the Service ever have a 'chance to 
show the value. o.f their services to the Government in dollars and cents as 
clearly as James W. Girard, logging Engineer in District 1, has recently. 
How many of us could 'make good if we had the chance like Jim, didvis: ; an' open. ■ • 
question. While expressing the value of three or four days- in' dollars-, and . , 
c ts sounds all right, the cents nay as well be dropped in- this^case,, for 
v-uy are insignificant. In fact, what Jim really did can be rounded off to 
ih 3 nearest &25,0Q0 or ^' 50 ,000. In the long run probably the best we. could 
do .vould be to name it in; the nearest $100,000. But to the point: What did 
Jim do? '.'.■•'■-'"'. . . 

When the big Malheur chance was readvertised at the reduced price of 
| 2.00 per E, Jim's feelings were rather hurt, and his loyalty to Uncle Sam 
spurred him to do something to prevent a sale in which he felt said Uncle • -'• 
would not be getting full value. You see, Jim had helped make the 'appraisal 
of this chance, and his judgment was at stake, Jim knows timber in big • "Germs, 
the costs of logging and milling to the nth degree. So he just ran over' to 
see some of the north f Idaho operators. He only saw one, and this man, a?.' a ■ 
dark horse, was the successful bidder. He never even saw the timber, but based 
his bid of $2. 80' entirely on Jim's judgment. He simply asked Jim the facts, 
about the main features. "That's good enough for me to shoot millions oh, 
The timber is. mine," he said. And so it is, and so one man in the Se>~ic9, • 
by his initiative and by the reputation he has for knowing his business, earned 
for his employer in three days more than his salary for a couple of life 
times. — T.S. 

Ti mber Sale on the C oeur d'_Alens: This district is about to advertise 70 mil-, 
lion feet of timber on Burnt Cabin Creek on the Coeur d'Alene, 'of which 79. ; per . 
cent is white pine. The sale will include a rather interesting provision re- 
quiring the purchaser to construct ten- miles of main line railroad, which will 
become the property of the United States at the end of the sale. I he entire 
cost of the railroad will be depreciated against the Br.rnt Cabin timber. About 
600 million feet of. merchantable timber in the. Id t tie "North' Pork of the Coeur 
d'Alene will be made accessible by farther .extensions of this railroad, and' in 
future dales the Service will, of course, get the benefit of the railroad 
construction to log the Burnt Cabin chance, which will result in considerably 
higher stump age prices. The Burnt Cabin timber is being; advertised at $4.50 
per M for white pine, §1.00 for spruce, and 50 cents for. fir , larch, white, 
fir, and hemlock. The competition for -white pine in the ; Coeur d'Alene region, 
is very keen, and five or six bids are expected. The £ittle North 5<ork Work- 
ing Circle should maintain a sustained yield of'a-bout 15 million feet, and the 
railroad will serve as a permanent means of -transportation. 


D ISTRICT 2 - I& CIIY IMMMM dis trict 

De linquent Grazing F ees: The record for the District shows about §4,350 in 
1921 fees still delinquent, covering 34 cases. Jbr 1922, it shows 238 cases 
with $11,000. 

Increase i n Compen sation for Injury Cases : The Medicine Bow Forest has had 
ten compensation for injury cases in less than a year. The causes include 
injury from using an ax (? ) , a saw, horse kicking, lifting on a rock, falling 
down on rocks, horse stepping on foot, and from using snowshoes(? ) . 

The desirability of returning to field tests for ranger and forest 
assistants is suggested to include use of ax, saw, snowshoes and care of 

E dith a. M asher Publishes Const ructive Tree-Study Lessons : Miss Edith 3.. 
Ho she r, formerly of the Washington office, some years ago compiled "Forest 
Study in the Primary Grades, 1 ' which was published by the State of Michigan 
in conjunction with the Forest Service, and has since been used as a text- 
book in the public schools of that State. She is now living in Centerville, 
Michigan, While in a sanitarium in Albuquerque, New Mexico, sh'e finished 
her university course, securing the degree of AJ, She has recently pub- 
lished, through C. W. Bardeen & Company at Syracuse, New York,' a series of 
five graded books on Nature Study. 


Wha t a Decade has Dpnein. Reads; During the last ten years many miles of For- 
est roads and trails have been built in D-5. Of the majer prpjects Arizona 
has had 137 miles and TKew Maxico 126; in minor roads Arizona 672 and New 
Mexico 345. Trails 1,022 miles in Arizona and 1,165 in New Mexico have also 
been made. The cost of these roads and trails has amounted to $3,021,592. 

A Goronado Shade , Tre e; A cottonwood tree 26|r feet in circumference d.b.h. , 
and about 70 foot high was recently discovered in Happy Valley, Rincom Dis- 
trict, by Messrs. Grubb and Olson. We don't claim that this is the largest 
tree in District Three, but it represents fairly good growth for a region 
.that is, in some quarters, supposed to be capable of producing nothing but 
cactus and brush. — Coronado. 

Grown-up Scouts ; Opportunity is to be given a group of men to occupy a scout 
camp and romp for a week. Camp Lawton on the Coronado . has become very pop- 
ular with boy scouts. Several hundred of them enjoyed its outings last year. 
This year the scouts propose to turn their camp over for a part of the sum- 
mer to business and professional men of Tucson and neighboring towns who need 
the kind of an outing boys enjoy. The boys think their dads who grew up be- 
fore the days of scouts did not, of course, have near the fun they have now., 
and wish to show them what a wonderful place for a good clean time a boy 
scout camp is. To be sure, the boys will caution the big scouts to be care- 
ful not to burn the woods down and to leave a clean camp. 

Shooting Holes f or Telephon e Po les ; Santa Fe says it is practical and cheap. 
According to the Santa Fe Bulletin, experiments made on that forest have 
demonstrated that holes for telephone poles may be Successfully shot out at 
a reasonable cost. A driving bar with a turned over head should be used. 
'After being driven to the depth at which it is desired to set the pole,' the 
bar hole is loaded with TNT or picric acid in amount sufficient to blow out 
at top of ground. A little cleaning out makes the hole ready for setting 
the pole. 

Edward Guest 

Somebody said that it couldn' t be done, 

But he, with a chuckle replied, 
That may be it couldn't, but he'd not be one 

To say so till he tried. 
So he buckled right in, with a bit of a grin 

On his face - if he worried he hid it. 
He started to sing, as he tackled the thing 


It's Go 1 1 i ng 0_v or : The smoking cars on the Northern Pacific Railway have a 
nqat sign about 6" x 8", white card, red border, black letters, which roa&s., 



Avoid Fires 

> ■ 

Do not throw lighted matches, ciga-'' : 
rettes or other fire from windows. : 


Northern Pacific Ry. Oo. : 

The smoking cars of the Oregon Electric.; out of Portland, up the Willa- 
mette Talley, carry a similar card. The Tacoma.Shriners used a.. windshield 
sticker at their annual convention last summer and at other times, and will 
use the same this year on their pilgrimage to Washington, D« C. The sticker 
is 5" x 24" , bright yellow. In the center is Jilt.* Rainier cud the Tacoma 
Shrine Emblem, while in very heavy black letters on the left are the words: 
"HOT SANDS,." and on the right, "POT OUT YOUR FIRES." 

An Envia ble jiecordi Supervisor Brown of the Fremont is in on pretty near 
everything that takes place in his country, which shows that the community 
appreciates a public spirited Bbrest officer. '. Brown is -. President' o„f the 
local Chautauqua Association; member of the Executive Committee of- the /Lake- 
view RQ&V& Gun Club, Director of the Lakeview Round-up Association;. ■ Blaster 
of the Masonic Lodge;. Scribe of the Royal Arch Masons ; Treasurer of Lakeview 
Encampment ,* ; member of Building Committee, Methodist Episcopal 
Church ; ( just comple ted a $40 ,000 church) ; wide acquaintance, with'/ school 
teachers and officers, Boy Scouts, and County Courts of. lake and Klamath 
counties .--J .D.G. ' «•.«• 

Re^l^r__Pa,rn ham of t he Sisk iyo u Rem arks; ■ '"Yea,, Boy, the Study Course, am here, 
sho 1 nuf. When I master this Land Exchange subject I'm going ' to hang out my 
shingle* However, I'm like the fellow who kicked about too much- salt in the 
bread, 'It's just the way I like 'it,'' 

Good stuff for a fellow to put under his hat all right. "v. 


The 1923, Surrey Program of the Allegheny' Purchase Unit is an ambitious.,- one. •• 
It is expected that approximately 100,000 acres offered.- by some 60 owners and 
made up of about 115 tracts will be surveyed. To accomplish this it will he 
necessary, to run approximately 600 miles of line. It is planned to maintain 
three survey camps of two crews each; An Examiner of Surveys.- will be in 
charge of each camp and will be assisted by two -trans itmen. The Examiners 
of Surveys who will be in charge -of', the work are James'' Denman, A, R. Kinney, 
and A« A. Riemer. Trans itmen will be selected' from; the eligible list result- 
ing from the rece'nt transitmah examination. '-'The personnel of the three camps' 
• will include some 35 to 40 men when recruited ^to full "'strength. 

• (Clipped' from the Star - Mena, ' Arkansas ) 

Stretching away westerly from Acorn in the northwest corner of Polk 
County, like a mighty tentacle from the city spider, winds the recently con- 
structed highway, fostered by the Forest Service Department of the Government, 
and under the; constructive direction of one of the best road builders in the 
South, M, L« Bell, formerly of Vandervoort, 

To one who has traveled slowly over it, .closely 'observing all details, 
the striking impression is made that marvelous result's follow when good 


judgment is-, -brought to bear on laying out the advantageous location ox a 
roadbed above-' possible overflows; at times leaving the ancient routes once 
taken by the ...early pioneers, of least resistance, shortening or . elimination 
of curves; placing of durable culverts, and, in fact, making a complete job 
of it. . 

. The old- time methods have given away to modern ones wherein stump- 
lifting powder is supplemented by three and four teams attached to heavy 
graders, which cleave their way through tenaoious roots and stones and leave 
a nicely crowned and packed surface, over which traffic can speed, in keep- 
ing with ways of modern business. 

By Claude Ballard 

The "Boys" in the Forest Service got together at the University Club 
Thursday, April 19, in an old-fashioned. Smoker. Several officials of the 
Interior Department were present, as were also several members of the De- 
partment of Agriculture outside the Forest Service. The program consisted 
of selections by an improvised quartette composed of Messrs. Noroross, 
Barnes, Scott Ballard, and Hilton. Paul Kelleter, better known as "Shorty," 
rendered a few choice selections on the piano. He also' acted as pianist for 
the quartette. Mr. Barnes gave a talk on incidents in his early life that 
proved very interesting to the members present, some of -whom never knew that 
fill was a sure-enough Indian fighter in the days that Geronimo and his band 
roved the plains. Inraan ^Idredgo told of hie early days in the. forest 'Serv- 
ice, would up his ia 1 V:;;.iti?' *>v.e or- two good stories.' Messrs. .Mat toon, 
0 v;r\, r-n-uar, - a.-' i > V'V "0 ^-vj a tcovrt-room scene that was a "scream." 
&fv;i* the. -:.- 1 :ter tali:; ;r* .,s 14 - viore served to the assembled multitude. 

The^e Get- -Tog- ttsaa? rieot lug's are' very much enjoyed by members .of the 
Service, and. they ha7e got. to be annual affairs.- "All left with, the' feeling 
that it was good to have been there." 

' By Hoy Headley, Washington 

The following extract from the newly issued Manual of the Pennsylvania 
Department of Forestry is an interesting expression of the judgment of Penn- 
sylvania Foresters on proper standards ' for Forest roads : 

" R egulation A-28 

" A standard forest road of the Department is 7 feet from the inner 
edge of one ditch to the inner , edge of the opposite ditch, an d with a grade 
npt to exceed ,. 8 , per cent. Variations f rom the s e standards will be made 
only wit h the approval of "0" . 

"The need for roads for forest protection and administration is so 
great that a greater length of narrow serviceable road is more important 
than less road of greater width. Because of soil conditions or the needs 
of traffic, departures from the standard width may occasionally be neces- 
sary. It may also be necessary, in order to avoid unwarranted expense, to 
permit a grade in' excess of 8 per cent-for a short distance. In such cases 
the District Forester (between the District Hanger and the- 5brest Super- 
visor in the U. S. Forest Service, - H.H. ) will report the facts fully to 
the Bureau of Operation with .his recommendation of the type of road to be 


U.S. Forest Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 

to: "ai, Wo. lb 

Washington, Dv £}', 

April 30, 1923. 

******** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * '* * '.I: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * sji * * i(s s|s * * )|i * * * * * * 





One moro honor has been rsea.ived' by Colonel 
Greeley, the War 'department on Wednesday, April 25, 
having conferred upon him the Distinguished "Service 
Medal for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished 
services during the Wojrld J7ar,c V The .medal' was bestowed, * 
by the' Secretary' of War 1 'in,! ,tJie presence of General ' * 

* -Hines, Rear^Admiral : Fletcher, Lieu tenant -Col one! * 

* Herbs t, Major Maddux, and Mr. Robert .Brookings', ■ ' "* 
former msmbar of the War Industries Board. 


. The' citation accompanying th$- ^jasifcow&l-- of the Dijsj f 
tinguished Service- 1 ' MedkT said: ;;• l : 

■ . -"William B; Greeiey',. liau tenant^ colonel , 

. Engineer officers Reserve Qo.rpSr then- lieu tenant- 
, colonel, Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army. For exceptionally meritorious and dis- 
tinguished services. In charge. p'£l ithe- Forestry 
section of the Division of Construction in 
Forestry from June, 1918,.. ,tp July, 1919 , ? he ' /. 
- • supervised the operations of all forestry / 
troops in France. He. ..rendered highly impor- 
.taut and valuable service to the Government ? r 
contributing markedly'., 'to. the successes of the 
American Forces in" France.' 1 

Colonel Greeley, who was with the Forest Engineers * 
from August, 1917, to July, 1919, also has the honor * 
of having been decorated by" the French Government * 
with the Legion 6'f Honor 'and by the British Govern- * 
ment with the Distinguished Service Order. 1 '" '* 

An impromptu reception was held' in the Forester's 
office immediately after the decoration had been con- 
ferred, at which 'member's' of the Washington office 
and District- 7 expressed to Colonel Greeley Jheir 
congratulations. - : , : 

** * *.* * If ****** * * * * **. ************* * * ********** * 5)! * * 

DIVISION OP PC'S xC SblBILITY ( Cent inued ) 

By .John H, Katton 
(Ogdou Grazing Conf srenoe) 

Looking at our grazing administration, as well as other Service activ- 
ities, there has been a pretty consistent policy followed, it seems to me, of 
transferring responsibility to the field. A brief review of the Grazing 
branch of the Service takes us from almost complete control at V/ashington from 
1905 to 1908, gradually less complete control from 1909 to 1920, to almost as 
complete jurisdiction by the District offices in 1921. 

The question which arises at this time, I think, is whether there 
should be a still further extension of responsibility, not necessarily to the 
District offices, but to the Forests. Cur Forest Supervisors and dangers have 
reached their majority in most of the essential details of the grazing admin- 
istration, unless there should be rapid and radical changes in present policy; 
and in the interests of uniformity there should remain the present general 
supervisory control for a year or Wo longer, until matters become more sta- 
bilized again. However, if the policies can be definitely stated, I think we 
need not wait to place the responsibility. 

Let me present for possible discussion a few concrete suggestions: 

1 . Sec re tary.^ s_Resp_o ns ib i 1 i ty 

General control of authorizations for five-year or lower periods and 
authority to permit, regulate, or prohibit grazing on the national forests. 

2 • .forester's Re s po ns ib i l_i_t y_ 

General supervisory control under the Secretary's authorization. 
Formation of general policies.. Correlation of progressive measures and ideas 
for the Service as a whole. 3stablishment of yearlong rates. Handling of 
civil trespass cases requiring departmental action, and the larger criminal 
cases. Maintenance of general cooperative relations between the Service and 
Congressional committees, various departments, bureaus, national livestock 
associations, etc. 

3 . District Forester's Responsibility 

General control of National Forest grazing and interpretation of 
established regulations and policy. Approval of changes in authorisations 
exceeding 10 per cent. Review of Supervisors' management plans and issuance 
of needed instructions. Maintenance of cooperative relations and direct con- 
tact between Districts and local State institutions and Federal representatives 
of various bureaus. Handling of all innocent and Wilful trespass cases in ex- 
cess of $200.00 except those cases which through failure to secure settlement 
locally should be referred to the Attorney General. (If possible, procedure 
should be arranged for referring c ivil cases and criminal cases up to a certain 
size direct to the local Unit ad States Attorney when advisable.) 

4» S upervisor's Resp o nsibility . .. 

Handling of applications and issuance of permits. Allotment of range 
between different classes of stock under approved policies and pbjectives. . 
Establishment of seasons and rates less than yearlong.' -Sstablishment .of drive- 
ways. Charges in authorizations, -within 10 per cent. Handling of innocent 
trespass cases up to $200 under general trespass policy, : and small wilful 
cases involving punitive damages up to $25.00 after reference to the District 
office. (There are numbers of small wilful cases too small to refer to the 
courts, and the Supervisor could in a great many cases get prompt settlement 
if he could go direct to the trespasser and make the demand, backed by the 
District office.) Approval of special rules with livestock associations which 
have become standard policy. 

DIVISION Q? 3asa>KSIBILITY (Continued) 

5. Rancor's Responsibility 

Detailed management and control of grazing under existing regulations 
and policies. Approval of applications on districts where the grazing business 
has settled down and there is no need to consider applications from a Pbrest 
standpoint by the Supervisor himself* I am not sure wheth3r I wholly concur 
in this suggestion myself, but I want to present it for purposes of discussion, 
ff our future policy is to stabilize permits, there would be even more argument 
for the suggestion than under the present regulations. Handling by direct con- 
tact of innocent grazing trespass cases up to $50.00 after review or consulta- 
tion v/ith his Supervisor. 

As to the accountability of Pbrest officers for good management of for- 
age resources, I think that shottl* rest first with the man on the ground. With 
policies and procedure and progressive ideas now so well outlined and avail- 
; able to the field men, there should be progressive application of these prin- 
ciples and progressive installation of the ideas which studies and practical 
demonstrations have shown to be desirable. If the Washington and District 
offices and Studies men fAIl in getting these things out to the field, then I 
should say the principal responsibility for lack of progress would rest with 
these so-called clearing houses. I think, too, the District offices and Wash- 
ington office should bo responsible for seeing that Studies men are assigned 
to Ibrests as rapidly as possible where a general program of installation of 
the more intensive studies details are desirable, and which have not yet become 
so generally known and recognized* Salting plans, the bedding out system of 
gra.zing t proper seasonal control, capacity estimates, etc., need no specialists 
to put them into effect. 

As for carrying on the intimate details of pure administration, I should 
say the responsibility rests first, under present day conditions and always, 
with the local officers, and secondly, with the. District offices. In criticiz- 
ing a forest for lack of accomplishment, however, we must not overlook the un- 
usual demands made by the war, and that readjustments take time. But we must 
also recognize the war is over, as far as this country is concerned, we hops, . 
and we must not lean indefinitely on this support in making allowances for lack 
of accomplishment. I think, too, in plaoing this responsibility for accomplish- 
ment with the Jbrests we must not overlook the fact that certain responsibility 
rests with the District offices in getting around to the Sbrests at not too long 
intervals. Changes in grazing conditions sometimes occur so slowly and imper- 
ceptibly from year to year that the man on the ground all the time may not see 
them, and it requires a check from the outside to get a more accurate picture 
of what is happening. There is such a thing, too, I think, as an officer 
getting too familiar with his local conditions. 1 mean by that, having looked 
upon certain scenes so often our eyes fail to see and to note what is actually 
taking place, and it becomes advisable sometimes to furnish spectacles in the 
form of eyes from the outside, or changes in scene. These tendencies, in my 
judgment, emphasize the need for more detailed check studies on the ranges 
which will .show concretely and make permanent record of just what is happening 
from year " to year or at stated intervals, instead of depending so much upon 
general observations and opinions, which often become dulled, so to speak, by 
a familiarity which breeds contempt * contempt for closer study and observa- 
tions^ and the making of permanent records. 

As to range inspections , two weaknesses appear to have developed. ?Lrst, 
they are doubtless too superficial, and secondly,, there is not a close enough 
follow-up to see that unsatisfactory conditions are corrected after having 
been determined by inspection. '. 

The first essential of an effective inspection is the use of an outline, 
not too cumbersome or mechanical, but one that will keep before the inspecting 
officer the essentials and which will insure that proper record be made of 
facts and observations. We have attempted the use of such outlines for several 
years now, but, as in -many other things, familiarity frequently breeds con- 
tempt, and the first thing we know we are simply hitting the high spots and 
recording the things which make their most direct appeal. It frequently re- 
quires an interval of several years to getf.around to a Surest again, and the 
tendency is to try to see all the Forest in a trip of a couple of weeks, and 
obviously it is impossible under such a plan to get down <io <»auch detail on 


DI VISION fcP RE S PD NS I BT L I T Y (Joueluded) 

anything. About all that is accomplished is to call to tha attention of the 
local officer tha things that fill your ayes, and encourage him to follow them 
up and work them out. I am coming more and more to the opinion that the limi- 
tations of our field time and the necessity of spreading it out so thin in an 
attempt to cover every district of a Surest in one brief trip make it advisa- 
ble to concentrate, say, on one or two districts and take up things in mora 
detail on those particular districts, and make observations and records that 
may ba duplicated and furnished the districts not visit ad. This will help to 
show the others what are considered assentials and perhaps point the way to 
more independent work on the districts not visited. Then tha next trip around 
maka but a hurried check survey of the districts previously visited and con- 
centrate on some not cogered intensively on previous trips. I believe we will 
become more useful supervisory officers if we will follow such a program in the 

By Thao. Shoemaker, D-l 

In an editorial under the heading, "Jfcture of Forestry in People* s l&nds," 
the AMERICAN LUL33RMAK of April 7 says in part: 

" ftirestry and reforastatiojjfco-day offer a severe test to free government 
in the United States. Jire protection is said to be 85 per cent of the problem 
of reforestation of cut-over lands; and fire annually destroys enormous areas 
of mature timber. The future timber supply, therefore, is largaly in the hands 
of those who cause fires, chiefly that part of the public that does not own 
either timber or cut-over lauds; and this is the part also that complains of the 
cost of lumber whila seeking to place upon timber and cut-over landowners the 
chief burden of reforestation. 

••In a nut shall, protection of the forests from fire is resolved into the 
problem of protecting the property of timber and cut-over landowners from the 
depredations of the 'public* or at least that part of the public that causes 
forest fires. The laws now and always impose a severe penalty for negligent 
and malicious setting of fires. Ho new laws are needed; the requisite is a new 
recognition of the rights of property, a more enlightened American citizenship. 

"The problem of reforestation, therefore, practically stated, is to taach 
the people what every good citizen is already presumed to know. A great deal 
might be said about this deplorable situation, especially in view of the fact 
that it is not peculiar to the forestry problem. A great deal has been said 
about laxity of law enforcement; more should be said about law observance. 
Certainly, the people can hardly complain of the delay in reforestation so long 
as the fires they themselves cause are the most potent factor in destroying 
trees and preventing regrowth. 

"Public sentiment with respact to reforestation is steadily changing for 
the better; owners of cut-over land find their best resource, not in stringent 
laws necessarily, but in the simple expedient of showing the public its vital 
interest in fire protection and perpetuating the timber supply." 

It would be hard to state the situation more clearly, or to give a battsr 
basis for the emphasis the Service, is now giving to the task of educating the 
general public. It is not anoug|.i|o teach fire prevention alone. A knowledge 
of forests and what they mean to human welfare must become ingrained in the 
minds of the mass of the American people. It must be made a part of our ele- 
mentary education, starting not with the first year in school, but in the home 
and in the kindergarten, and continuing through all of life. It must find its 
place in our literature and in our schools, beginning with the simplest of bed- 
time stories and running through the text books on nature study, civics, eco- 
nomics, geography, and history, and on beyond the schools into the short stor- 
ies, fiction, and serious writings of our best authors. It needs to be taught 
in all these ways, and to be sung in poetry and fable until it becomes a part o* 
the whole moral and mental fiber of the nation. Mot until then will we have th: 
support that will enable us to do with the forests what our permanent prosperity 

Mr. Raphael Zon of tha Washington office has been unanimously elected to suc- 
ceed the late Dr. Fernow of Toronto as Editor in Chief of the JOURNAL 0? FOR- 
ESTRY, the organ of the Society of American foresters. Ikr„ Zon has bean acting 
in the capacity of managing Iditor since 1917, when the Fores Try Quarterly and 1 
Proceedings of the Society of American foresters were consolidated into the 

'■A Horse 1 A Horse! My Kingdom for a Horse'* : In his annual report, the Supervisor 
of on3 of District Two's Forests makes the following comment on the question of 
range inspections; 

"The Hangers have all been required to use horses this year and 

cover their range allotments on horseback. This practice will be 

continued in the future." 

She Ford, however, will be useful in getting into town to the movies Saturday 
nights. — 3d. 


Seasoning yfpo 3 by Electricity ; Seasoning wood by passing mild electric currents 
through it seems to be used in some places abroad. It is claimed that by one 
of these processes wood not only rapidly loses moisture but acquires remarkable 
tenacity and is not subject to rot* A little expsrimental work upon electrical 
secsoning done at the Laboratory indicates that claims made for these various 
prccesses are in general much overdrawn. Experience shows that there is no 
justification in expecting better results than with kiln drying methods t and it 
se<sms certain that the cost of electrical processes would necessarily be much 
greater than kiln drying* 

Correspondence in Woo d Pulp Ma nufacture ; "Going to school has been one of the 
brightest spots of my life this winter. It has brought out one thing very 
clearly to my mind. A may may be well up in his work from the practical point 
of 1 view, but he must dabble in the theory just enough to get started. Then he 
gots interested, then he wants more of it, and shortly he realizes that there 
id more to his work than he ever dreamed of as just a practical paper man." 

That is what one of the 84 correspondence-school students wrote concern- 
ing phe course in manufacture of wood pulp that is being given at the Laboratory 
in Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin. 

The 84 men enrolled ineludj superintendents, chemists, oilers, and 27 
other varieties of employment in pulp manufacture showing that in this trade, 
just as in the Forest S3rvic3, there are men occupying advanced as well as sub*- 
ordinate positions who realiZ3 the need for technical kno i .vledge of their work. 

The popularity of the courses and the stick- to- it-ness of the students is. 
indi<7ated by the fact that fewer than 5 per cent of those enrolled have dropped 
out, and by the high grades received. Of 534 papers graded, only 18, or a 
little over 5 per cent, have fallen below th.3 passing mark and had to be r3- 
Witten. High grades of 93 to 100 were received by over half of the students. 

New enrollments are approximately 8 a month, although vary little effort 
!£s been made to get publicity for the courses. Indications are that these 
Acurses will grow in popularity. 


increased Timber Bus iness in Wyom ing; The proposed North & South Railroad in 
doming, which, according to report, is to be built at an early date by the- 
Sskell interests, will be of a great deal of importance in connection with the 
VCaber business on the Bighorn Pbrest. This railroad will extend from Casper, 
doming, to Liiles City, Montana, a distance of 320 miles. 

An operator who is just starting in on the Bighorn under a small sale of 
. a^pr-oximatcl'; 6C.CC0 hewed railroad ties and a small amount of sawlogs, has re- 
Q&tly enters into a contract calling for delivery of 250,000 ties to this new 
railroad by November 15, 1923. Approximately 1,000,000 ties will be required 
fo? this railroad, so a thriving timber business on the Bighorn Fbrest is antici- 


DISTRICT 2 (Cons.) 

The demand for railroad ties elsewhere in the District ssems to con- 
tinue strong. A sale of 560,0 CO bowed railroad ties and 5,500,000 feet of 
sawlogs was recently made the Wyoming Timber .Company within the Muddy Creek 
unit on the Medicine Bow Forest; rates of 1$3$ for hewed railroad ties and 
50^ per thousand feet for sawlogs. 

Assistant gores tgr Herbert Smith spent the week 6£ April 16-21 in D-2 going 
over the working plans and general public delations work with the local of- 
fice. Mr. Smith addressed the District office meeting on Friday, April 2o. 

Colorad o , Legis lature Passes .Licen se L aw; As a climax to the cattle and sheep 
trouble which has existed in the public domain of northwestern Colorado for 
some time, the Colorado legislature, just closed, passed a license law to bo 
administered by the County Commissioners, which provides for a tax not to ex- 
ceed 5^ per head on sheep and 20^ per head on cattle coming within the Stat 3 
from other States to graze or cross the public lands. This is going to in- 
troduce a lot of difficulties in connection with the use of Forest ranges, 
where moat of the demand in the past has come from Utah, Wyoming, and other 
States, and where preference has been established by long periods of use* 
It is conceivable, where the Board of County Commissioners consists of cattle 
men, that the entrance of outside sheep might be prohibited altogether under 
this act, Wyoming has for some time had a similar act where a charge of 3^ 
per head is made cn sheep for the purpose of inspection and sanitation, but 
it is not considered a license as in the Colorado law. 


Secretary' s Visit: Secretary of Agriculture Wallace and his Administrative 
Assistant, Mr. Jump, arrived in Albuquerque from the West the morning of 
April 18 in the course of a five weeks* trip in the Southwest. Mr. Wallace 
made a brief inspection of the District office. In a few minutes in each 
branch he caught the high lights of the kind and class of work that is being 
done. Shortly after nine o'clock a Department meeting was held in the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Fmployees from all the bureaus represented in Albuquerque 
were present and listened to an address by the Secretary and to remarks by 
Mr. Jump. At ten o'clock the Secretary took part in a meeting of Southwest- 
ern stockmen and bankers. He lunched with the Kiwanis and Rotary Clubs at 
noon and spoke before those organizations which met together for the occasion, 
luring the afternoon a trip was made down the valley to the Indian Pueblo of 
Isleta, in order that the Secretary might glimpse on the way the agricultural 
possibilities of the Rio Grande Valley. The Secretary left by auto in the 
late afternoon for Santa Fe, where he spent one day, and then resumed his 
journey eastward. Members of the Department who met Zip. Wallace are impressed 
that not only is he a capable Cabinet officer, but he is intensely concerned 
in the work of every bureau and office in his Department, including the well- 
being of each employee. 

Fire Haza rd a t Zero : We think of a forest without fire hazard as a sort of 
paradise, don't we? Well, such are Brazilian forests. There is never any 
pronounced dry season and fires will not burn in the virgin forests. On the 
other hand, there are the snakes and the insects which make working in these 
forests at least interesting. The latter are especially bad in the tropical 
hardwood forests, where at certain seasons of the year it is almost impossi- 
ble to work. There are mosquitos and gnats, stinging flies and many varieties 
of ants all looking for prey and they make life miserable for one. The forests 
themselves are a tangled mass of trees, vines, creepers, etc., etc., which o::e 
can penetrate only with difficulty. And withall it's mighty hot. "Jo, one can 
not say that it's the best place on earth to work, even if there are no fires^ 

Ten Years of Ch ange: Roster of D-3 Supervisors during the last ten years indi- 
cates turnover and opportunities for advancement that one decade brings in 
forest organization. Ten years ago, of the present Supervisors, one was still 
in Forest School; one was a temporary forest guard; four were rangers; two' 
were forest assistants; one was in charge of a land classification party, and 
one was a deputy. Only three were Supervisors. 


DISTRICT 3 (Concluded) 

Who Can Sa y?: Billie Shannon writes in from the Port Bayard nursery and raises 
a question: "It is noted that in the .American Forestry Magazine's story con- 
test the Ranger is limited to 1,200 words, while his wife is allowed 2,500. 
Is this a tacit acknowledgment that the female of the species is more loqua- 
cious than the male?" 


Shelter B olts, on„ Den ver & Rio Grande; The Denver and Rio Grande Railroad has 
been experiencing much difficulty with snow in the high passes of Colorado 3nd 
also in the vicinity of Soldier Summit, Utah. It is their desire to plant troes 
along both sides of their right of way to form a shelter belt and to protact 
th,sir tracks from immense snowdrifts. 

Last week, Deputy Supervisor Van Boskirk of the Manti Purest and Super- 
visor Blakeslee of the Uinta Fbrest, met with officials of the D. & R» 6. V/. 
Railroad at Soldier Summit to discuss plans for planting timber along the right 
of way between Soldier Summit and Colton. This stretch is in a brushy country, 
covared naturally with oak brush, sagebrush and similar growth. Rainfall is 
especially low, considering the elevation, and it promises to be a problem in- 
deed to find any native and foreign species that will grow thriftily enough in 
that situation to do any good. 

Atta Boy ! "I am repairing telephone line and fences stormy days, painting out- 
side of house fair days, and I am telling you, together with the above work and 
getting ready for Forest Protection Week nights, I am awfully rushed. Then be- 
sides I am very nervous over the latter work; as you know, I am not much for 
school teachers, but I have taken up Tores t Protection Week with one who began 
by saying she has a girl friend who had- a friend who married a Fbrest Ranger whom 
she met during a campaign of this sort." — Humboldt. 

More Timber Sales : Application has been received for approximately ten million 
feet of timber, mostly western yellow pine, in the Goose Creek Chance on the 
Idaho .Forest. The Supervisor will insist that overmature inferior species, 
such as white fir, be removed. If the purchaser does not care for this class 
of material, no sale will be made. 

She_Scenjc_ Re sources of Utah: Assistant District Forester R. 3. Gery has been 
compiling a general report on the scenic and recreational advantages of Utah 
for a long time, and has collected a remarkable set of photographs of Utah 
scenery. A copy of his finished report fell into the hands of the editor of 
the Utah Pay Roll Builder, a small local magazine. They are very enthusiastic 
about Mr, Gery' s work and wish to publish it as a serial in their magazine. 

A Spring Vi sit to the Kaib ab Forest. Purest Examiner S. B- Locke, in company 
with Mr. 3. A. Goldman of the Biological Survey, made an early spring trip to 
the Kaibab National Purest in the latter part of March in order to inspect the 
winter deer range. They were also accompanied by Supervisor McPheters and 
Scott Dunham, a celebrated lion hunter. They took a drive around the edge of 
the Pbrest and found conditions very satisfactory inmost places. The shrubby 
•ipeeies upon which the deer feed are very persistent and stand the cropping vsry 
iV5il. The intensive use of some of this range is shown by a raamber of juniper 
trees which have been trimmed by the deer as high as they could reach. The 
T -p'.-ty also made a trip to Thunder River, which springs out of the side of the 
fraud Canyon and flows a few miles to reach the main Colorado River. Several 
thousand trout eggs were planted in this river which previously has been without 
?2 3h« Peculiar ecological conditions were found along this stream, the upper 
V t -t of which is a succession of cataracts. Such peculiar species as barrel 
Jactus and maidenhair fern were found within a few feet of each other. 


A people without children would face a hopeless future; a country with- 
out trees is almost as hopeless. Forests which are so used that they can not 
tenew themselves will soon vanish, and with them their benefits. A true forest 
is not merely a storehouse full of wood, but, as it were, a factory of wood, 
5.5d at the same time a reservoir of water. When you help to preserve our for- 
ests or to plant new ones, you are acting the part of good citizens — THEODORE 
RG0S373LT . 


SL5T IS 0 T _ 6 . - , K 0 ?3 H P AJliflC DISTRI CT 

ffo t. Common in That C ountry^ A game enthusiast and strong supporter of conserva- 
tion took an auto trip to Michigan. En route the party stoppod at a popular 
fishing and camping ground. The little daughter triad h3r luck at fish and not 
having much luck entreated hor father to teach her the art. He, proud of the 
confidence bestowed, took the pole and line and in a vary short time landed 
two nica trout. 

About this time a rather officious looking parson addressed the father 
thusly: "Have you a license for this county?" The father, somowhat embarrass ad, 
assured him thit he had and began to fumble in his pockets for it. The officer 
had noticed the sticker on the windshield of the car, "Put Out Keep Out Forest 
Fires." He said, "Are you the driver of that Forest Service car there?" 
"Yes," said father, u and that other gentleman is with me and I am sure he has a 
license, too." "Tha^s all right, then," said the officer, and walked away. 

" Father" writes that he is very grateful for that stickar and also that 
he will naver be caught fishing in another man's country without a license. — 

The Supervisor of t he Siskiyou say s; "In January, there ware six of us in the 
office writing reports, and we got * em" wrote, the whole 28 or so of them. There 
ara only a few stragglers left to round up now. The property is mostly show- 
ing up - there are a few mysterious disappearances, as usual, but it's turning 
out better than we thought it would. The Kerby-Page Greek telephone lins is 
beginning to look like a telephone line, in- spite of the bad weather. It may 
be of interest to know that ten to fourteen 4§--foot holes make a darned good 
day's work for a very anergetic man." 

Anothe r Rat Catcher ; There hava been several valuable formulae and handy de- 
vices, such as paint remover, chemicals to produce various colored flames, and 
rat catching' davices described in the Bulletin. 

I would like to see a spacial column or space for just such things and 
a bid mado for ideas from the field. 

The rat-catohing device made me think of a mouse and rat catcher that I 
have made use of quite often. There may be some who have not heard of it. Take 
a large vessel, such as a water pail, crock, or milk can; partly fill with 
water or other cheap fluid; tie a sheet of fairly heavy paper over tha top like 
the head of a dr\an. Than slit the paper in the middle with two cross slits in 
the form of an X and suspend a piece of cheese, an ice cream cona, or other 
handy article of food a few inches above the slit paper. Then lock up the 
remaining food in the cabin, go to bed, and if you are not too slaepy, listen 
for the splash.— F.V/.C. 


U. S. FDrest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 


Vol. VII, No, 19. 

Washington, D. C 

May 7, 1923. 

By Mo Wo Thompson, D-2 

Th3 recent decision of the Circuit Court of Appeals, by which the de- 
cree of the District Court of South Dakota was reversed in the United States 
vse Prank: Sherman case, should bo of interest to Sorest officers adminis- 
tering timber sales - particularly sales in which difficulties have been en- 
countered on account of mining claims (assuming that the Black Hills region 
is not the only one in which so-called mining claims have seriously inter- 
fered with timber operations). 

In June, 1918, a sale of approximately a million feet of timber was 
advsrtised and awarded within the Black Hills National Forest. The sale had 
not progressed very far when a mining claimant informed the local Forest offi- 
cers that he had two valid lode claims within the sale area, located about 
sixteen years previously, though there was no evidence on the ground of the 
location of the claims or that assessment work had been done* The claimant 
objected to the cutting of timber on the claims, but would not definitely in- 
dicate where the corners ware supposed to be and, as a matter of fact, claimed 
several times as much acreage as he was entitled to hold under two claims. 

Suit was brought to secure an injunction restraining the claimant from 
interfering with the cutting of timber on the claims, and a decision unfavor- 
able to the United States was rendered by the District Judge, who, it is under- 
stood, is on rather friendly terms with the mining locator, 

The primary reason for the decision apparently was the fact that the 
claimant was a man of the Hills, wasn't supposed to be a surveyor and compe- 
tent to locate claims accurately, though, as a matter of fact, he had attended 
the School of Mines at Rapid City, S. Dak. He alleged the discovery of min- 
eral, the filing of location certificates, annual assessment work done, and 
the law complied with in every respect, and received a favorable decision in 
the lower court. 

The Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the District Court. This action 
was taken largely on the basis that the claims were not distinctly marked on 
the ground so that the boundaries could be readily traced, and the location 
certificates did not describe the claims so that they could be located with 
reasonable certainty. It is brought out that possession comes only through 
valid location, and if there is no location there can be no possession under 

The evidence showed that the claimant had indicated to Forest officers 
in a general way about where original stakes were supposed to have been 
driven, or blazed trees that were supposed to have been the original corners. 

The South Dakota statutes provide that surface boundaries shall be 
marked by eight substantial posts, blazed, marked and sunk in the ground at 
each corner and at center of end or side line. The evidence showed no pre- 
tense to comply v/ith the law in this respect, and the descriptions contained 
in the location notices were not such as to identify the claims with reason- 
able certainty. These features, as well as the fact that there had never 
been any actual discovery on one of the claims, resulted in the favorable 
decision in the Circuit Court of Appeals. 

MININ G .CLA IMS VS. T 11333 SAL3S ( Concluded ) 

It should be encouraging to local 5brest officers, who have had so much 
difficulty in this case and in a number of similar cases, to learn that the 
Forest Service has taken the right stand and has been finally granted a favor- 
able decision. Everything possible has been don3 to secure a decision with 
as little delay as possible, and it is unfortunate that the operations of 
the purchaser have been delayed for several years and that he has been put to 
additional expense on that account. Such a decision should have a beneficial 
effect on other similar "hold-up" mining claimants. 


In his recent article on the consistency of our timber sale policy, 
Mr. Bates askes, "Sow can the Government reduce the present rate of cutting 
and consumption?" 

This question brings to mind another. Is it incumbent upon the United 
States, in the face of an almost certain "gap" as indicated by the Capper re- 
port, to furnish timber to foreign countries? 'From the standpoint of the 
internationalist, perhaps it is. Conversely, from the standpoint of the 
nationalist, which is the view held by the majority, it probably is not. It 
would be interesting to know what effect, if any appreciable one, the exporta- 
tion of lumber is having upon our timber supply. This- phase of the situation 
seems to -have been given little consideration. Will not some one who has the 
necessary data at- hand enlighten us?— Robert L. Campbell, D-6. 

■ AND AN AN S WEfl . 

'. i 3 Supervisor Campbell has raised a question which weeks of research and 
debate could not settle definitely, because it involves many other things than 
mathematics. ■ - 

The records show that in the 10 years previous to 1922 the average ex- 
ports of lumber -were 1 ,516 million feet per year. In the same period the im- 
ports averaged 1,088 million feet. The 'excess of exports is therefore 428 
million feet, which is 1.2. per cent of the average cut for the period. 

Supposing it possible in times of peace to establish an embargo against 
exports, the' results might be very unfavorable to the United States. It is not 
improbable that some of the lumber exported is used in American enterprise in 
foreign lands. The counter- embargoes which our action might invite would 
prove exceedingly embarrassing to our manufacturers of automobiles, airplanes, 
boats, cameras, caskets, cigar boxes, clocks, cutlery, firearms, furniture, 
interior finish^ musical instruments, paper, picture frames, scientific in- 
struments, and show cases. • ! 

The total value of exports in 1920 (wood and manufactures of wood) was 
$18$ ,.000,000, whereas the value of the imports was $208,000,000. The balance 
of trade is against us both in quantity and value. Nevertheless, for a differ- 
once of $22,000,000 we can not afford to deny ourselves the necessities and 
luxuries listed above made of the most suitable materials. 7/e get that 
amount of satisfaction out of the things we import. The balance in value 
would not be against us if it were not for the heavy imports of pulpwood, 
which we do not export.- 

The bulk of both exports and imports in lumber is not luxury woods. . 
It is a fair exchange of the work-a-day materials of the world at. points where 
such exchange is favorable to both parties. We get back in imports over 70 
per cent of the amount of lumber we export. 

If we were in the position of Canada with her pulpwood - all going out 
and none coming in - the situatio'n would perhaps warrant drastic measures for 
the national welfare. 

But 1,2 per cent of the cut is a negligible quantity,, even in this time 
of increasing need, if to retain it we would be compelled to- do things which 
would seriously affect the business world and perhaps* loweij our living stand- , 
ards. slight improv^m-tat in prevention -of wood waste would be a far. mo^e 
logical means of saving 428 million feet annually than any attempt to choke 
or divert the natural flow of commerce. — 3. V. Reynolds, Washington, 


I M S S. T l^^l 

Prometheus' gift, -'at Satan's call, 

Krora harmless glow flame- tongued you crawl 

Up mountainside and o'er its crest, 

Destroying all with cruel zest. 

You gorge on leaves and underbrush 

And blast the trees as on you rush. 

Your venom breath disrobes their green 
To towering spires and snags that lean 
As flaming brands of spiteful hate 
And mark the scene you devastate, - 
While hot winds shriek in wild delight 
And urge you on to meaner spite. 

With frenzied fear all wild life flees 
To distant groups of shelf ring trees 
Beneath the pall against the sky; 
And parching beds of streams go dry 
As on you roar with fearsoma speed 
To consummate your fiendish deed. 

Proud kings that reigned a thousand years 
Rest lifeless now on blackened biers; 
.• They smolder on - jus t burning, wood 
That smokes, and glow's., and. serves no good, 
Till low 1 ring veil of weeping cloud 
From r'ev'rent Heaven spreads a shroud. 


By V/. G. Wahlenberg, Priest River 3xp. Station 

One of the old rules of thumb in nursery ^vork prescribes that seed 
should be sown at a depth of two to four times the thickness of the seed. 
Although such rules have their value, they must give place^ in time to' the 
more exact knowledge resulting from research. 

At Savenac Nursery many of the irregularities in seed germination have 
been traced directly to sand cover of uneven depth. Bail spots under thick 
covering have been found to be due to starvation. The seeds may germinate 
and can live as long as the starchy food supply stored around the embryo lasts. 
When it is .used up the seedling must have green part.*? in the light above the 
soil, or die of starvation. Thus, sotting must not be too deep. On the other 
hand, very shallow covering is not good because of the danger of frost heav- 
ing the seeds out, 

only experiments can determine the best depth of cover to use. Care- 
ful work has been done on this subjsct at Savenac and, on the basis of this, 
western white pine seeds are now sown under d/8 inch of sand and western 
yellow^pine under 5/l6 inch. These results may not be the final word in depth 
of cover, but their use has been responsible for great increases in germina- 
tive capacity and have shown the importance of uniform depths of cover. 

Those who have in mind the old rules of thumb will be surprised to see 
that we are using a deeper cover for white pine seeds than for the larger 
yellow pine seeds. Time of sowing is the influential factor here. When the 
sowing was done in the spring, l/4 inch was a suitable depth for white pine, 
but whan fall sowing was decided upon it would not- dov In order to guard 
against the increased exposure to frost heaving, a cover of 5/8 inch was needed. 
Experiments in fall sowings showed that where 1/4 inch cover was used the ger- 
mination amounted to only one-fifth of that where 5/8 inch cover was used. 
Under l/4 inch cover a very large quantity of seed was heaved out as against 
none under the 5/8 inch cover. When seed is worth five or six dollars a pound, 
such an occurrence is not a trifling matter. 


By Frank A. \7augh 

Recent observations in several widely separated sections of the 
National Forests lead one to believe that a word of caution ought to be 
uttered against indiscriminate signing. Certainly no Supervisor wants his 
Forest to look like a billboarder • s paradise. Yet it is true, theoretically 
at least, that any district may have too many signs. 

It ought to be clear that any needless sign should be taken down. 
Indeed, it ought never to be nailed up. Signs 3re not set in the National 
Forests for ornamental purposes, nor even for advertising. Every sign is 
more or less of an impertinence and detracts somewhat from the wildness, the 
remoteness and the good forest feeling which we all prize. 

Forest signs are dearly of two classes: first, those which give in- 
formation; second, those of an admonitory character. Signs of the former 
class are seldom objectionable,, Indeed, if thsy give real information of any 
sort, they are almost certainly desirable, though such information need not 
be repeated. Signs telling distances, directions, giving elevations, point- 
ing out views, naming places, etc., are to be strongly encouraged. Probably 
more signs of this class could be placed to advantage in every forest. 

But there is a limit to admonition, and a point, rather soon reached, 
beyond which it stales and does more harm than good. There are some forest 
trails where the same warning is repeated every mile. But by the time a man 
has ridden 20 miles in a Lizzie and has been 20 times importuned with the 
inquiry, "Did you Extinguish your Cigarette?" he begins to look for something 
to burn. Or after he has been exhorted 20 times, "Be a Sport - Put out your 
Camp Fire," he decides that he should worry, seeing some one else is doing 
the worrying for him. 

The best test of a sign is, does it carry information, genuine, true and 
useful? If it does not, the presumption is against it. 


V/ar Department, 

Co mpositio n, in correspondence a n$ publications . —A review of communica- 
tions and orders issued from various V/ar Department agencies, as well as cor- 
respondence received from the service at large and literature distributed by 
the general and special service schools, shows that a high standard of excel- 
lence in composition is rarely attained. 

Correspondence is as definitely an index to character as either verbal 
expression or conduct, and correct usage requires constant effort in the 
choice of words, the construction of sentences and the arrangement of para- 
graphs . 

Words used to express an idea should be carefully selected and so em- 
ployed as to convey clearly and forcefully the exact meaning intended and no 
other. Sentences should be logically arranged in such sequence that the 
development of thought may be easily followed and the salient points readily 

Brevity and conciseness, while desirable, should not be sought at the 
expense of a clear, accurate and agreeable style, nor of the personal touch 
so often lacking in correspondence with the public. 

These instructions are intended as a caution to individual officers 
to the end that each may discover his own deficiencies in composition and, 
by taking corrective measures where necessary, help to raise the standard of 
the entire Army in this important respect. 

By Order of the Secretary of V/ar: 


General of the Armies, 
Chief of Staff. 


OMlEgjjl p - ? - GIVES,. LIFE TO, Sgl.TWSE 

It is probable that everyone ir. th 3 Service knows by this time of the 
straamflow experiment at Wagon Wheel Gap, Colorado^ wh: cn has been conducted 
cooperatively by the Weather Bureau .?r-.a the tfbrost Ser-: ic-c since 1910 j knows, 
perhaps , that not a day in these thirteen years has passed without the taking 
of elaborate observations cn the weather and the streamflow; that since 1916 
the Weather Bureau has furnished all of the trained men for these observa- 
tions, the Service participating in the experiment only in administrative 
matters. During the early spring months a complete survey is made of each 
of the two watersheds , every five days, to determine the amount of snow on 
the ground and its rate of melting. 

Zt was in the regular lino of duty, while snows hoeing over the water- 
shed denuded in 1919, that on March 5, 1923, Observer P. F Maxwell was caught 
in a snow-slide which cost him his life, and removed from the ranks of scien- 
tific workers a faithful student. Apparently Maxwell's movement across a 
broc-d easterly slope at the head of the basin had started the snow in motion, 
and being in the midst of the moving mass he was utterly helpless. He was 
carried about 1,500 feet to a point where the snow piled in the bottom of the 
stream channel. Fortunately for his family and coworkers, the body was recov- 
ered without difficulty a few hours later and has been properly laid to rest. 
Mr. Maxwell had been in the service of the Weather Bureau for seven years, 
and had been a highly valued assistant in the work at V/agon Wheel Gap for 18 
months, coruing to the station from Hew Haven. He leaves a wife and two 
children, who have returned to relatives at Auburn, Massachusetts .--C. G.B . 


!Ewo. Hundred, jirggen of the Montgomery County Association of Volunteer Firemen 
in a recent session at Kensington, Md., unanimously pledged their support to 
State Forester Besley in the prevention and suppression of forest fires in 
southern Montgomery County, and will, hold themselves in readiness to respond 
to any calls that may be made on them to fight forest fires. 

It is rumored that "Shorty" Eelleter, Mayor of Kensington, was instru- 
mental in bringing this to pays. 

Ward Sheparct has returned from a trip in the field and to the Madison Labor- 

.forest Protection Pa.gfl«.Trfc. Tr, 3 reoent nation-wide observance of Forest Protec- 
tion Week developed no more unique form of presentation than the impromptu 
pageant enacted by one of the Washington graded schools. This pageant was 
written and arranged by the teacher at odd moments, starred and directed by 
the eighth grade, rehearsed only twice, costumed simply and inexpensively, and 
staged in the school hallway for lack of an auditorium. The reading of the 
President's proclamation, an original speech on Forest Protection, and two 
recitations - one an original poem - worked up the proper degree of enthusiasm. 
Since trees can not walk into place with any degree of tree dignity, the make- 
shift of closing eyes instead of drawing stage curtains was resorted to for 
scene shifting with perfect success. A sylvan grove, spread out before the 
opening eyes, was soon enlivened by fluttering butterflies, bright-hued birds, 
and care-free children. One of the latter interrupted the peace of the scene 
by dropping a lighted match to the forest floor. Troublesome flames appeared, 
frightened away the joy-loving creatures, and ran riot for a while among the 
helpless trees, until forest rangers came to the rescue and drove out the in- 
truders. The penitent cause of it all wandered again into the forest he had 
So nearly ruined, and, falling asleep, dreamed that a wise old owl read to him 
the message written in great letters across the outstretched green branches - 

This pageant is to be repeated with larger numbers of participants in a 
park near the school. — D.S .3. 



ITo. Pra ctic al Li e t h od of Sox ton; ng. Wood: "Bow can I soften this wood to make it 
mora workable." is an ir.quiry often received. Go far as can be learned, there 

is not available any really satisfactory means of softening wood without de- 
stroying its texture. Will La wood can be pulped through chanical treatments, 
it is not practical to modify these processes to give milder action. Apparent- 
ly it has become common practice, especially in the cpse of California incense 
cedar, to impregnata the slat with paraffin or some similar material. T\e 
action of this 1: mora in the nature of a lubricant, and the resultant increase 
in the case of whittling is quite noticeable. 

H ave you , Worn Out Your Share of Shairs? While studies of diaries of R>rest 
officers show that they ha?e little time for wearing out chairs, this evidently 
is not true of the rest of the 110,000,000 people in this country who annually 
require over 2,000,000 dozen of new chairs, according to figures in a recent 
1 ab or a to ry r apor t . 

This report, which is on the chair industry, is the result of a study 
that it is expected will later be carried on in other industries using small 
sized lumber. Forest Service investigations made show that but 30 per cent of 
the wood in the original forest is represented by seasoned, unplaned lumber, 
the product of the sawmill. In other words, for every 300 board feet of lum- 
ber manufactured, 700 feet are lost or wasted in the woods in the form of logs, 
or at the sawmill in the form of heavy slabs and edgings, long trimmings, and 
low and "off" grades of lumber. 

The extent of this waste in the chair industry alone is very great, as 
there is a further estimated loss of 40 per cent in cutting up the 320,000,000 
board feet that are used in furnishing material for chair parts, of which there 
are twenty-six hundred sizes of small dimensions in standard types alone. A 
large part of this loss can be prevented if the chair industry will buy its 
raw material in the form of dimension stock rather than as commercial grades 
of lumber. 


Larami e. Citizens In sist o n Boos ting Rar est Protection Week : The Forest offi- 
cers of the Medicino Bow Forest arranged for an exhibit of equipment used in 
fire prevention work in one of the local stores, as well as one of forest 
products. Three additional merchants felt slighted, however, and called the 
office, asking if they, too; could rot have materials. The supply of suitable 
material was short, although they were given something. • 

All stores, garages and other business houses were given the red signs 
to which a Forest Protection Week legend had been attached. One prominent 
merchant thought he had been overlooked and asked that he be given signs, 
although they were then in his windows, but he had only noticed them in others. 
The merchant who had the exhibit of forest products called up and wanted a 
legend to use showing that his firm was back of forest protection week which 
he desired to use in his advertisement in the two daily papers. He was given 
this and in addition directed the public's attention to this exhibit, follow- 
ing this lead, 18 or 20 of the large business houses added legends to their 
advertisements, indicating that the firm was backing the Forest Protection 

Severe Drou ght Injures Nebraska .Tnr.v Pi ne Plantations ; The past two years in 
western Nebraska and Kansas have been marked by severe drought. At Ealssy, 
there was a deficit in precipitation of about 6 inches during each of the past 
two years, and 192^ was marked by high winds so that the evaporation, as re- 
corded at Halsey, was greater than the precipitation. This winter was marked 
by a lack of snow and high winds, with the result that severe losses are show- 
ing up in some of the older jack pine plantations. This is particularly 
noticeable on southern exposures, where occasionally all trees in patches of 
approximately 100 feet in diameter, or more, have died. It is more noticeable 
in the open stands of jack pine than in dense stands, and this is due to the 
fact that jack pine is a shallow rooted species, lateral roots going out from 
the relatively small taproot in every direction from 6 to 12 inches below the 
surface. As a result, the vegetation quickly absorbed the small amount of 
precipitation that fell during the year and the jack pine suffered. 



DISTRICT 2 (Concluded] 

This is particularly discouraging in view of the fact that since the 
successful Bruner plantation was established in Holt County, Nebraska, in 
1891 by the Federal Forest Service, this species has been loudly acclaimed by 
the Service and other organizations as one of the most desirable for western 
Nebraska. After 32 years, it is found to be unsuited to the most severe 
droughts which periodically occur in the western plains. Supervisor HigglBJ&s 
received a request for assistance from one of the owners of the Bruner Hanch, 
stating that severe losses were occurring in this much quoted jack pine plan- 

There is some encouragement to be found in the fact that western yellow 
pine, the species which has been planted most at Halsey, has suffered very 
little from this severe drought. A picture was taken recently of a yellow pine 
3 feet in height, dug up in a road construction job, in the Halsey plantation, 
which had a taproot 3 feet long at the point where it was broken off. Scotch 
and Austrian pine are also able to withstand severe droughts, and one small 
Scotch pine was found which had a taproot 5 feet in length. Scotch pine has 
not been very much in favor at Halsey recently because some of the southern 
European seed was used instead of the better growing and more vigorous northern 
European or ?dga variety. Locally collected Scotch pine seed and that known 
to be the genuine itiga variety are now being sowed in limited quantities. 
Austrian pine is very slow growing at first and has a poor survival, except on 
northern exposures, and it is not susceptible to the attack of the pine tip ' 
moth which has retarded the growth of other species, 

A Hangers' Training Sc hool will be conducted on the Pike Forest with head- 
quarters at Monument Surgery for six weeks, beginning May 1, in charge of Peter 
Keplinger, Forest Examiner, of the District office. By this method the new 
men will have an opportunity to gain some practical experience before their 
permanent assignments. 


Use of the Shield in Publicity ; Hangers and other Forest officers say auto 
owners often object to the windshield stickers because the stickers, except 
for the camp fire warning, are just like the enameled shield markers that 
adorn Government-owned or authorized cars. One autoist told a District Office 
man last fall that he didn* t want that thing on his machine because he would 
feel like he was driving a Government car, and others have said practically 
the same thing. In D-3 the windshield sticker has been somewhat of a drug on 
the market generally for this very reason. Hanger Chipraan of the Crook has 
just asked his Supervisor the question, "Is the windshield sticker a good 
thing for advertising fire prevention?" Mr. Chipman also reports that he heard 
last year of a man who secured a "Help Prevent Forest Fires" button and passed 
himself as a ranger among native Mexican people. 

Folks and Fires; With the approach of the spring fire season, the perennial 
question of "campers' fires" will again some up. It has been the general the- 
ory that the more campers, the more fires will occur. This is not always the 
case. The per cent of fires with reference to human use usually increases up 
to a certain point and then very rapidly decreases, otherwise, there would be 
no forests at all near large centers of population like New York, Philadelphia, 
and parts of New England, or in European countries, where the population is 
extremely dense. 7/here the use of a forest by recreationists and others in- 
creases beyond a certain point, their care with fire increases, and the same 
attitude of mind concerning fires exists as in towns or city parks. The city 
parks are the most used spots to be found anywhere, yet fires are very rare, 
although there is a great deal of trash and combustible material found in them. 
This is because it is everybody's recognized duty to put out such fires. A 
aimilar attitude will in time be created on the portions of National Forests 
where human use is extensive. Public sentiment in such localities will not 
permit a fire to do much damage, but will immediately take steps to put it out. 
The transition of fire risk from high to low exists somewhere beyond the 
Pioneering stage of little use and the point of much use by large numbers. 
This gap can be greatly narrowed by proper education* 

DI STRICT 3 (Colluded) 

Army , Usod Cactus Poles. To p; The first telegraph line connecting Arizona with 
the outside world was the military telegraph from San Diego, California, to 
Tucson by way of Ft. Yuma - 540 miles - and the sum allotted for the work 
was less than $100' per mile. This, even in those days, was very inadequate, 
and in places only seventeen poles per mile were used. The original builders 
/ere not stumped by the problem, for they made good use of the giant cactus 
and mesquite which grew along the route to hold up the line, thereby establish- 
ing a precedent for later Forest Service lines that were built under similar 

rather of ylrs. Jon P. J ohnstpn Dead: * recent issue of the Naval Stores Review 
repox-ts ife^e death of Mr. W. C. Powell, veteran naval stores operator, of the 
South v air. Powell was the father of Mrs, Don P. Johnston, who is known to 
many D-3 people. Mr. Johnston was for several years part of the D-3 organiza- 
tion, having been Supervisor on three different Forests, the Gila, the Goronado, 
and the Santa Fe, and Chief of Operation in the District office, 


fle w.. Game Policy in Idaho : Governor Moore has announced a new game policy in 
Idaho which will involve the reduction of field forces while at the same time 
there will be a greater expenditure on permanent improvements. It is expected 
that forty to fifty thousand dollars will be spent on hatcheries and similar 
improvements in the next two years. It is the belief of the game department 
that with the cooperation and active aid of the numerous rod and gun clubs in 
Idaho they can get along with fewer wardens without any increase in game law 

Timber Sales: The Union Pacific system, through their representative, Samuel 
C. Lancaster, Park 3ngineer, has purchased 190,000 feet of green yellow pine 
sawtimber to be used in the construction of a hotel at Brycs Canyon. 

Mr. H. M. Stevenson . President of the Yellowstone Tie and Timber Company, 
which now has a sixty million foot sale on the Madison Forest in District 1, 
recently visited this office. He is looking for a location in lodgepole pine 
where he can get out framed mine timbers. It is his intention to put in a 
$15,000 timber framing machine wherever he can find the best opportunity. As 
soon as the snow leaves, he will go over the Provo River timber to see whether 
it suits his needs. 


L ong-Dived : It is reported that western red cedar ties have been in place on 
the Nelson branch of the Great Northern Railxvay for 32 years. These ties were 
not treated. 

The average life of a hewed crosstie, Douglas fir or larch, untreated, 
from inquiries made of the Great Northern Railway, is from 7 to 12 years. 

Addresses : Supervisor Macduff recently delivered on April 2 what the press 
reported as a very fine address before the Association of Commercial Secre- 
taries at the University of Oregon. W. H. Gibbons of Products also delivered 
a thought-provoking paper at the same meeting. It appears this particular 
meeting was a forestry one, Mr. George Cornwall of the "Timberman," V/, D. B. 
lodson of the Oregon Chamber of Commerce, and President Campbell of the Uni- 
versity of Oregon, all speaking on phases of forestry and the lumber industry. 

PR by Radio : Supervisor Brown of the Fremont has made arrangements with the 
local broadcasting station to send out any messages that may be desirable, and 
for his own benefit has secured a receiving set which he expedts to take with him 
when traveling in the remote parts of the Forest away from the telephone line, 
with which he will be able to receive messages by special previous appointment 
as to the hour. 


U. S. For est Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 

. p 

Vol, VII, No. 20. 

Washington, D. 0, 

May 14, 1923. 

By Harry Irion, Washington 

Fifteen of the 146 Forests out under commercial sales during the 
calendar y ear 192 2 almost one-half billion foot of timber, or 57.8 per cant 
of the total commercial cut for all Forests. Rather commendable stick work 
for this select group, the average being almost 30 million feet per Forest. 
The Lassen, with a cut of 51,782 M feet, loads the fi eld by a margin of 
almost 3 million feet. 

During the fisc al yea r, 19 22 . (calendar year figures not available), 
the receipts from timber sales and settlement on the fifteen leading Forests 
aggregated slightly over $1,0 00,000, or 57.1 per cent of all timber receipts. 
In fielding the good old coin of the realm the Goeur d'Alone, with a total 
of $154,957, leads by a neat margin of £56,637. (Would it not be more appro- 
priate to call this Forest the Goeur du Trosor?) The group average is 
$67,922. If the 146 Forests averaged this amount, the receipts from timber 
would amount to slightly loss than $10,000,000 per annum. Speculation of 
that sort is, however, outside of the scope of this statement, which has 
only to do with actual performance 

Two Forests, the Shasta and Siskiyou, are among the fifteen leaders 
in timber cut, but they did not gather in quite enough iron men to make the 
receipts group. On the other hand, the Medicine Bow and Santiam are among 
the fifteen loaders in receipts, but were crowded out of the cut group. 

The cut and receipts for each of the fifteen Forests in question are 
as follows: 

Timber cut 

under commer- 

cial SctldS 


year, 1922. 



M bd. ft. 







Goeur d' Alone 




















Goc onino 

































2C .136 



Goeur d'AIene 








Medicine Bow 





Wal Iowa 

Washi ngton 

frtfni timber 
sales and 
Fiscal year 


44 , 58o 


The blue ribbon for 

the highest average stumpage price 

in coot.: 



during the calendar year 1922 goes 

to the Alabama Foros 

t, Ox t* 

te 15 

leaders in the above cut and receipts column, only the Kaniks 

u appears 

i among 

the 10 highest stumpage pri 

ce Forests. 

In sales at cost rates the Beaverh 

ead, with a cut of 1 


fee t , 

led all other Forests. The 

Targhee, how 3 

ver, was a very clos 

e second* 



sales" cut on the 10 

leading Forests aggregated 8,417,000 feet, 

or 40.4 

per ce 

nt of the total cut on all Forests 

under such sales. 

Figures for the 10 1 

eaders in average stumpage prices 

and cost 

sal es 

are given in the following 


Commercial Sales - Calendar 

Year 1922 ; 

Cost Sales - Calendar Year 1922 




JJ1S V . 


per M ft. 

gist. forest 

M ft. 




1 Beaverhead 





4 Targhee 





5 Kodoc 



White Mountain 


6 Umatilla 



St. Joe 


6 Fremont 





1 i'iadison 



Santa Barbara 


4 Weisor 





2 Black Hills 





1 ■ Absaroka 





4 Salmon 



The table that follows summarizes 

the timber sale business by Districts: 

Heeoipts from 

timber sales 


and timber 

Timber cut - M ft. B.M e 

price re 


Calendar_y_ear 3 __1922 

ceived p 


fiscal year 

Commercial Cost 

M under 









$361 ,795 

122 ; 516 
































' 8 






656,14 s ? 



By Hanger Stavely, Cochctopa 

Generally speaking, ruts are associated with haavy loads and bad roads. 
Huts may lead froui the ranch house to town or to tne corner post office. They 
may icaa from the skidway to the sawmill and from there to the Hanger Station. 
One might be a nico easy trail leading to some grazing division, and, don't for- 
get, close to some particularly attractive fishing stream. 

For a good many years we have been endeavoring to perfect our system of 
trails. A good trail is a mighty fine thing to folio*./ in going to a fire, (if 
it leads in the right direction) , or to slide into when going home after a hard 
day's ride. It is not difficult to keep things in first class condition along 
a good trail, and you know visiting officers enjoy following a gooc 1 . trail. 

Do not misunderstand me. I am for trails all right, and good ones; but 
it has occurred to me a number of times if we would get out of these well 
beaten ruts and go up the other side of the gulch or on the other side of the 
hill, where there are no trails, we might see more and possibly stumble onto 
something we did not know was there. 

By "Daytonius," Washington 

Hangar Bill and his myriad fellow proletarians of the Service long ago 
read a jeremiad from the honored Editor of this periodical anent the dearth 
of contributions therefor. This organ, it seemed, is tabetic from inanition 
and is on the toboggan to cachexia and rigor mortis; pabulum is needed in the 
form of quill-gymnastics on the part of the virile he-man Of forest, field 
and fen ; pretty soon even a gland operation might be too latol This editorial 
Macedonian cry aroused some painful reflections. Was this mirror wherein 
(with due regard to the proprieties and police regulations) the Brummels and ' 
Chesterfields of the Servuce do dress themselves to b3 removed from the wall 
and placad in storage? Was this mead whereon our silvic chivalry do joust 
and tilt right merrily, to the delectation (or otherwise) of Colonel Bill and 
his regiment, to be placarded with "Closed Against Grazing" posters? 

"These eyes," too, perused the editorial threnody and (Einstein, odor 
Zweistein, es macht nichts aus ) two lachrymal globules gravitated adown ou." 
auburn chin-whisker, coalesced and became a grease spot on the table in front 
of us, marring the oaken lustre produced but a few moments before by the 
skilled massage of a sable brother from Maintenance. Our thought rover ted to 
some conversations we had had in last year's Bulletin with Brother P. A. 
Thompson, whilom boss of the Orient Hanger District on the Colville, and how 
the fcuthless ruby crayon of yon Editor had, with gelid insousiance, removed 
whole lines of the mss, forever from the ken of High-up, Lown-down, and In-the- 
middle. Especially did we bewail the rapture from our mss. of a certain coup- 
let which' had been the apple of our eye and whose loss had left us bereft and 
comfortless as Rachel. Vainly, said we, we offer each ample oblation, odors 
of epistolary Edom, and gems from the mine of memory; but 'tis the way of. all 
editors; they have no hearts; spades (or clubs') are trumps with editorsl With 
naive parental jubilation we have trotted out the offspring of our respective 
cephalic ganglia; proudly we have bedecked them with verbal pink hair ribbon? 
and the bright pinafores and roundabouts of diction, wistfully we have led 
these grammatic heirs to the editorial sanctum to be admired, and waited x x 

"tfili fell the frost from the clear cold heaven, 

as 'falls the plague on men, 
And the brightness of their smile was gone, from 
upland, glade and glen." 

Alas, our brain-seed has passed through the fire to Moloch. 'Tis a 
crool world, mates! 

But, seriously, and in all fairness, there is another side to this 
picture, isn't there? This Bulletin should be a veritable clearing-house of 
ideas for the whole Service, and the Editor has told us that but 10 per cent 
of our personnel contribute to its pages. Since nearly everybody in the Serv- 
ice is an authority on some subject or other, were this mute 90"/ to become 
vocal in the Bulletin, these pages would become ten times as authoritative, 
as worth-while and readable* The Editor would have his job cut out for him 
then; think, for instance, what fun he would have whetting his Doxon' s Oriole 
Red No. 811, or his A. P.O. BB Blue #1201, and trimming down a screed like this 
to fit the slender limits of his hebdomadal octavo} 

Ever reflect on the etymology of that interesting word "bulletin?" . 
The beetling-browed pundits that compile our lexicographies tell us that 
"bulletin" is derived from an Italian diminutive of the Latin word bulla, a 
seal or amulet worn by children of classic days, and which survives in the 
leaden seal which appears on the edicts of the Pope known as "papal bulls." 
This Bulletin, therefore, if it is_ a bulletin, has authori ty ; it should be a 
sort of bulla of the Forest Service. What are you doing to give it that 
authority? So you expect our Editor to play Boswell to each and every of the 
2oo 0-odd Johnsons of the Service and to absorb its knowledge and news by a 
sort of mental imbibition or osmosis? "Charge, Chester, charge I On, Stanley, 
on! were the last words of Marmion. " On, then, ye mute inglorious Miltons, 
ye village Hampdens, ye bucolic CSromwells, ye myriad doughty Pythagorases of 
moor and fen and crag and forest; lot's have your '''ipse dixits" in the Bulle- 
tin! Then, and not till then, will these eight mimeographed sheets speak as 
having author i ty , and not as the scribes. 


By H, C. Hilton, I.Iedicine Bow 

Tho Jbrest Service was instrumental in the introduction of four bills in 
tho present session of the legislature, all of which warp passed by tho House, 
but only two of which woro passed by tha Senate and signed by the Governor. 

The bill relating to punishment for destroying or mutilating road and 
trail signs erected by tha State or Federal Government became a law. Another 
bill relating to the cutting of timber and providing for the disposal of brush 
on private and State lands was amended to apply only to State lands. This law 
provides for tha disposal of brush under the direction of the Commissioner of 
Public Lands on State lands upon which timber is being cut. The law also pro- 
vides authority for tha State doing this work if tha timber operator refuses to 
do it, with expenses to be paid by tho operator. It is also provided that be- 
fore cutting on State lands each operator shall report his intention to cut 
to the Commissioner of Public Lands. 

The provision relating to private lands was opposod by the Wyoming Tim- 
ber Company, operating on the Medicine Bow Forest, which owns extensive hold- 
ings of timberlands. It was also opposed by one State Senator who claimed 
that the going upon private lands for the purpose of disposing of brush con- 
stituted confiscation of private property- An effort should be made two years 
hence to amend the law to provide for the disposal cf brush on private lands. 

A bill providing for a State nursery, the disposition of trees to rosi- 
dents of the State, and advice to residents of the State in reference to ques- 
tions of silviculture by the Commissioner of Public Lands was killed in the 
Stato Senate on the grounds that it only provided a means to call for an appro- 
priation two years hence. An offort is now being made to interest the Uni- 
versity of Wyoming at Laramie in the establishment of a nursory to grow troes 
for campus planting and for the starting of an arboretum. Members of the State 
Board are favorable, and if a nursery is established it is beliovcd a law can 
be later passed to include the provisions of the proposed law. 

A bill giving authority to State and Federal officers to arrest with- 
out warrant for observed violations of the fire laws was killed in the Senate. 
Opposition was made on the grounds that the common law giving a citizen power 
to arrest for observed violations was sufficient, and, further, because it was 
inadvisable to extend farther the authority of State and Federal officers, 

2To attempt was made this year to pass a law prohibiting the driving of 
timber on streams of the State. 

Action was initiated at a rather late date and perhaps the success 
would have been greater had it been possible to secure earlier action. At 
any rate, it is believed that a great deal has boon gained by bringing forostry 
questions before the legislature. 

By B, I. Shannon, D-3 

In a lecture in the District 2 ranger study courso, Supervisor R. 3. 
Clark states that success in range management is attainable by the application 
of these three basic principles: 

(1) Know what you want. 

(2) Fix definite responsibility for accomplishment. 

(3) Follow through to complete realization. 

Obviously these are basic principles of success in any line of human 
endeavor, be it business organization, road building, stream stocking, or what 
not. I am confident that the trouble which many of us are experiencing with 
"working plans" and "objectives" is that we have not applied that first prin- 
ciple» we have not yet determined, definitely and thoroughly, just what we 
want. Some one has aptly observed that "knowing just what you want is halfway 
to getting it." Whether it be Supervisor, Ferest Examiner or Ranger, if each 
will grab his problem by the ears, look it squarely in the face until he be- 
comes thoroughly familiar with every feature, and knows just what it needs, 
in other words, know just what he wants; th n definitely fix responsibility 
for accomplishment, see that it is given a prominent place in the working plan 



of the person to whom it is assigned; then make amplo provision in his own work- 
ing plan for follow-up, inspection, and reminders, ride close herd on the job, 
keep frayed edges trimmed, energies concentrated, tho goal always in iront, and 
stick to the main trail, then - Lady Luck will smile on him. 

Everyone who has visited the Washington office is familiar with the quo- 
tation from Huxley, which appears in large letters in a frame hung in the hall 
of the seventh floor, "Science is nothing but trained, organized common sense." 
Of course, tho man who tackles his problem with a strong back, a will to win, 
and unbounded faith in himself is certain to get somewhere, though as a general 
thing it will not be just where he started for. But if he conscientiously ap- 
plies to his problem the three fundamental principles referred to, he is prac- 
tically certain of success, for the essence of these principles is trained, 
organized common sense. 


G olon e l Gree ley has left to attend the conferences of the Senate Committee on 
Reforestation which are being held in the Lake States, from there he will go to 
Districts 5 and 6. 

L. F. Kneipp has returned to Washington from a two months' trip to all District 
headquarters and parts of the Angeles, Prbscott, Coconino, Santa Fo, Manzano, 
Lincoln, and Florida Forests. He also attended the meeting at Duluth called by 
Secretary Wallace for the purpose of discussing the proposed road building pro- 
gram on the Superior National Forest, against which much protest has been made 
by local organizations. 

Error i n Report of Tim e, Away, fro m. Headquarters ; In tho Bulletin of April 16, 
the time away from headquarters for the Logging Engineer in District 2 was 
given as 83 days under Column A, and 110 days under Column B. This should have 
been 128 days under Column A and 148 days under Column B. The figures errone- 
ously given were for the Chief of Planting. — R.H. 

Camp Equipm e nt, for, Boy Scout s; Camp equipment for Boy Scouts may be purchased 
from the Surplus Property Division of the War Department at twenty per cent of 
cost* Inquiries should be addressed to the Quartermaster General, Attention of 
Surplus Proporty Division, Washington, J). C„ 

The above information will answer tho frequent queries received in Wash- 
ington as to whether camping equipment is available without charge for Boy Scout 
organizations. — P„D.K. 

White Ash and Poisonous. Snak es; A use which is made of white ash and that until 
recently was unknown to th: writer, and is perhaps not very widely known in gen- 
eral, was brought to my attention on a recent trip to the Monongahela National 
Forest, West Virginia. In talking with some of the native people, I learned 
that it is quite common for people in that region to stew up some of the inner 
bark of white ash in the spring of the year and keep the resulting solution on 
hand for use in the case of poisonous snake bite. I do not know just v/hat tho 
resulting components of the liquid are when white ash bark is boiled. The 
native people, however, say that it is very efficacious in the case of poisonous 
snake bite. A bite is washed with the liquid and a wet poultice of the liquid 
is also put on the wound. — C.R.T. 


Road s on the- Supe rior ; Last month, upon the call of the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, a meeting was held in Duluth, Minnesota, at which representatives of sev- 
eral outdoor and wild life organizations wore present to discuss the proposed 
road building program on the Superior National Forest» A great many protests 
had been fil^d with the Secretary against the construction of the roads compos- 
ing the Forest Highway System, principally on the assumption that tho construc- 
tion of automobile highways in and near the Suj^erior National Forest would im- 
pair the scenic qualities of this lakeland area. 


DISTRICT_2 (Concluded) 

The interested organizations take a position that water transportation 
should bo the only method employ 3d in the Forest, and that th3 area should bo 
kept as typical lakeland and canoe country and maintained as nearly in its 
wilderness condition as is possible. This area is regarded as the on:- last 
Federal property which is suitable for the canoeist and the pleasure seeker 
who desires to visit an actual wilderness. 

The meeting was called in the hope that the opposing factions could come 
to some agrooment on the use and development of the Forest. There were, cf 
course, sincore advocates of the road building program, but at the meeting they 
were in the minority. It was impossible to convince those in attendance that 
th^re was real necessity for roads, or that increased fires would not closely 
follow the construction of automobile roads entirely out of proportion with 
the increased facilities for fire suppression. 

Such local organizations as the State Forester, State Game and Pish Com- 
missioner, Highway Commissioner and County Commissioners were represented, but 
did not urge strongly the construction of roads. The Game and Fish Commissioner, 
on the contrary, opposed the roads because, in his opinion, the construction of 
roads, which must result in increased visitors, would driv^ the game back into 
interior regions and perhaps even into Canada. 

While those opposing the roads were doubtless sincere in their arguments 
against any road construction which would admit of the passage of automobiles, 
they were quite inconsistent and were poorly informed. At first, the outdoor 
life organizations were prepared to oppose the marketing of any timber in the 
Forest, but passed no resolution upon that subject, and later stated that no ob- 
jection would be offered at all to the Forest Service plan of management. 

One important outcome of the meeting is the interest manifested by other 
than local people in the Superior National Ferest, and in the whole subject of 
forestryc The meeting passed a resolution committing itself to secure legisla- 
tion authorizing the purchase of all the pri -ate lands within the present bound- 
aries of the Forest, the extension of the boundaries, north and south, and the 
acquisition of private lands there. This will probably at least double the 
acreage cf the Forest. 

An association was formed, which has for its object the improvement and 
development of th : Forest for recreation. It expects to incorporate and take 
permanent interest in the management of the Forest, iimetioning quite similarly 
to the recreation associations formed in Colorado for the purposo of promoting 
the recreational use of the National Forests. 

Demand , f or Sheep Range. Increases : That the sheep industry is rapidly ^o^ing back 
is shown to some extent by the increased applications for forest range. During 
the past two years a good many of our more remote ranges went begging; but if 
present applicants do not fall down at the last minute, there will b3 a very 
limited amount of unused sheep range in D-2 this season. 


C oopera t ion : Inter-helpfulness or cooperation between bureaus of the Federal 
Government has been the subject of conversation among Department of Agriculture 
people on many occasions, iiembers of the Secretary's office who have been in 
the Southwest expressed their appreciation of the fine spirit that exists in 
this part of the country. Secretary Wallace has axio^imprsssed and pleased 
with the condition he found on his recent southwestern trip. This fellowship 
extends beyond the Departments and was splendidly voiced by the Secretary of 
the Interior, Dr. Hubert C. Work, in his address to Department of Agriculture 
employees in Washington this month. The address is reproduced in the official 
Record for April 18, and is worthy of careful reading. 

Forest Protectio n Week Big Suc cess: Assistant Forester Herbert A. Smith, Chief 
of Public Rjlations in the Washington Office, has been in Albuquerque all week. 
During'his inspection of the western Districts he has been in the field during 
the preparation for the special week. His comment and reports from other Dis- 
tricts indicate that Forest Protection Week has been more widely observed this 
year than heretofore. More cooperating agenc i es than usual have thrown in with 
the Service in emphasizing the nation-wide campaign against forest fires. 


BiSTRICT_3 ( Concluded) 

Unknown Tropical For ests: In the United States, where practically ovory spo- 
^s^~Ir^a7b^n id.ntifi.d M is re.dil* recognized, says Assistant^ 
District Forester Kircher in a recent letter from Rio de Janeiro it is aix- 
ficult to conceive of vast forests with many unknown trees. Yet that is what 
the groat Amazon Valley contains. It is said that there arc over 200 varie- 
ties of the family "leguminosae" alone ( trees , shrubs and vines) and no one 
knows how many kinds of trees there are altogether. Several botanists are 
working on identification of trees. It is understood that they are having 
a good deal of difficulty because of tfca similarity of supposedly different 
species and because of difficulty in finding flowers and fruits of some kinds. 
It is said that some species only bloom one:- in 12 years or so. It s a bota- 
nist's paradise, however, if he can stand the climate and the pests. 

Seasonable New s; Supervisor Douglas of the Datil has secured tho publication 
of the entire text of the New Mexico State Fire Law passed two yoars ago as a 
news story in a Llagdalena paper. This law, as well as the new Arizona Tiro 
Law, is very plainly stated and is really news even without comment. 

ITew I/Iethod of Intensive Grazing Reconnai ssanc e; A new method of intensive 
grazing reconnaissance was initiated last season on the Fillmore, or at least 
new so far as the mapping was concerned. Instead of making a detailed con- 
tour map as a base, a detailed drainage map was prepared. It is believed 
just as good information for a practical grazing management plan was secured 
as undor the contour method. It is admitted the base, map is not as good, 
but a satisfactory grazing plan was the goal. The change was made in an at- 
tempt to reduce the cost of range reconnaissance. The same kind of triangula- 
tion control was used for each method. The field work for mapping and rocon- 
mai ssance cost during 1921 under the contour method per acre and during 

1922, undor the drainage method, $.032 Per acre. The latter method cost 65.8 
per cent of th j former. 

Lianagemont plans have been formulated on the basis of the 1922 work 
and their value and practicability will be closely compared by field study to 
thoso made as a result of the 1921 work. 

Game Violation ; A serious game violation has been reported in the vicinity of 
Boulder, Wyoming. Deputy Supervisor McKee and Rang3r Cockins have succeeded 
in rounding up sufficient evidence in the case of the killing of soveral head 
of 3lk in Boulder to convince the County Attorney that ample evidence was at 
hand to convict the accused. As result of collection of this evidence and de- 
termination of the County Attorney, the thx~3e accused elk killers wore lodged 
in jail, but, finally having waived preliminary hearing, each released on 
$500 bonds to appear in court during the month of June. In one bunch of some 
17 head of elk it is rsportod that two are all that have survived. 


Distinguished Visitor : Th3 office was recently visited by Tsuyoshi Tamura, 
Doctor of Forestry of Tokio, Japan. Ivjr. Tamura, in addition to being a land- 
scape architect, is in charge of the Park and JRecreation business of the 
National Parks and Forests of Japan, 

O verhead, and Fire Suppression C osts; When Supervisors and men from their of- 
fice go to a fire, is their knowledge and experience worth so much more than 
that of a Firo Gtard or Ranger? The former receive salaries that are often 
double those of the latter, but do they give double the service on the firo? 
When the men from the Supervisor's office go to a fire, all of their regular 
work is stopped. This work is usually important and a real loss occurs. Of 
course if the fire is too largo for the Ranger's organization to handle, it 
means outside help; but how about the Class A, B and small C fires? Perhaps 
some of the Supervisors do not allow their force to be used on the smaller 
fires, but a study of the fire reports will show that some do. Why charge a 
day's wages to a fire where half the sum could have been charged without loss 
of efficiency? Or would there have been less efficiency? — Not a Ranger. 


2U>2M£L£ (Concluded) 

^l^^ief- fpr Q1 f f .ajnffw. Chiof Su-pa-hahn, venerable leader of 

the Karok tribo of the Klamath Hiver country, still has faith in the Great 
Wfc&te Father at Washington. Ha will bo a plaintiff in a tsst suit in behalf 
of the California Indians soon to be instituted in tho United ' States District 
Court of tho District of Columbia by the Indian Board of Cooperation, of 
which Frederick G. Collett of this city is executive representative. 

Tho first case will doal with the Klamath National Forest, now a Ind- 
eral reservation of 1,008 square miles. The Indians, in return for giving 
up their vast hunting grounds, wore to have reserved for them 7,500,OCO acres 
of selected land, as well as other compensation. They claim, however, to 
have received virtually nothing in return. 

Should the Klamath National Forest tost case succeed, the Indian board 
plans to bring other similar suits. 

fo&Y. M & yLJ&ilSl \ £o, r ft! ft '» Roports have come in at more or less frequent inter- 
vals concerning the taking of Gray or Timbor Wolves in California. These re- 
ports have boon carefully run down by tho iiisoum of Vertebrate Zoology of tho 
University of California and havo hitherto proved, without oxception, to ro- 
fer to tho Mountain Coyoto (Canis lestos). At last, however, a record has 
como in which investigation proves to be of a real Gray Wolf, taken in the 
southeastern part of the State near the Colorado River. — P. J. P. 

"A nd Walk with Kings , i Nor L ose th c n Human Touch": Secretary of Agriculture 
Henry C. Wallace, while on his way from Los Angeles to Baker sfield recently, 
stopped at the Tojon Rangor Station. Ranger Dolapp was absent at the time, 
but Mrs. De-Lapp did the honors during tho few minutes the Secretary spent at 
the Station. While a reception committee from Bakersfield was waiting at 
Lebec, some two miles distant, to moot Mr. Wallace, ho took time enough to 
look the station over and chat awhile. — C.E.J. 


State _Gra zing Ranges : A recent ranger mooting hold at Okanogan was devoted 
to plans of work and preparations for the coming season. This annual get- 
together always results in beneficial exchange of ideas among all present. 
It followod the annual meeting of the Okanogan County Livestock Association 
and sale of pure-bred stock. At the association meeting State Representa- 
tive Banker, who is President of the Association, announced two bill* which 
ho was instrumental in having passed at the last session of the legislature. 
Houso Bill No. 120 provides for tho State to administer grazing upon lands 
now being received from the National Ferostp. through tho State Land Exchange. 
House Bill No. 115 fixos Jfehe responsibility for livestock shipments on tho 
carrier receiving the shipment, oven though it may later bo transferred to 
other roads P.T.H. 

Si do -Wind or: Ranger Hcugland has fixed up a stand for the K. P. Cecil fire 
finder which will allow a two-way shift. A track was mado for tho fire 
findor running north and south, and another track made running oast and 
•west. The fire finder is attached by lugs to upper track, which is attached, 
to a wooden block. Lower track is fastened to top of table or stand. Lugs 
on each side of lower track are attached to this wooden block. This will 
onablo one to ehift the fire fircor to miss any obstructions. There is n* 
play in tho firo findor. This finder will be installed on Fir Mountain 
whore a cabin was built last fall by ranger labor. — L.B.P. 



U. S. Tor est Service 

(Contents Confidential) 

Vol.- TTC3C, No. 21. ' Washington, D, OV" . . May 21, 1923. 

By Ward Shopard, Washington 

Tho editorial from tho AMERICAN LUMBE3MN, quoted by Mr. Shoemakor 
of D-l in tho Bulletin of April 30, is a good argument for education on 
forest fires, but hardly an adequate statement of the problem itself. 

Fire protection, though the most needed step toward reforestation, 
is not 85. per cent of the forest problem. As 'the forthcoming timber crop 
report will show, Nation-wide, high-grade^ fire protection, supplemented by 
seod trees where needed, would if carried out for a long period ultimately 
produce a little more than half .the timber we now use. 

But without dwelling on this aspect of tho editorial, can the respon- 
sibility for forest fires be so simply and neatly shunted to that vague 
creature, the "public? 1 * Forest' fires are the inevitable aftermath of dostruc 
tive logging, no matter who actually sets them. Destructive logging leaves 
two serious menaces: a fire trap of slash and a dearth of seed. Firo 
getting into this slash, whether by the fault of the logger or of some one 
else, wipes out at one blow or gradually the possibility of forest renewal, 
or under more favorable conditions permits only a poor stand. 

Logging i)obris Greatest Monaco 

Wo must recognize the debris of destructive logging as the greatest 
single fire monaco; it remains to be soon how successfully we can keop firo - 
an omnipresent, necessary adjunct of civilization - out of it. It is prob- 
able that in tho long run our main effort for successful reforestation will 
consist not of kooping fire out of the trap but of eliminating the trap. 

Although definite figures are lacking, it is safe to conjecture that } 
tho fires accompanying or following logging operations are in the broadest 
sonso the most destructive of all fires. They come at the critical time 
when' the fate of the future forest hangs' in the balance. With plenty of 
fuel to feed on and widespread apathy to give them freo play, they genorally 
make easy prey of seed and seedlings. 

In wostern Washington, according to Manger , 18 per cent of the fires 
in 1922 wero directly chargeable to logging operations; but these fires 
caused 78 per cent of all the fire damage. Unquestionably many more firos 
are traceable primarily to old slashings, the sank weeds and grass on clear- 
cut areas, and the drying of the ground cover after the removal of every 
trace of tho green forest. And on an area denuded not merely of timber but 
of seed, any firo is extremely critical, 

EEain groblem of aaaoation 

The problem of education, then, is not merely to prevent firos but to 
prevent these enormous hazards . It is safer to drop a match into a cistern 
than into a powder keg* And the question is not so much the apportioning of 
blame as honestly soeking the underlying causes of the fire problem and re- 
moving them by a powerful cooperative effort. 


There is onj other aspect of forest fires that needs more public empha- 
sis. Trying to fix a money value on so much mature timber, so many blades of 
grass, and so many seedlings destroyed by fire do 33 not give a correct picture 
of the broad, ultima tj result. Wo are rich and aro accustomed to digging 
down and paying up our Iossds. 

But repeated fire does morj than destroy present and potential values; 
it builds up, by geometrical progression and on a vast scale a disheartening 
array of physical obstacles and moral discouragements against the attempt at 
forest renewal. It brings the forest as an sntity nearer and nearer to de- 
struction, deduce our food supply to the famine limit and money values of 
food cease to have much meaning. So gradually fire has passed from the stage 
of merely wiping out values here and there into the stage of threatening the 
very survival of our forests. Already one- fourth of our cut-over land is a 
desert. Who is going to plant it? And who is going to plant the othor mil- 
lions of acres that are being turned into deserts? 

By Will C, Barnes, Washington 

A rather unique condition arose 6n the Black Hills Forest during the 
past season because of the presence of permitted cattle on certain areas whore 
tourists, fishermen, and campers found satisfactory places for stopping. It 
was not so much a question of injury to the camping places, apparently, as it 
was that the presence of these animals caused some alarm to the campers. 

The stockmen protested that the tourists and hikers scared their cattle 
and made them wild, while some of the tourists were equally afraid of the 
cattle. One permittee in an offort to meet the situation posted his range with 
signs to the effect that the range was used by very wild cattle and that hikers 
and campers entering it did so at their own peril. 

The Supervisor found no fault with this manner of bringing the matter 
to the attention of the public; but the results were exactly the opposito to 
what the enterprising permittee anticipated. Instead of being scared away 
from the rang:, th? tondorfoet took considerable satisfaction and pleasure in 
tramping around over the range, getting a grand thrill out of the fact that 
they were in danger of wild cattle while hiking in that part of the forest. 
According to the Supervisor, the signs rather than discouraging the presence 
of the tourists increased their presence on the ranges. 

"My but ain't Nature grand 1" 

ByJno:. D. Guthrie, D-6 

D-6 received in March a supply of Road and Recreation maps of the 
State of Washington. The map was so popular that there was a near-riot on 
the part of the public to get copies. About the same time a supply of the 
new red and black cardboard fire signs was received. Deputy Supervisor Grif- 
fith of the Rainier Forest is helping mightily to put the Prevent in Fire Pre- 
vention. Griffith tells how he does it (in an informal memo to PR): 

"On the strength of the road map distribution, I have secured the post- 
ing of the red and black 'Prevent Pores t Fires - It Pays' sign conspicuously 
in the following places: U, Mershall's office; U, S. Dis trie t Attorney 1 s 
office; Internal Revenue office; Customs office; Geological Survey office; 
Bureau of Chemistry, tea inspection office; In two prominent places in the 
main lobby of the post office; In the court room of the Tacoma police court; 
and over the automobile desk at the police station. 

"Lending the weight of 'law, order, and constituted authority' to our 
propaganda, and in some cases catching 'em in a penitent mood and receptive 
to suggestions. In each case I requested that the signs be kept up all sum- 
mer, - some of them will probably be taken do va sooner, however. 

"I should have preferred waiting with this until Forest Protection 
Week, but the psychological moment when favoring them with a map was too good 
to. pass up. 

"By the way, the maps are quite the 'topic of the hour' here. 3ach 
recipient of a map calls personally, promises to read Tom Touvist and Harry 
Hunter, and 'tell the other fellow' to be careful with fire aa£. observe camp 
sanitation. " 


By E. W f Badley, Southern Forest Experiment Station 

Out of 960 nursery-grown slash pine seedlings that were ' transplanted 
to an acre of unfenced cut-over land at McNeill, Mississippi, in February, 
1923, 352 had their terminal buds bitten off and devoured by goats during a 
period of from one to two weeks after planting. In many cases the entire 
stem of the seedlings was severed at the ground, leaving a stub less than an 
inch in height. 

The planting site was fenced immediately on the discovery of the damage 
and one month later an individual examination was made of all seedlings that 
had contributed in any way to the nourishment of the goats. It was found that 
Of the 352 seedlings so damaged, 347 had already begun to sprout and in no case 
had the hunger of the goats resulted in the death of a seedling except for the 
5 that had been impatiently pulled clear of the ground. 

This seeming remarkable recuperative power of slash pine seedlings is 
by no moans final evidence that they are permanently goat-proof, for if this 
plantation had not been fenced the new sprouts would undoubtedly have been 
nipped off again and again as fast as they grew out, and the seedlings would 
have eventually exhausted themselves and died, observations in this instance 
indicate that young tender buds of slash seedlings are extremely pleasing to 
the goat palate. Although the seedling is capable of growing a second bud it 
is doubtful if this ability would remain after the seedling had been deprived 
of more than one terminal bud. 

* * & # +, * * * * 

I lQie_by_Dire^^r_Pp : rbes: At Raiford, Florida, another remarkable in- 
stance of the pov/er of slash pine to sprout after injury was recently noted* 
About 1921 several square rods of three or four-year-old slash pine seedlings 
were apparently hacked off with an ax at a height of about three feet from 
the ground. A very considerable number of these seedlings sprouted near the 
top, and the sprouts are now two years old and extremely healthy. A longleaf 
pine sapling or . two received the same treatment, with the same result. 


More than 1,000 forest fires have been reported to the Pennsylvania 
Department of Forestry this spring. Up to April 24, 700 fires were reported, 
on April 25, 177, on April 26, 77 and on April 27, 60 were reported. This 
makes a total of 1,014 fires. Not all the fires that have occurred in the 
State have yet been reported. It is estimated that there had been at least 
1,200 fires in the State this spring and that they burned over not less than 
100,000 acres. 

The largest fire reported was in Hunts Hun, Cameron County. It reached 
a size of 6,000 acres and burned mostly on State-owned land. 

Three persons have died from burns received while fighting forest fires 
in Pennsylvania this spring. This is the largest number of deaths that have 
occurred in a single fire season since the Pennsylvania Department of Forestry 
was established. 


In the parks of Portugal where large trees are found it is common to 
find this inscription near the trees; 

"Ye who pass by and would raise your hand against me, 
Hearken ere you harm me. 

I am the heat of your hearth on the cold winter nights, 
The friendly shade screening you from the summer sun, 
And my fruits are refreshing draughts quenching your thirst as 

you journey on; 

I am the beam that holds your house, the board of your table, 

the bed on which you lie, the timber that builds your boat. 
I am the handle of your hoe, your door, the wood of your cradle 

and coffin. 

I am the bread of kindness, the flower of beauty. 
Ye who pass by, listen to my prayer; harm me not." 


(Current Opinion) 

Woodless lumbar, in boards twelve feet high and nine hundred feat long, 
nearly as high as the Eiffel Tower, the world's highest structure, has been 
produced at a plant recently erected near New Orleans, La. Trees do not produce 
these boards; they are made from the bagasse, the residue of sugar cane. 

Bagasse, says Science Service, is what is left after the cane has been 
squeezed through heavy rollers for the purpose of extracting from it its sugar- 
containing juice. It is this waste material that is being converted into lum- 
ber. This bagasse consists of a mass of short pieces of the crushed and broken 
cane and it is filled with fibers of considerable length. It was for a long 
time wholly wasted, great piles of it being burned to dispose of it. Mark 
Twain in his "Life on the Mississippi" says that "bagasse 'fog' was the bane 
of the river pilot." More recently it has been used as fu|$ under the boilers 
of the sugar mills. But it contains so much moisture that its fuel value is 
very low, and it is so light and bulky that feeding boilers with it has been 
very wasteful of labor, and it is now being replaced as fuel by oil and natural 
gas, which have been found to occur in this vicinity in abundance. 

In converting it into lumber the bagasse is first cooked to destroy the 
decay-producing spores contained in it, then treated with chemicals to make it 
waterproof, then pulped in "beating machines" and then formed into a board 
which is compressed by passing through rollers into the continuous gigantic 
sheets which when dried are ready for use. Because of the long fibers existing 
in the bagasse the material is felted into a structure which is filled with air 
cells. . Hence, the lumber is very light,, weighing but three-rflf ths of a pound 
per square foot, and, because of the air cells contained in. it, it is a very 
perfect nonconductor of heat. . .,. • ... . .. . 

It is composed of cellulose, as is ; wood, and it resists exposure to the-, 
weather similarly to wood. One ton ojf bagasse yields .3,000 fact of lumber ■. .. 
and the waste from the cane, fields of Louisiana alone, it is estimated, will 
yield over 750,000,000 feet per year. / 


District Forest Inspec tor Mitchell, during the first week of May, accompanied 

State Forester Besley of Maryland and a party consisting of members of the 
State Forestry Advisory Board and others on an inspection trip through the 
Eastern Shore counties of Maryland. The party included Assistant Foresters 
K. S. Pfeiffer and J. A. Cope, Dr. F. J. Goodnow,: President of John Hopkins 
University, Dr. Edward B. Matthew's, State Geologist, Major L . Wood of the 
H. E. Wood Lumber Company, members of the State Forestry Advisory Board, ex- 
Senator William McGullen Brown of Garrett County, a former member of the 
Board, Dr. J. L. Spencer, President of Morgan College, and Mr. C. Howard Lloyd 
of Baltimore. 

GQbbs_L_ea.ves_Pje^artment : John L. Cobbs, for many years in the Service, recently 
resigned his position as chief of the Department's Division of Publications to 
become the head of thci public relations work for the Atlantic Coast Line with 
headquarters at Wilmington, North Carolina. 

Sjgns o f Spring Energy '. Members of the Forest Service wrote 19 out of the 45 
articles in current publications by Department workers listed in THE OFFICIAL 
RECORD of May 9. 

D-5_ Puts Cut Good Vacatio n Pamphlet s: District 5 has recently put out some good 
mimeographed pamphlets of from 6 to 10 pages each tilling of the vacation possi- 
bilities offered by the Forests in California. The location.',, topography, and 
climate of the various Forests are described, along with the best rail and auto 
routes leading to thjm. Headquarters of Forest officers are also listed. 

Hunting, fishing, and camping come in for honorable mention, while hotel 
accommodations, including garage service for the family Ford, are also described. 
The pamphlets close with an outline of the rules and regulations that must be 
observed by visitors. They are being given as wide a circulation as possible. 



Laboratory Asks for Wood Sam pl es from King Tut's Tomb : Samples of wood from 
King Tut-Ankh-Amon' s tomb, have be cm requested from the National Research Coun- 
cil by the Washington office to supply a request initiated by the Laboratory*. 
The request will probably be forwarded to America's repr esentative in England. 
The wood is wanted to determine what effect extreme age may have upon the 
physical and mechanical properties and upon the glue and joints. It may also 
be of interest to determine the specias of wood. as an indication of the forest 
flora for that period, and the relative durability of the different species. 

Pa rty f or Allotment Conference Visitors: A record-breaking crowd attended the 
April meeting of the Forest Products Club given largely in honor of our visi- 
tors, Messrs. Clapp, Botts, and Shepard of -Washington, D. C . , District Forester 
Morrell of Missoula, Montana, and Mr. 0. L, Hill of San Francisco, California. 

Talks by President Truax and Messrs. Winslow, Clapp, and Morrell, songs 
by the Club sextette, movies, cards, and unexpected telegrams filled the even- 
ing. One telegram recalled the prowess of the Washington office representa- 
tives in the Inter-District league, another cams as a warning from the District 
1 financial backers of Mr. Morrell, and one from Chicago led us to suspect Mr. 
Hill's hitherto spotless reputation. 

How Long Will, Paint Last?. Data on the durability of paint on various species 
of wood and different grained surfaces are being collected by District 1 for 
the Laboratory's study on wood finishes. A spec ial; questionnaire sent by this 
District to its field officers includes questions on the' kind of paint, method 
of application, nature of paint failure, and other information with reference 
to painting practice. A great deal of valuable information should be received 
through this cooperation. 


Al kali Range's an d Salt - '^3_ Tajr^_Mhtio_a? (See D-3 paragraph carrying this 
heading in Service Bulletin of April 16). Ranger Woods won a bet when he- 
proved that cattle prefer salt to alkali on alkali ranges. It is probable 
that Ranger Woods had a card "in the hole" that he did not show because he was 
able to win the bet without showing it. He won on a showing that cattle pre- 
fer salt to alkali. He no doubt would have proven, if necessary, that alkali 
is a poor substitute for salt even if stock would eat the former as readily 
as the latter. The constituent of common salt that best meets the bodily re- 
quirements is chlorine; alkali contains little or no chlorine (see report of 
experiment by Wis. 3xp. Sta) . 

The explanation of livestock seeking alkali if common salt is not avail- 
able lies, it is presumed, in the statement that alkali satisfies to some ex- 
tent at least the appetite for salt. But it is only necessary to cite "hooch," 
my old pipe and the "dope" that the "hop head" uses to call attention to the' 
fact that that which satisfies the appetite is not necessarily the thing that 
should be indulged in.— L.H.D. 

Ol?l_Qwn_Ques tion_an^_Ansjwex_Service: We have read with much interest the ac- 
count of Ranger Stock's horse round-up and are wondering if it takes sixty- four 
riders to gather 212 head of horses that are mostly G-5 and therefore "adminis- 
tratively" at least broke stuff, how many riders should be required to round 
up 212 head of wild horses? 

Another Shake-up in D-2: One of the hazards of life in D-2 is travel on the 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Assistant District Forester Granger and Fiscal 
Agent Buckner had a narrow escape from extinction this spring when they were 
involved in a head-on collision in the Royal Gorge. Fortunately they received 
nothing worse than a good shaking up. 

Plains Regions Suffe rin g from D rought: While the snowfall in the Colorado 
Mountains has been unusually heavy this past winter, the plains regions east 
of the mountains are suffering severely from lack of moisture. The effects 
of drought are also showing up in the way of losses in established plantations 
Of jack pine. 


DISfffffcQffi' 2 ( Gone luded ) 

H opse , Bo t rnd-tips oil the ffarnVr v; The Harr.ey Forest has several times mad a horso 
rou:.d-aps sisiilar to the one described cn the. • Kir ni folia " in the Bulletin of 
March 5c These reu&d-'dps have been cn a sonec.hat' if-rger" scale, and lit tie of 
the stools r our dad up was being run under Reg, G-£c In fact, most of the 
horses Which were rounded up wore about as wild as thsj make them, as little 
branding had been done for three or fo^r years and horses had not been cor- 
ralled or handled during that time. Also, in many cases the bunches which 
were easiest to get had been rounded up and taken out of the country and the 
worst horses left on the range. 

One of the largest of these round-ups was on the Pilgor ilountaiu range. 
This came as somewhat of a surprise to most of the pDrmittees, but cooperation 
of about a dozen settlers was secured at different times. In ten days 430 
head of horses were rounded up, branded, and delivered to owners. Owners were 
easy to find with the exception of three head of branded horses. !7ith un- 
branded horses there were often too cany owners. To break the monotony of 
settling' ownership and chasing wild horses ever rim-rocks, we hod two or three 
bronco ridirg exhibitions and one pugilistic encounter. Ranger time and ex- 
penses wore well paid for, as trespass damages to the amount of $444-40 were 


Thi s is Wo rth Study; Note the area burnid in this District in connection with 
evaporation at Elephant Butte Dam; 

1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 

Precipitation 11.2 14.8 20.2 14.2 15.2 10 

Evaporation 110 105 91 101 103 106 

Pires 715 720 390 420 435 900 

Area 50,000. 35,000 6, COO 14,000 18, COO 35,000 

Cooperat ive Publicity-. The April issue of the TMEHMAJT gives the National 
forests of New Mexico a very good write-up. 0n3 whole page is devoted to the 
resources on the-Ibrests taking each Forest up separately. A vary good map 
of the State is shown giving the location of aaeh Forest and other data re- 
garding the State. The IIUBERMAN has given the Southwest, and especially the 
National Forests of the Southwest, some excellent publicity within the past 

working Plan Anprovjd; The Forester has approved, subject to later submission, 
of a cutting budget allocating the cut to specific logging units, the manage- 
ment plan report for the Tusas-San Antone Working Circle on the Carson Nation- 
al Forest prepared by Forest Assistant Fred H. Miller* The gross area of the 
circle is 265,000 acres, of which 51,560 acres is virgin timber. The stand 
is estimated at 136,313 M feet. The allowed annual cut is placed at 14,000 M 
feet per decade. Five small portable sawmills are at present cutting within 
the Circle. The product of these mills is used locally and 'cho surplus is 
shipped to the general market. No new mills will be allowed to start on the 

Erosion Control Cheaper than Now Roads ; The road to the Canyon Lobo Rangsr 
Station on the Manzaho has in recent years been crowded into the hillside by 
a gully forming in the canyon bottom. Ranger Laney and Supervisor FJartchner 
decided it would be cheaper and easier to stop this gully thar. to burl Id a now 
road, and accordingly the critical points have baen glanted with will ow 
cuttings and then protected by oak trees strung on a doubled barbed wire 
anchored parallel to the bank by means of trees and poets. The oaks hung top 
down, slanting downstream, with the top weighted down by rocks. One hundred 
feet of such works can be installed by three m:n in an hour, including wil low- 
ing. It is believed that tha first high water will clog the brush and anchor 
it so as to relieve strain on the wire, and. within two years the willows will 
bind the whole works so strongly as to check caving and statilize the bank at 
the angle of repose. 


DISTxIIjffC. 5 (Gone luded) 

Ifew Presidents Chas. 3. Burton of Ash Pork has been made President of the Ari- 
zona Wool Growers' Association vice High Campbell who retired on account of 


Dj bati ng in the District Office: The girls in the Ogden Office have be^n 
branching out from the regular grind and indulging once a week in various 
things out of the ordinary. The last of these diversions was a great debate. 
Thu subject was, "Resolved, that five years' clerical work in the Forest Serv- 
ice better fits one for advancement and competition in the business world than 
does five years' cljrical work in the comm3rcial world." 

Of course we all agreed beforehand that the affirmatives did not have a 
chance. They put up a fine argument, however, and carried off the honors, 
and, what's more, they have convinced us that there really was something to 
their side of the question. 

Retur ns to the Service: Mir. Jack Albano, recently of Red Cliff, Colorado, has 
arrived to tako a position as Ranger on the Wyoming Forest. He will be located 
probably in Star Valley. Mr. Albano was formerly a Ranger in the Service in 
Idaho and Colorado and is coming back to work after a couple of years' absence. 

Hew R ange r App oint ed: Mr. Guy C. Bacon, who acted as assistant to Ranger Ross 
on the Weiser last summer, has been appointed Forest Rangor on the Idaho, ef- 
fective May 1. 


Decoy _ Stakes Boon to Surveyors: In a recent survey on the Santa Barbara it was 
necessary to use strategy in preserving corners left in the field to mark the 
boundaries of Government land. A certain predatory neighbor subject to night 
prowling makes a point of destroying all marks left on the ground by surveyors. 
We therefore drove iron pipes about two inches below the surface and referenced 
them in without leaving any marks, then set out "decoy" stakes for the prowler 
to operate on. Thus the P. M. destroys the decoys and is happy, while we still 
have our corners preserved. — W.H. P. 

Bull's-eye Publicity: Ranger Tyler got out three "Put Gut Your Camp Fire" 
signs this month. These signs are about 13 feet in length and are painted 
black on 8-oz. white canvas, with letters 8" in height, carrying the F. S. 
shield on the left end. They will be placed at the Forest boundary in the 
following locations: Sonora-Mono State Highway at Sugar Pine, Carson-Big Tree 
State Highway below Calaveras H, S., and Big Oak Plat-Yosemite State Highway 
just west of Big Creek. These signs are large enough to be read by passing 
auto tourists at a considerable distance. The cost per sign was $6, including 
Ranger Tyler's time, and with care they should last at least five years. 

Cattle Etiquette 

Meetin g L ivestock - 1. Slow down. 

2. If the road is narrow, drive to one side at the widest 
available point and stop. 

3. Shut off the engine. 

4. Stay quietly in the machine. 

5. Do not blow the horn. 

6. Do not permit dogs to bark. 

7. Breaking up an orderly procession gains nothing. 

Overtaking Li vestock - 1. Slow down. 

2. Do not blow the horn. 

3. Ask the man in charge to lead the way through. 

4. Drive to one side of the main group as much as possible. 

5. Do not yell. 

6. Do not permit dogs to bark, 

7„ 1-Jever crowd where the chances of passing are negative. 

8. Breaking up an orderly procession gains nothing. 


DISTRIC T 5 ( Gone luded ) 

The psychology of domestic animals causes them to bunch when fright- 
ened. This btifi&hing f i&ka&kta a solid wall of livestock to the motorist. 
Therefore blowing + he hem or allowing dogs to bark only delays passage. 
Livestock when crowded Rarely from the rear will generally continue' in the 
center of the road- therefore work quietly to one side of than. Crowding 
livestock into a ran is usually costly haste with no gain. In meeting or 
overtaking livestock, above all else slow down and proceed as quietly as pos- 
sible. — California Cattleman's Association. 

YOU SAID it : 

Dear Sir:* 

On page twenty- four 
Of the Six- Twenty- Six 
For March • '• 

You say that you 
V/anta know ' ' 

Y/ho put all those terrible things 
in the National Forests. 
"I cannot tell you that; 
But I can tell you 
That "PR" is putting 
The "EVENT" in ''PH-E^^-idn'V, . :vi ... 
And telling people about 

The "REST" they can find in a green fo- RSST 

And arousing public IRE against 

The f-IRS-bng who puts 

The 51 R in the FIR-o. 

PR- VENT fo-REST f-IRE-s. 

It pays. 

I thank you. 


Talks, at Eatonville: Supervisor Allen and Forest Examiner Griffin attended the 
monthly luncheon of the Eatonville Business Men's Club which was held, recently. 
Mr*. Allen was the principal speaker of the evening, taking, as his. topic, 
"Activities of the Rainier National Forest.". -Mr. Griffin spoke on Reforesta- 
tion and answered a number of quee tions on forestry matters. Eatonville is one 
of the important smaller t'owiis) near the Rainier Forest, and this meeting was a 
decidedly Important contact G. E. G. 

M aple Sugar : The maple sugar industry is not entirely confined to the East. 
There came around the first of March this year a few days of real old sugar 
weather, freezing nights ana warm days. Ranger Y/heeler of the Oregon, located 
at Cascade Locks, made two quarts of pure maple s^irup by tapping a few shade 
trees about the station. — P.W.C. . - 

"Wh at's In a N a me?" The Rainier office has just been advised that a man named 
Lamb has been elected president of a C attle association. How come? 

The V/alla V/a lla Distric t of the Umatilla: Forty-seven miles as the crow flies 
from the head of Butcher Creek in the south to Deadman's Peak at the north end. 
How many miles by trail, you ask? I don't know; but if you should go down 
Butcher Creek out past Hellhole and Shimmie-Horn it to Graves Butte, you'd be 
ready for that place without question. - Get an early -start and climb Coyote 
Ridge, have a look at yourself in Looking-Glass Creek, go on to Bone Springs 
for the night, and you'd think you were all bones. The third day you would 
roach the Milkshakes, about 13 p. m. , only to find the milk, shakes, and water 
all missing; but by climbing over the famous Table Hock (well named) you would 
reach Deadman's Peak, -via the Hogback route, just. about sundown. You wouldn't 
be interested in scenery, but it's grand. — C-L.K. 


By Fred Morrell, D~l 

An effort has been made through analysis of data on the cost per chain 
of held fire line to secure reliable information concerning the relative effi- 
ciency of organized protection-improvement crews as compared to crews of tem- 
porary fire fighters. Y/hile it is impossible at this time to assemble data 
that offer absolute proof on this point, every compilation of figures that has 
been undertaken indicates a decided advantage in favor of the protection- im- 
provement crews. The figures indicate that they are able to build and hold line 
for about two-thirds of tha unit cost of lino built and held under similar con- 
ditions by temporary fire fighters. The .Forests using the protect ion- improve- 
ment crew plan of organization also show a slightly smaller percentage* of Class 
C fires and a substantially lower average cost per fire t ham' the others in their 
respective groups. 

Table A was compiled by selecting fires handled by the two types of 
organization and comparable in timber typo, length of held line, season and 
region; and Table B, by selecting forests comparable in those features, Be- 
cause of irregularities and omissions in the data, or unusual circumstances 
surrounding the fires, only a few fires out of those reported are available 
for use in Table A, but those few are believed to be fairly representative ©f 

These figures bear out the opinion of field men who have given the pro- 
t action-improvement crew scheme of organization the most thorough trial during 
the past three years. The figures and the opinions of the majority of field 
men are strongly supported by inference when one considers that there is, on 
the one hand, a careful selection of personnel, organization, preparedness and 
a real incentive to every man in the crew to get every fire out as quickly and 
easily as possible as against, on the other hand, hasty selection of personnel, 
complete absence of any organization except in overhead and equipment, no pre- 
paredness on the part of the crew, and an incentive to make the job last be- 
cause it pays slightly better wages than other work. 

Table, A 

Based on Fires in Similar Types in 1920 and 1921 

Temp. Labor . 


ETO, ; 

.fires ; 
15 ' 

Chains • 
Held : 
Line ; 


Man • 
Hours : 
per chain ■ 
No transp.< 

Per cent • 
cost in- : 
cur red s 
prior to i 
control : 

Cost per 
Chain 1 

, Trans p. 

Cost per 
: Chain 
: with 
Trans p. 


67 : 

i $17.30 

Grew Fires 

. 15 


s 14.3 

l 75 

i. 6.8£^ I 9.61 

Apparent ~ 
Saving by 
. Crew 

■ 9.2 

t. — ,., c . a= — a — gg— 

| 8.53 ; 7.69 


Table B 

Temp. Lab or 

Fb£9S ts 

G r eg__gore s t 
Saving by 


-DIG* I.* 

\j \J O v ; 

, Cost 

, hours ; 

cost in- 

per : 

per i 



: Chains 



chain • 


% : 




l Held 

chain , 

prior to 

ITo i 


. 0 : 




. Line ; 

No - 

control: j 

transp. : 







17.5 : 


$11.71 ■ 

$15.40 • 

13 - 
















Ta ble C 

Ce&t_ef_Held. Fire Li ne b y Ti mber Types 
1920, 1921 and 1922 





Tvne : 



Chains i 
! Held 

Line ! 

Man i 
per chain 

Per cent 
cost in- 
prior to 


! Cost 
i Held 
: Line 
iper chain 

Grass ; 

20 s 

1 2631 \ 


! 82 

i $ 0.65 



1043 : 


s 78 

: 4.51 

Yellow pine j 




: 60 

: 4,76 

White pine i 

: 29 


: 16.6 i 



Lodgepole : 


I 3769 

: 9,4 

; 68 

! 5.26 

Louglas fir 


: 2510 : 


: 84 




12.3 : 

76 : 


Ced.*... . " 


i 1654 

6^2 ; 


: 3,17 


Larch D. Fir 

48 i 8843 

• * * 

14.8 ; 

Sngl, * 

! 5 


; 66 

■ 14.40 


f 20 

; 2286 





L 12 

L 1Z98„__. 




Old. burns 

: 71 

11185_ _ 


65 _ 




lis- fir 

L_ 10 

: 1781 






13 . 5 




not considered good averages beoauae af small m;mber of fire* 
snd small amoont of line involved. 


ggSAflt>ty -0 $ .X|agB0V2M» OB^S TO COST OF jELD,.LIM ( Concluded ) 

•PaLla C is believed to be indicative of the reasons why held fira line 
costs so much more in coma localities than in others. The following conclu- 
sions seem to bs wax-ranted by a study of the factors entering- into Table G: 

1. In general, in this region on areas not previously burned, the unit 
cost of fire line is proportional to the density and volume of the timber stand. 

2. Old burns give the highest cost per unit of held line of any type 
for which a good record is available. 

5. The cost of held line in D-l is, and will continue to be, relatively 
high because a large percentaga of its fires occur in old burns and in the 
white pine type* 

4. For all types an average of 67 per cent of the cost of held line is 
incurred prior to control of the fira. 

5. Costs expressed in dollars are of little value for comparative pur- 
poses because of the fluctuation of the purchasing power of the dollar. Costs 
expressed in man hours are much better. 

6. Considering the amount of labor involved in the construction of a 
chain of fire line, it appaars that the indicated costs are excessive and that 
it should ba possible to reduce them by good administration. 


By Paul D. Kelleter, Washington 

Reimbursement to' Owner's for damage to or loss of private property through 
negligence of officers or employees of the Federal Government will be speedad 
up under the provisions of tha Act of December 28, 1922. 

Up to the enactment of this law no special provision existed for the 
preparation and consideration of claims prior to submittal to Congress. As 
things stand now, authority is given the departments to consider, ascertain, 
adjust, and determine any claim on account of damages to or loss of privately 
owned property whare the amount of the claim does not exceed $1,000 caused by 
the negligence of any officer or employee acting within the scope of his employ- 
ment. Such claims are then certified to the Congress for final action. All 
claims must be presented within one year from the date of the accrual of said 

This means that the claimant does not have to work through his Congress- 
man for action and that the department responsible for the damage may initiate 
action looking to the reimbursement of the injur ad party. 

By E, H. MacDaniels, Siskiyou 

Did you ever happen to think how much trouble and tima habit saves? For 
example, a man gets out of bed in the morning, and his hands start right in 
putting on his clothes for him, while he puts in his time thinking that it looks 
like a- fair day and that he'll just saddle up and look over the work of that 
trail crew down the river, and that Baldy needs shoeing so he'll ride Bob, and 
that this will be a good chance to drop in on Si Jones and settle that telephone 

Supposing that he had to painstakingly remember every time that his flan- 
nel shirt goes outside the other one, and that it makes a difference which foot 
he puts his shoes on. Supposing that his memory slipped sometimes, and he had 
to determine by a course of reasoning which side do his pants belong. It is 
easy to see that in such a case his logic would sometimes miss fire and he'd 
make a mistake that would cause comment or even criticism. 

But old man Habit doesn't make mistakes of that sort - he has attended to 
that job in just that way many thousand times. He has found the quick, easy, 
successful route to tha object he is after and follows it without experiments or 

OLD MAN MBIT ( Concluded ) 
Experience Brought fPogothar in ISaimals 

Now, when an organization such as ours has worked for many years, it 
gets into the saraa sort of habits. The great mass of the work has been gone 
over many times by many men, the short cuts found and used, the experiments 
tried, the failures made, and the right way to do it pretty well mapped out. 
This experience has been brought together in the various manuals and discussed 
and worked over and amended, and finally the best way of doing things pretty 
well decided upon. There are hundreds of ways to build a trail, and thousands 
of reasons for building them those different ways; but after spending several 
million dollars on trails the Service has pretty well settled on two or three 
types that are described at length in the manual. 

The tread can be of any width, but no reputable mountain horse will use 
more than sixteen inches of it. Anybody can invent a culvert - pretty nearly 
everybody has - but two or three kinds will answer every purpose, are durable 
and inexpensive - why experiment further? There are dozens of ways to splice 
a telephone line, but what's the matter with ths Forest Service splice? The 
way to handle business and get it out of the way is to get it into an easy, 
smooth running system that doesn't call for a new invention every few minutes. 

The trail, road, telephone, and fire fighting manuals supply this sys- 
tem ready made. No one can save himj>elf grief any easier than by getting out- 
side those manuals and following them out in detail. He will find that his 
trails stay put and his telephone lines keep on talking and his maintenance 
charges are low, when others, who knew more than the old-timers who wrote the 
manuals, are breaking their backs repairing. washouts and propping up corner 
poles. I surely recommend thorough acquaintance with those little books as a 
cure for a great number of the ills that beset the Service. 


Receipts from National Forests for the nine months beginning July 1, 
1922, and ending Liarch 31, 1923, totaled $3,386,620.60, an increase of 
$10,384.66 over the same period a year earlier, according to the corrected 
statement compiled on April 28 by Finance and Accounts. 

Timber sale receipts formed the largest single item with. a total for 
the nine months of $1,833,359, an increase over the corresponding period a year 
earlier of $675,454. Receipts from grazing operations totaled $1,265,435, and 
receipts from special uses totaled $167,813. 

District 5 led all other districts in the total amount of receipts with 
$778,413. District 6 came next with $647,174, and Districts 3, 2, .and 4 were 
bunched with receipts of $495,874, $474,094, and $436,574, respectively. Dis- 
trict 1 reported receipts of $389,367, District 7 -reported $123,553, and Dis- 
trict 8 reported $41,568. 

j&IL TO TH5 VZTERANS '. : ' 

District 3 sure started something when, in the April 15 issue of the 
Service Bulletin, it asked whether Ranger H. L. Taylor's record of 15 years' 
continuous service on the same Fbrest under the same Supervisor could be beaten. 
Hark en unto these replies; 

D2, Minnesota - Ranger George Farley entered the Service on June 3, 1902, 
and was transferred to the Minnesota Forest on July 1, 1903, where he has worked 
continuously since November 1, 1903, under Supervisor G. 3. Marshall. Thus 
Ranger Farley is rounding out 20 years continuous service on the same Forest un- 
der the same Supervisor. 

By the way, Supervisor Marshall states that the Minnesota has bean under 
the jurisdiction of the Forest Service since 1902 and was never under the Gen- 
eral Land Office. 

D2^_ White River - Ranger Elmer E. Stephenson entered the Service on 
June 1, 1907, and was stationed on the White River Forest, where ho has worked 
continuously since that date under Supervisor James A. Blair. Thus Ranger 
Stephenson is rounding out 16 years of continuous service on the same Fbrest 
under the same Supervisor. 


xJAIL TO Ti£E VET 2;*&flS ! ( Concluded ) 

According to the records of Rangers Taylor, Farley, and Stephenson, the 
first hundred years seem to be the hardest. It likewise seems to be a great 
life if you don' t weaken. Who else knows some interesting records concerning 
the personnel of the Service*: Next! 


It is evident that the question of delinquency in the payment of grazing 
fees is a minor matter when one studies the delinquencies in State and county 
taxes in some of our western range States. The report of an association of tax- 
payers in New Mexico shows taxable valuations in that State have fallen from 
§405,000,000 in 1320 to { 300 ,000 ,000 in 1923, The total delinquent taxes have 
now reached the enormous sum of v-5,uuo,uuO, mainly due from taxpayers who are 
unable to meet their obligations. 

On the basis of the amount of taxes due, this $5,000,000 represents a 
delinquency of about 37 per cent of the total. This certainly exceeds the de- 
linquency of our v$:-mi 5 tees by a very large margin, the largest item we have 
in that respect; on any single forest being a little over 12 per cent of the total 
amount due from grazing fees. 


¥^Oiand_FpX3gJ;rj^ W ashington Foresters; On May 19 about 25 men 

of the Washington Section of the Society of American Foresters were guests of 
the Maryland State Board of Forestry on a day's automobile trip througn several 
Maryland counties, ending at the Patapsco State Forest and Park near Baltimore; 

The party was led by State Forester Besley assisted by Foresters Pfeiffer, 
Corbin, ana Cope. Major Wood, a member of the Maryland Board of Forestry, also 
assisted in entertaining the Washington crowd. 

The first stop was made on the farm of V/. Beale Bowie, a citizen of Mary- 
land, who has placed his extensive woodlot under the management of the Maryland 
Forestry Board. Active logging operations were being carried on at this place, 
thus affording opportunity to get acquainted at first hand with the so-called 
"Maryland Plan" for the management of farm woodlots. 

The last stop was on the Patapsco State Forest, where many interesting 
forestry experiments are being conducted. State Forester Besley and his assist- 
ants then served a red-hot, bang-up supper to the crowd as a good climax to a 
very enjoyable and profitable day. 

Pemrtment_Wjlfar3_^ The Department of Agriculture Welfare 

Association will contribute to the physical comfort of many of the sight-seeing 
thousands in the city for :, Shrine Week" at the refreshment booth which it will 
maintain on the Department grounds facing Fourteenth Street, and which will be 
manned or womanned by volunteers from the ranks of the association. Light re- 
freshments will be served from nine of morn to the same hour of the night every 
day from May 28 to June 9, inclusive. Incidentally, it is expected to turn an 
honest penny or two of the needed funds for welfare work, for which a drive is 
in progress. The entire proceeds will be devoted to the continuance and hoped- 
for extension of Department of Agriculture welfare work* 

foBasg iroiijgts laboratory 

32r^te_Por^trri._0^ The special Senate Forestry Committee 

recently visited the Laboratory. Col. Greeley was also a member of the party. 

The committee watched the big testing machine break a Douglas fir col- 
umn, saw the paper machine at work, and noted the operations of the tumbling drum 
at the box lab, besides seeing all the other regular processes of the Laboratory 
and looking over the special exhibits. Apparently the committee was duly im- 
pressed with the extent to which the institution here is doing its share in mak- 
ing the most efficient use of wood. The visit here served as an excellent prac- 
tical demonstration to supplement the evidence concerning the Laboratory given 
cy Secretary Y/allaoe when he appeared before the committee last winter. 



Ea^woM_Manuf^ci^rjrsJ_^nst Front 35 to 40 mem- 
bers of the Sardwood Manufacturers' Institute came from their convention in 
Chicago to look over the Laboratory. This association, although organized less 
than a year ago, includes 300 of the leading manufacturers of hardwood and cy- 
press lumber and veneer operating in 18 States. 


Hurra.b^fojr_^e_C^ur_dlAlene The Coeur d'Alene Forest, which now leads all 
others in timber sale receipts, promises to maintain this lead with a good mar- 
gin. The latest sale is the Burnt Cabin chance, estimated to cut 70,000 M feet, 
79 per cent white pine. It has been offered as a five-year contract, cutting 
15,000 M feet per year, the limitation under the management plan. 

Uncle Sam to Get Railroad 

The distinctive feature of the sale was the requirement that 10 miles of 
railroad, estimated to cost in the neighborhood of $200,000, be built by the 
purchaser which, with the exception of steel and rolling stock, is to be turned 
over to the United States at the end of the five-year contract, lock, stock and 
barrel. All of the timber in the head of the Little ITorth Fork and some addi- 
tional timber in another drainage will come out over this railroad, which will 
take at 15,000 M feet per year about fifty years' time. 

Naturally, the Forest Service couldn't expect to get a very high price 
for the stumpage and get a railroad at the same time. However, look at the re- 
sults! Green white pine was advertised at $4,50 per M feat and the successful 
bidder offers $11.40. Dead white, pine, of which there is about 500,000 feet, 
was advertised at $2,00 and the bid was $2.25. Other species were advertised 
and bid in at the following rates: Spruce, $1.00 per M; white fir, larch, Doug- 
las fir and hemlock, 50 cents per M. The total value as advertised was |254,CO0. 
The value as bid is $630, 175. The difference is $376,175. The average adver- 
tised price, all species, was $3,63; the average price bid was $9.00 per M„ In 
addition to this, the purchaser will be required to spend about $1.15 per M for 
brush disposal and the cutting of diseased trees, mostly hemlock. 

The Coeur d'Alene should receive in the next five years from this one 
sale an average of over $125,000 in receipts. Since the allowed cut for the 
whole Forest is 50,000 M feet, it will obviously, at these prices, make any 
other Forest hump to overtake the Goeur d'Alene' s lead. The successful bidder 
was the Ohio Match Company. 


Bcj/slan^_GJ L rXslFor^s^rj^lub^: The establishment of the first Forestry Club in 
the United States was accomplished in May, 1922, at Crestone, Colorado, under 
the direction of W 0. Sauder, County Agricultural Agent, formerly an employee 
in the Forest 

This was a result of conference with State Forester W. J. Morrill and 
77. H. Freeman, Assistant State Club Leader and the District Office. The ten 
members of this club entered into the work enthusiastically and two, as a re- 
sult of local competition, were selected to represent the club at the State Fair 
and put on a demonstration. This year this club is again active and five or six 
more are being established in other counties of the State. Th= opportunity for 
spreading forestry education through this means is unlimited. 

Timber Sa le on Arapa ho: A resale of approximately 19,000,000 feet of timber on 
the St. Louis Creek watershed on the Arapaho Forest has recently been made to 
the Interstate Lumber Company, successors to the Ste^ens-Barr Lumber & Tinber 
Company, who have bean operating in the region for a number of years, at stump- 
age rates of $3 per thousand feet for green lodgepole pine and Zngelmann spruce 
Sawtimber, and $1 per thovsand board feet for alpine fir and merchantable dead 
timber, provision being made for the optional removal of mine prop material. 


DISTRICT Z l Concluded) 

R>restrv Lec tures for the School of Mines; Members of the District Office have 
been cooperating with the Colorado School of Mines in a course of lectures on 
Forestry given before a class in civil engineering. During the early part of 
the term the class studied wood technology, the course being confined to those 
species which are of use in construction in and around mines. During the sec- 
ond part of the term five lectures were given which dealt with the forest con- 
ditions of the species concerned, Ebrest Service methods of lumbering, plant- 
ing^ nd fire prevention. 


Pon*_t_. Believe All You Hear; Recent compilation of grazing reconnaissance data 
for 1,0CC,CCC acres of National FOrest range has revealed some startling facts. 
On the basis of total acres covered the carrying capacity is 85 A. per cow 
yearlong. Closer scrutiny, however, shows that that cow does not have to lope 
to graze. .Forty per cent of the total area is unavailable for forage due to 
lack of water, waste areas, etc., and brings the carrying capacity up to the 
reasonabls figure of 50 A. per cow yearlong. 

Land Office, and fi bres t Se rvice Exc hang e C om plime nts; D-3 recently had occasion 
to thank the Land Office at Santa Pe for cooperation and to compliment the 
officers on their businesslike administration. The following is the reply: 
"I may also say that this office appreciates very greatly tli9 spirit of helpful 
oooperation that has at all times been manifested by your office, and it shall 
be our aim at all times to cooperate with you to the fullest extent possible in 
the disposal of cases over which the Forest Service has jurisdiction." 

Tpnto at ill Ras Hopes ; The Southern Pacific Company has completed a film of the 
Apache Trail from Phoenix to Globe, and arrangements are being made to show the 
wonders of this highway of romance to all the nation. A beautiful and commodi- 
ous chalet on Roosevelt Lake is soon to be erected for the accommodation of the 


Fire Investigati on B oard; Plans have been formulated for the appointment of 
three Fire Investigation Boards, one for the west Idaho Hbrests, one for east 
Idaho Forests, and one for Utah. 3ach board will be composed of threG members, 
the Chief of Operation or other Assistant District Forester, a Supervisor and 
a Ranger. Alternates for the last two will also be named so that it will be un- 
necessary for any Supervisor or Ranger to act on fires which occur on their own 
Crests. This board will consider chiefly Class C fires, looking into their 
cause and the reason for their assuming such a size, in order to find out where 
our fire-fighting system breaks down, so that improvement may be made in future 
cases. They will get out on the area if possible and endeavor to definitely 
fix the responsibility for the failure to put out the fire while it was small. 
They will really be called upon to. work to all appearances for there is, at the 
present time, one fire case of last, year itfiich is slated for investigation as 
soon as possible. 

SQ^e-jbrest 1 . it may be noteworthy for a forest to claim the biggest receipts, 
the most timber, the biggest acreage, or the largest number of special use per- 
mits, or any of the other things for which Forests are famous. The Ashley knows 
it has reached the hall of fame because people are naming their children for it. 
In Greendale, Utah, which is a settlement within the .Forest, there lives Ashley 
R>rest Swett, who is now nine years old. He was born on the Forest in McKee Draw 
while his parents were en route from Greendals to Vernal, soon after they first 
settled at the former place. - 


DISTRICT 4 (Concluded) 

Local Mine Prop s i n Demand: An application for 650,000 linear feet of mine 
props has been received from the Utah Fuel Company. The timber they desire 
is located on the Manti Forest. It will be advertised just as soon as the 
necessary estimate and forest description can be prepared. 


Grover anient Heads in San grand sco Organize! For the first time in the history 
of San Francisco, representatives of nearly every executive department of the 
Federal Government 'got together recently in the- interest of Governmental ef- 
ficiency, economy, and cooperation. Thirty-throe heads of various Govern- 
mental branches, with offices in San Francisco, assembled at the Commercial 
Club and organized the Federal Business Association. Uniform standards of 
materials for all departments, cooperative buying, coordination between 
bureaus and businesslike administration are some of the features which will be 
taken up by the organization. 

Forecaster 3. A. Beals of the Weather Bureau, Dean of the Federal Serv- 
ice in San Francisco, acted as chairman, and Commander C. F. Russell, area 
coordinator, explained the organization of Federal business associations in 
sixty cities, which cooperate with the bureaus of the budget. Postmaster James 
Power was chosen president of the organization, and C. L. Snyder of the Civil 
Service Commission, secretary. 

Dr. Jordan Adds His Voi ce; "I regard the preservation and care of our forests 
as one of the most vital interests of the United States. To California, in 
which State the grandest forests lie, the matter is of supreme importance, and 
I should deeply regret to see the Forest Service in any way crippled or made 
less effective. I trust that the observance of Forest Protection Week may help 
educate the public toward useful ends." — David Starr Jordan. 


^l-Coj^th_Spring_to__Nompre Kayenne , who twangeth several twangs on his harp 
and singe th: 

"1 see the tourists' s ign where * er I go, 

The paper plates and tin cans that they sow; 
Why can't they keep their dirty junk picked up, 
And give the nice green grass a chance to grow? 

"Would that some winged Angel 'ere too late 

Would with a brick caress his addled pate 
Who fails to break his burned match in two, 
Also his camp fire quite obliterate." 

— F.V.H. 

" Siuslaw L umber Company?" On the Siuslaw National Forest we hate a lumber com- 
pany which cuts National Forest stumpage, the members of which live on Nation- 
al Forest land, cultivate National Forest land, and have their sawmill located 
on National Forest land. H. H. Cook Company consists of Mr. Cook, his five 
sons (all reared on National Forest land) and his son-in-law. They have a spe- 
cial use for two acres of land on which their sawmill is located, one-half acre 
for residence and 7§- acres for cultivation on the Forest in Lincoln County, near 
Ona, Oregon. — R.S.S. 


.Hsgah, 3urnishing Water for Towq y The Secretary recently approved an agreement 
which gives the town of Marion, Uorth Carolina, the right to use the waters of 
Macey Creek in McDowell County, North Carolina, for a municipal water supply. 
This is the third agreement of thi3 character that has been made for water sup- 
ply from Pisgah Forest during the past 18 months. The total annual rental for 
the three amounts to $1,500, or the equivalent of 3 per cent on the purchase 
price of the National Forest lands involved. The Forest Service reserves the 
right to cut timber from the watersheds. If this does not prove feasible the 
provision is also made for increasing the annual rental by a yearly sum equal to 
3 per cent or 5 per cent of the capital tied up in stumpage. — J.3.S. 





Sevbice Bulletin 

U. S. Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 


Vol. 711, No. 23. Washington, D„ Go Juno 4, 1923. 

By T, W. Norcross, Washington 

At tha invitation of Governor Pinchot, a number of States sent repre- 
sentatives to Harrisburg during the latter part of March for discussion of 
various highway matters. At the end of the meeting the' Committee on Conclu- 
sions, consisting of Mr. MacDonald, Chief, Bureau of Public Roads, and eight 
members of State Highway Commissions or Highway Departments, presented a re- 
port. The following excerpts 'from this report are of considerable interest; 

Admini s trat ion 

"We urge the State authorities, both executive and legislative, 

to provide at all times strong engineering control in the administrative 
and executive work of their" State highway departments and engineering super- 
vision of the construction, maintenance and operation of the highway systems. 
To this end we urge that these departments be removed from political influ- 
ences, and that continuity of service be preserved for a sufficient period 
to insure stabilized policies. In no other way is it possible to safeguard 
and protect the interests of the citizen who is paying for the roads. 

"State Highway Departments, with their knowledge of the geography and 
topography of the States, should determine without legislative or other 
interference what roads or systems of roads should be constructed and main- 
tained with State funds and should not be governed by legislation as to types 
and cost of construction. 


"The cost of building and maintaining an adequate system of highways 
should be distributed equitably among tha sources of highway revenue in pro- 
portion to the benefits- derived from the improvement. 

"The policy of requiring the user of the roads to pay, for the service 
received through a license and gasoline tax is a sound one, and all revenues 
from such sources should be applied primarily to the maintenance and recon- 
struction of highways'. 


"The progressive method of construction, whereby the grading, struc- 
tures and drainage are first completed and the hard surface pavement laid 
later, is both a practical and at times the most advantageous method of 
highway construction. 

ITainte nance 

"Unless adequate maintenance is provided for, initial construction 
of highways should not be undertaken at all. 


Tr affic 

"Each State highway department should establish a traffic bureau to make 
a highway transport survey in all its phases to determine present, and forecast 
future, traffic conditions to assist in the selection of the economic road con- 
s truction, 

"Efforts should be made, in cooperation with motor vehicle officials, to 
establish as soon as possible uniform motor vehicle laws and regulations, so 
that the user of the road may travel under uniform laws wherever he goes. 

"It is highly desirable that a uniform law be enacted by the States of the 
Union regulating the dimensions of motor driven vehicles and the wheel load of 
such vehicles. " 


•'Standing Timber Resources of the Great West" is the general heading give i 
to a reprint from the May issue of the WEST COAST LUMBERMAN, which contains 
nearly 26 pages of reading matter devoted to the activities of the lores t Serv- 
ice in Alaska and the Western States, principally in Washington and Oregon. 

Articles on the timber resources of the National Bbrests in District 6 were 
written by District Forester Cecil and members of his staff. The timber re- 
sources in District 2 were outlined in an article by Assistant District Forest;^ 
Thompson, and an article on District 4 was contributed', by Assistant District 
Forester Horse. Assistant District Forester Beering of District 5 contributed 
nn article on California's timber, and Assistant District Forester Heintzleman 
wrote on Alaska's resources, Notes on the timber resources of Montana and Idaho 
were contributed by the Office of Silviculture at Missoula. 

In addition to the many articles, several comprehensive tabulations of ti 
ber resources also appeared. One of these tabulations follows: 

Summary_of_All Timber Resources , of the Great West 
(Figures in M bd. ft., i. e. , 000, omitted) 








Misc. Pub., 
Ariz. ,Utah, 
Colo. , etc. 

Grand total 



M bd. ft. 




M lid. ft. 

10,900,0 00 
E, 524,uOO 




M bd. ft. 



St ate , etc. 
M bd.ft. 


2,507,00 0 


_ Tota l 

M bd. ft. 





*lnoludes 26,412,000 M bd. ft. of piling, poles, cordwood, etc, 


It is planned to graze some of the older Nebraska plantations with horses 
or dehorned cattle as a means of reducing the competition of the ordinary vege 
tation. This would require some expjnditure by the Service in fences and water 
development or by the stockmen who might be prevailed upon to use the area. Th 
former plan has been decided upon. 



It has also been decided, in connection with ordinary range improvements 
on the JJebraska 1 , which, up to this time have been constructed entirely by graz- 
ing permittees, to incorporate a clause in all future special use permits of 
this kind, providing for a rental value of a definite amount in case the regu- 
lar permittee wishes to drop out for a season and allow the use of his im- 
provements by other permittees. 

The rental figure amounting to 10 per cent of the original cost of the 
improvements, 5 per cent for maintenance, and an average of 6 per cent on a 
depreciation basis of 10 years, appears to be a very fair rate° It amounts to 
10^ per head per mouth on the Nebraska Jbrest on the capacity basis of 5o hsad 
of cattle per section as against the grazing fae of 15^ per head per month, a 
total of 25^ per head per month. This will remove a good deal of uncertainty 
as to what a proper charge would be and will also remove a tendency, which has 
developed in a few cases, of special use permittees overcharging for the use 
of their improvements* 

As an illustration of reviving interest in grazing on the Nebraska forest, 
one permittee with thoroughbred stock is making an investment in fences and water 
development, using steel posts acd galvanized wire, which will amount to a cost 
of 70^ per head per season over a depreciation period of 15 years. The permit- 
tee figures that even with that investment he will better his condition materi- 
ally, since he has been compelled to spend practically the amount of his origi- 
nal investment each year in supplementing the feed he has been able to raise on 
his ranch. Going to the Forest for the summer period will enable him to re- 
serve his ranch pasture as well as cut more hay for winter feeding. 

By Paul Do Kelleter, Y/ashington 

Th3 tidy sum of $546.71 for Quincy R* Graft was carried in a special bill 
of relief passed by the last Congress in its closing days and approved by th3 

This action overcomes the decision of the accounting officers of the Treas- 
ury, which would have had the effect of taking this. sum from Mr. Craft's accumu- 
lated savings as a Forest officer, the sum of $346.71 representing a disallow- 
ance in the Treasury Department of a disbursement made by Mr. Craft as fiscal 
officer on regularly authenticated vouchers submitted by a Forest Supervisor 
covering the construction of buildings on the Nebraska Forest. 

The appropriation act for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, approved 
March 4, 1917, raised the building limitation to ^1,000. Immediately on the 
passage of the bill, buildings were constructed, the cost of which exceeded the 
previous limit of $650 on the principle that the new limitation was immediately 
in effact and not to be restricted to the fiscal year for which the bill carried 
appropriations. The auditor and comptroller held differently and so the call 
was made on Mr. Craft for payment. The injustice is apparent. Had the Super- 
visor waited until July 1, the expenditure would have been authorized by the 
Treasury, but being a month sooner it was dead wrong and the situation was cre- 
ated where Z3r. Craft was called on to contribute his money to a Government build- 
ing, fortunately, Congress has come to the rescue and the payment is made by 
the Government, the party profiting, and Mr. Craft's patience has brought its 


Illus trating the W aning Hard wood Supply : During the last year or two there has 
frequantly been sent to the Forest Products Laboratory a dark reddish brown 
wood with the requast that it be identified. The wood seemed to puzzle mill 
men and lumber dealers „ In one case it was reported as being sold as "swamp 
walnuto" A microscopic examination showed such pieces to b3 willow. 

This rather recent introduction of willow on the lumber market probably is 
due to the present practice of lumbermen of cutting anything that will make lum- 
ber. Hence, unusual species may occur with the more common run of lumber. 
Some other uncommon kinds of lumber occasionally submitted to the Laboratory for 
identification are hackberry, planer tree, persimmon, ironwood, sourwo-od, mag- 
nolia, madrona, box elder, honey locust, coffee tree, butternut, slippery elm, 
incense cedar, Alaska cedar, yew, etc., not to mention numerous foreign species. 


BbBSSO? H foEPOTS LASOBMkaY ( C one lud 3d ) 

Oil from an Aut omobile Crasfe : Gssq not Gbbfl- Preservative ! Soma earnost saver of 
waste materials wanted to toot?" If the application of crude oil or engine oil 
from the crank of an automobile is of any value in preserving redwood shingles 
on a roof. 1 ' We had to advise him that the oil from his crank case would be of 
no value because it has no toxic properties. 

Qat-Hulls_a;nd, ffL ax Poor Source of Alcohols Enterprising bootleggers will never 
use oa'fe hulls or flax straw for producing alcohol. While it is true that a 
high yield Of sugars can be obtained, they are largely what are known as pentose 
sugars, -which can not be fbrfaented to alcohol. 

This is another confirmation of the belief by Lab. chemists that most of 
the callulosic materials which are counted on by the statistical writers as a 
source of alcohol ar 3 not suitable for this purpose because they produce mostly 
the unfermentabio pentose sugars. Apparently the coniferous woods will be found 
to be the rain source of supply of cellulose for the manufacture of alcohol. 


Planting o n East Jaca' 6 f Pike *S Peak; Planting operations are now in full swing 
on the east face of Pike's Peak* The trees and equipment were taken to an eleva- 
tion of about 10,010 feet by the Pike's Peak Cog Hoad by special train because 
the regular trains for the tourist season ware not operating. From this point 
thay were transported over a wagon road for two miles. It has been impossible to 
secure a full crew because of the great demand for labor along ail construction 
lines, but at this writing, about 45 men are on the job, and it is hoped to com- 
plete the planting, which is tha spruce and fir type, by the middle of June. 

School, Children Wrote 3ssavs on jbrest Protectip n: On many of the Jbrests of tha 
District during April, school children prepared essays on various phases of for- 
est protection with great credit to themselves. In all the towns in and near 
tha Montezuma Forest tha various banks offered £5 as a prize for the best essay 
written in the schools of that city. On other Ebrests various prizes were offered 
in a similar manner. Tha results fully justified tha initiation of this unique 

Planting by Boy Sc outs : Arrangements have been made for the Denver Boy Scouts to 
do some planting on tha Pike national Forest near their camp, about 5 rail as above 
Silver Plume. Tha boys will be driven out to the camp in about 80 cars, fur- 
nished and driven by members of tha Kiwanis Club and the Denvar Motor Club. The 
evening before tha planting is to be done, there will be a camp fire program at 
which an illustrated lecture on forestry, especially planting, will be givan by. a 
mamber of the Forest Service. Although the planting will be done under the super- 
vision of Forest officers, the boys will be divided up into small groups, each 
one under the supervision of one of the-men in the party. Although only a very 
small number of trees can be used at this time, it is hoped that this work may 
continue on a larger scale in future years. 

Th e P rog; of Pea ce was passed around at Cass Lake, Minnesota, recently when Dis- 
trict Forester Peck, Assistant District Forest hangar, and District Engineer 
Mendanhall ar. ' the 1 ocal Fbrest officers were entertained by 30 or 40 residents 
of that town at a dinner in celebration of the recent settlement with the Indians 
for the land and timber in the Minnesota Forest. 

There has in racent years been considerable opposition on the part of repra- 
sentativas of tha Indians to the settlement which was proposed by a law passed in 
1908 and on which hinged the Mope and expectation of making a real National Fbr- 
est out of the Minnesota. The President on April 9 approved the report of the 
Commission appointed to appraise tha timber, and the Secretary cf the Treasury 
has bean requested to make the payment to the Indians, so that the future of the 
Fbrest seams to be assured. 

The people of Cass Lake and vicinity have apparently trade up their minds 
that this is for the best interests of the community. The dinner took the form 
of an initiation of the visitors into the Ancient Order of Accredited Lumberjacks, 
and good feeling generally prevail ad. 



Bean Bee tle Blamed on Rational Fore st'; With the idea that the brush surrounding 
farms, which the Forest Service does not permit settlers to burn promiscuously, 
is a harboring place for bean beetles, a foothill farmer east of Manzano Nation- 
al Forest attempts, in a column- length story in the Mountainair Independent, to 
demonstrate that the pinto bean industry was there first and is worth more than 
the forest anyway. Farmers he contends that used to raise 1,0 00 to 1,500 pounds 
of beans to the acre now havj to buy what fey; b aans they eat just on account of 
the Forest Reserve. He recommends that Rangers "while riding leisurely along 
pull out of the trail and count the bugs under the brush." The newspaper editor 
saves us, however, by a half column commant that says that "the article is pub- 
lished not with any idoa of showing that the National Forests are in any way 
responsibls for the bean beetle, but merely to show how soma people will grab at 
a straw in order to register a kick against something they do not understand and 
which doss not appeal to them." Th3 Bureau of Entomology has been striving to 
find control methods for the bean beetle in New Mexico and the editor goes on to 
say, "Ho doubt the agents of the Government who spent months in this vicinity 
last summer studying the habits of the bean beetle will be glad to have this 
article as, as now all they will have to do is to do away with tho National For- 
ests, and lo, presto, the bean beetles will disappear by magic." 

ibr ast Serv i ce Girls. Held Picnic - Twenty of the Forest Service girls located in 
Albuquerque held a picnic recently in honor of two girls of the District office 
of Grazing who are to be spring brides. The party went by motor to a grove 
north of Alameda and enjoyed a picnic supper. The camp fire was thoroughly put 
out and the picnic grounds were left in neat, orderly condition, as should be 
done by all trained Forest Service girls. 

Saill^_Lumb_3rin£: Supervisor Andrews says that Santa Fe Canyon, just east of Santa 
Fo, probably contains the oldest cutting of western yellow pine stands in exist- 
ence, and that soon after the Spanish occupation in 1600 round timbers of vari- 
ous sizes were cut for construction purposes and cutting increased from then on 
to th3 American occupation of the territory. Sawmills were put in at a very 
early date, possibly 1850 or thereabouts, and cutting has continued until a few 
years ago. Now there is an excellent new forest in this canyon. Mr. Andrews 
points this out as an unparalleled opportunity for gathering growth data on cut- 
over lands. 

Grass Exhibit: Supervisor Y/ales of the Prescott and his forest force gathered 
and prepared an excellent collection of southwestern grasses and browses for 
display at the Northern Arizona State Fair at Irescott. About a dozen or fif- 
teen complete plants of each of the grass specimans were put in a bunch and the 
bunches attractively arranged on two panels each about 4x8 feet. The exhibit 
drew a great deal of attention. At the close of that fair, it was taken with 
the other Department of Agriculture exhibit materials to the big fair at Phoenix, 
where it met with the same success and later was shown at the State Convention 
of tha New Mexico Educational Association in Albuquerque. 

Tourist Travel; Recreation figures from the Coconino Bulletin show 10,015 reg- 
istered visitors at Y/alnut Canyon National Monument this year as compared with 
8,500 in 1921. Tu* Flagstaff City Park entertained 19,616 people as compared 
with approximately 11,500 last year. At Montezuma Castle 4,800 people regis- 
ter 3d this year. The total number of visiters to the established camp grounds 
of the District for 1922 is 81,000. A material increase is expected next year 
with new camps, new and bettsr roads and natural growth* 

Gila Bugs Not Se rious; Mr. W. D, Zdm^_:s' , .on ? of the Bureau of Entomology, after 
an examination of the insect infectel .?: ea on Cow Creek on the Gila, reports, 
according to the Gila Bulletin, that the Infestation is not serious. He does 
not advise any action toward eradication or control at this time. 

Cpw_Celeb rated Indscendence Da y! The Coronado has figures that show that between 
April 13 and September 10, 1922, almost a thousand automobiles were registered 
at the control station on Mt. Lenmon road. The record is not entirely com- 
plete, however, because the pages for two days af heaviest traffic, July 3 and 
4, was destroyed by a hungry cow. 


DISgaiOT 5 (Concluded) 

How | Times Do Change; From Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fa, New Mexico, in 
the days of the old SanlaFo trail, a man' s ration allowance was fifty pounds of 
flour and fifty of bacon, ten pounds of coffee and twenty o'f sugar, and a littla 
salt. Beans ware sometimes included as a luxury. In these, the days of Forest 
Service trails and roads, the grub allowance of a ran on the end of a shovel or 
guiding the rooter or road plow, has changed' some from those of the bull whacker 
of the 3L830' s. 

Sound Like Nevada ..to_You? The last legislature author iaed the Governor of 
Nevada to set aside not more than twenty-five game preserves v/ithin the State. 
Governor Serugham has suggested eight areas within the portion of Nevada in 
District 4. Three areas are on the Humboldt, three on the Nevada, one on the 
Ivloapa division of the Dixie, and one on the edge of the canyon of the Colorado 
River in no National Forest- These suggested reservations have been submitted 
to this office for comment. The Governor has also designated tha region around 
Lehman Caves as a Stat;- Recreation Ground and has allotted $500 for its improve- 
ment. It is hoped to centralize a game reservation in that vicinity and to build 
up a hatchery for game birds there at soma time in the future. 

P ,z %V Park, i n Logan Oanyon't The city of Logan has secured a special use permit 
for an area in Logan Canyon of the Cache National Sorest to b a used as a city 
parko This area adjoins the State "Fish Hatchery site. 

The citizens of Logan are hard at work this spring planting trees and 
shrubbery and building a small lake with an island in the middle of it. This 
lake will later be planted with large spawning trout from tha fish hatchery. 

Mr. anil Hansen, landscape architect for the Utah Agricultural College, 
has laid out the plans and the work is being done under his supervision. Ever- 
greens and black willows are being planted. Public camp grounds adjoin this 
area and promise to become vary popular and one of the beauty spots of this 

Imp ortant Visito rs Expected; From a letter recently received in Lands, it ap- 
pears that Secretary Wallace of the Department of Agriculture and Secretary V/ork 
of the Interior Department will come out the early part of June and go over vari- 
ous matters connected with the Yellowstone Park extension in the Jackson Hole 

Q£^d_Canyon_Highway: District Engineer J t ?. Martin has ro turned from the Kai- 
^b, where he inspected work on the Grand Canyon Hig.h-.vay where construction is 
under way on La Fcvre ridge. About three miles of tha new road are completed 
and another mile is cleared. The new road is sixteen feet wide with five par 
cent grade most of tha way. The old road was narrow and had a grade of twelve 
per cent and over. On his return he stopped at Red Canyon and inspected the naw 
road location with the idea of changing the line in soma places in order to save 
beautiful trees by the roadside. The new road construction in this canyon will 
not interfere with travel very much this year, as the old road runs quite a dis- 
tance from the new line inmost places. 

Essay Contest Completed: The essay contest staged during Forest Protection V/eek 
among the Girl Scouts of Ogden has been completed. While there was not the re- 
sponse we might have wished, quite a number of girls submitted thair papars, and 
six prize winners have been selactod. Money for these prizes was furnished by 
the Fbrest Service at Ogden. 

A M ind en Zenhyr: The ;Hqno ^rost was nearly blown off the map recently by a 75- 
mile wind that made a. jbotal wreck of the Forest Service shop, took the roof off 
tha high school, destroyed three barns, one 400 feet long, and killed six 
thoroughbred cattle, doing damage altogether to the amount of $ 50,000, Super- 
visor Maule says this.. was the worst wind ever known in that section. 



Public Halat i ons on tha Snpqualmiia; A Forest Service exhibit showing scenes on 
the National Crests and accentuating fire protection was displayed recently by 
Supervisor Treen and Ranger Tuslor at the Sportsmen's Show in Seattle. The 
purpose of the Sportsmen's Week was to advertise both to the tourists and to res- 
idents the excellent hunting, fishing, and scenery to be found in the State of 
Washington. Information about these matters was spread mainly through a parade 
and an 3xcellent exhibit of fish and game. Over 7,000 people attended the ex- 
hibit, which is considered a good number, since an admission was charged* 

In Larch the Gamp Fire Girls gave an exhibit showing the excellent work of 
the organization in stimulating interest in outdoor life. Ranger Tusler and 
Bbrest Examiner Kellogg decorated a Forest Service corner, getting ovar Forest 
protection and recreation by showing scenes on the National Forests and display- 
ing fire slogans and maps. 

^he work of giving examinations to Seattle Boy Scouts seeking the merit 
badge in conservation and forestry still progresses. Forty-one of these have 
been given to date by Supervisors V/eigle and Treen, 

Maybe So: Ranger Lyman of the Siskiyou received a latter in February addressed 
"Mr. Lyman, est Forsst^r Ranger." At that, the writer may not have been 

Fire Prevention on* the Malheur; Another fire season is soon to be upon us. 
Ranger Slliott has mailed out letters to all grazing permittees calling atten- 
tion to their fire fighting and prevention obligations and is arranging for them 
to handle fires upon certain areas. 

Ranger Ray is doing the same except that he has sent different letters to 
new permittees, old permittees whose cooperation has been satisfactory, and old 
permittees whose cooparation has not been satisfactory. The Prairie City Stock 
Association has passed resolutions authorizing Forest officers to call out any 
member of the association or employees of members of the association to fight 
fires. Whore this is not possible or practicable, the Forest officer is author- 
ized to hire other assistance and forward the bill to the association for paymen 
There was not, a sin gla man-caused fire upon Ranger Ray's District last saason. 
Here's one bunch of grazers who are not careless with fire. There are about 44 
bands of sheep and 3,500 head of cattle on his district, too. 


Golf on the Pisgah: Application has been made by the citizens of Brevard, North 
Carolina, for enough land on Davidson River in Pisgah Forest to locate a 9-hole 
golf course. Perhaps the Pisgah will some day rival the Angeles in variety of 
special uses. 


Fire Propaganda Gets Good _C ire ulat ion.: The Anchorage District of the Chugach is 
the only ranger district in the Alaskan National Forests having any fire prob- 
lem of importance, and during fire protection week Ranger John G. Brady, in 
charge of the Anchorage district, made considerable hay c The extent to which 
the press, the business men, and the public generally cooperated speaks well 
for the work of the Service in that district. 

President Harding to Vis it Chugach: If present plans mature, the Chugach will be 
honored with some very distinguished visitors this season, as President Harding, 
accompanied by three members of the Cabinet, is expected to visit parts of the 
Forest during June. 

Assigned to Ch ugac h: Thomas 3. Murray, Forest Ranger, formerly of the Tongas s, 
has been assigned to the Chugach, effectivo May 1. Mr. Murray has had two sea- 
sons' experianaa in Alaska. Last winter he took the rangers' short course at 
the Montana School of Forestry. 

New Trails to be Built: Half a dozen trail projects will be undertaken on the 
Chugach this season. Most of them will be for the opening up of mining region;.; 
at present more or less inaccessible. A total allotment of $7,300 has been set 
up for this work. 


DISTRICT 8 (Concluded) 

App lication for Timber; Timber sale business on the Ghugach is looking up. A 
tentative application has been received -for 100 million feet to bj cut from 
Afbgnak Island. Supervisor McDonald is making a reconnaissance of the area 
and if %he deal goes through a, more intensive cruise will probably be triads 
later in the season. ' . 

(To play safe the author rsmains anonymous) 

Some may prefer to put- their trust 

In an old "tin Lizzie" that rolls in dust; 

But let me to ssa, and to windward beat 

On the trim craft of the Forest Service Fleet! 

First the "Hiawatha," the flagship true, 

Leads the Fleet through waters blu3, 

The stalwart "Tahn," and the "Weepoose," 

These beat any old galloping goose,. 

There's "Ranger One," and "Ranger Two," 

Gutting along while their engines stew; 

And "Ranger Four" and "Ranger Five," 

All good boats for a man alive; 

And soon to be added to the galaxy 

The brand-new boat, "Ranger Threa"; 

Good staunch craft in a stormy sea 

3ven down to the "Nellie B." 

All of thsm natty and trim and neat - 

IJine : good ships of the Forest Service Fleet! 




gevbice Bulletin 

U. S. Forest Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 

Vol. VII. No. 2k 

Washington, D. C. 

June 11, 1923 

By G.H. Collingwood, Washington 

The State Forester of Maryland is teaching forest management and the 
application of silviculture through the pocketbook. A recent visit to the 
UO-acre woodlot of W. Beale Bowie, near Largo in Prince Georges County, 
Maryland, revealed the fact that the forester, the lumberman, and the owner 
of timber land can all get together upon a common oasis of understanding. 

Mr. Bowie owns a piece of mixed hardwood land, consisting chiefly of 
white oak, together with scattered black oak, pin oak, gum, and tulip poplar, 
growing on rolling land generally loamy clay in character. Through his 
county agricultural agent he learned of the cooperation which State Forester 
Besley's office is in a position to give. 

On October 19, 1921, a preliminary examination was made by Assistant 
Forester Karl E. Pfeiffer. The terms under which the State could be of ad- 
ditional help were explained, and afterwards Mr. Pfeiffer prepared a brief 
report with general recommendations for management. A copy of this, to- 
gether with a more detailed explanation of the "Maryland Plan" was sent to 
Mr . Bowie . 

Many of the trees were mature and the owner wanted to get some money 
out of the lot. But he did not want to risk an ungoverned cutting by an 
ordinary sawmill operator. The plan which had accompanied the report looked 
good, and he decided to give it a trial. .Accordingly, Mr. Corbin was sent 
from the forester's office to mark those trees which should be taken out. 
This was on the 13 th of March, 1922. 

Mr. Corbin' s salary was paid by the State, but for this type of work 
the woodland owner paid the State Forester's office $3.00 per day, together 
with the cost of all travel and subsistence while he was away from the of- 
fice. In addition two local men were furnished as helpers. All the trees 
were marked, tallied, and deduction made for defects. The marking of the 
trees consisted of a conspicuous blaze at breast height, and another one 
below the level of the stump, on which was stamped an "M" which served to 
check the cutting of any unmarked trees. They finished the job in a day, 
and Mr. Bowie was given an estimate of the amount of timber which should be 
removed from his lot. The office work was done at the State Forester's 
office, and the cost to the owner was scarcely more than $10.00, 

Ordinarily a description of the lot, and a statement of the volume 
of lumber to be removed, but with no suggestions as to values, is sent out 
to a number of mill men, together with the regulations under which the trees 
are to be cut. The millmen are invited to submit bids, and occasionally 
seme real competition ensues. In this particular case Mr. Bowie let the 
contract without competitive bids, and. received a lump sum of $2,020 for an 
estimated cut of 200,000 board feet. Inasmuch as all of the cutting is done 
by the operator this amounts to a stumpage value of a little more than $10 
per M.B.M, In addition the owner retains ownership of all tops and limbs. 
These he is working up into cordwood and selling in the farmyard at $0.30 
per standard cord. A liberal estimate for cutting up the tops gives him a 
profit on his cordwood of at least $3. Under such conditions diameter lim- 
its for top lopping or rules for brush disposal are scarcely necessary. 

WITH THE SmALL TIKfc ffL AIID QV-iJZR (Concluded) 

The marking was done on the basis of a selection plan. All mature 
and overtopping trees were removed, also some smaller ones which were 
crowding more desirable specimens. In addition, all defective trees were 
ordered cut, to be used, or not, as the operator pleased. The woods are 
left in a highly productive condition, with a considerable percentage of 
the forest canopy left unbroken. Very few trees over 10 inches in diameter 
are left, but this is due to market conditions rather than any prearranged 
diameter limit. Apparently the timber operator lives up to the terms of 
his agreement, and the woods are left in the best possible condition. Of 
course there is a penalty clause in case he does not do so. Comparatively 
little damage was done to the remaining tree growth, and small reproduction 
is given a splendid opportunity to spring up. 

This is a case where the State Forester is carrying on effective 
extension teaching which is helping the woodlot owner to help himself. He 
is probably getting nearly as much for the woodlot as if he had sold, it 
outright, and. he has a good start toward a substantial crop which can be 
harvested within the next ten years. 

By Ward Shepard - Washington 

Among the things that have made the Forest Service what it is, one 
of the chief is the loyalty of its members. This is well known both inside 
and outside the organization. Yet this spirit of loyalty - producing sac- 
rifice and devotion, and welding diverse men together into a remarkable 
community of ideas and purpose - has not, it seems to me, been adequately 
explained. Many people explain it on the ground of enthusiasm for public 
service, and to a less degree on the attraction of life and work in moun- 
tains and forests. Unquestionably these things are strong factors in many 
individual choices, but they hardly get to the heart of the question. 

The chance for public service, for example, exists in many occupa- 
tions. Hospitals, courts, legislatures, fire departments, post offices, 
to name only a few, exist primarily for public service, Many other occu- 
pations, such as ranching, engineering, prospecting, seafaring, farming, 
and the like, give opportunities for a life in the open. 

The call of the Service is stronger and deeper than all these. 
Forestry on a large scale and extending its operations over centuries is a 
challenge to the best powers of man, it is a call to a higher social de- 
velopment, a more studied, elaborate, and fruitful civilization. For ages 
men have been emerging from chaos, mental and spiritual; from the disorder 
of ignorance, sloth, greed, cunning, and waste. 

Now work like public forestry is another and striking proof that 
man can rise to intellectual and moral maturity; to a large conception of 
sober, ordered, reasoned existence, based on social morality. For public 
forestry means control of natural forces on a gigantic scale; it means 
highly organized planning through centuries; it means thought for remote 
generations and for a civilization of which ours is only the germinating 
seed. It says to greed, waste, and ignorance, "You shall not enter here." 
For exploitation, destruction, and future poverty, it substitutes intelli- 
gent care and social cooperation. 

In these respects, I maintain that public forestry is the type and 
promise of a new civilization. It takes no visionary to discover the con- 
trast between its aims and social morals and those current in much of the 
present pro fit -making organization of the world. And it is in such large 
conceptions of intelligent purpose that man rises to his true dignity and 
mental stature. It is net merely that foresters satisfy the every-day need 
for such an ordinary and unromantic commodity as wood; but that in doing 
so they reassure us that man can, if only he have a better outlook and a 
better faith,, control his own destiny and build a secure and. rational 

- 2 - 


civilization. Forestry is one of those great liberating ideas that capture 
the imagination. To have a part, however small, in this pioneering toward 
a better world is, I believe, the chief source of the loyalty and faith of 
fore ster s . 

By C. R. Til let son - Washington 

In the Pennsylvania State Service Letter for May 2^, 1923, there 
appears without comment Cotta's preface to his instructions in silviculture 
first published in 1317. A part of this is so applicable to present condi- 
tions in the United States in -so far as I have observed them that I can not 
help but quote from the article. Does this condition which was long ago 
recognized by Cotta, and which I believe all will agree is duplicated very 
largely right here today, indicate that all those who deal with forestry in 
a broad way have to pass through the stage which he pictured? 

"Our foresters can still be divided into empiricists 
and scientists; rarely are both united. 

"What the former considers sufficient in a forest management 
is easily learned, and the systematic teachings of the other are 
soon memorized. But in practice the art of the first stands to 
a thorough forestry science in the same relation as the quack 
medicine to the true pharmacopia; and the other often does not 
know the forest for the many trees. Things look very differently 
in the forest from what they do in books; the learned man stands 
therefore, frequently, left by his learning and at the same time 
without the bold decision of the empiricist. 

"Three principal causes exist why forestry is still so 
backward; first, the long time which wood needs for its develop- 
ment; second, the great variety of sites on which it grows; 
thirdly, the fact that the forester who practices much writes 
but little, and he who writes much practices but little. 

"The long development period causes that something is con- 
sidered good and prescribed as such, which is good only for a 
time, and later becomes detrimental to the forest management. 
The second fact causes that what many declare good or bad, 
proves good or bad only in certain places. The third fact 
brings it about that the best experiences die with the man who 
made them, and that many entirely one-sided experiences are 
copied by the merely' literary forester so often that they 
finally stand as articles of faith which nobody dares to gain- 
say, no matter how one-sided or in error they may be." 

"Therandt, Dec. 31, 1316. Heinrich Cotta." 

By Will C. Barnes - Washington 

Recently Ranger Kintner of the Tusayan sent a beautifully tanned 
squirrel skin in for identification, believing it might prove to be a 
Kaibao squirrel although captured on the south side of the Grand Canon, 
the recognized dividing line between the Abert and Kaibab squirrels. It 
was identified, however, oy the Biological Survey as an Aoert ( Sc iurus 
aberti ) , The two are very close in certain characteristic colorings, cut 
the Kaibab shows far more white on the long tail than the Abert. 

- 3 - 


L The Biological Survey reports the latter animal as naving oeen re- 
ported.' from a number of places in New Mexico, the Prieto plateau in the 
southeastern part of that State, the head of the Mimbres River, in the Mon- 
golian mountains, the San Mateo mountains, and in the Ealck Range. Appar- 
ently the Abert squirrel is common all over the Yellow pine region cf the 
Southwest, even into Colorado, out the Kaioao squirrel is yet to be dis- 
covered elsewhere than on the-Kaibab plateau in Northern Arizona where he 
seems to have been cut off from all migrations by the canon to the south 
and the impassable deserts of that region on every other side. 


An Unusual Opportunity for Exhibits is presented by the Colorado 
Pageant of Progress, which will be staged at Denver during the first two . 
weeks in July. The Forest Service, D-2, has been offered unlimited space 
immediately to the right of the entrance. The value of this space is con- 
siderably enhanced by the- pre sence'' of two small cottonwood groves and some 
rough ground which will lend themselves well to an outdoor scene. 

The present plan, which is only tentative ,. calls for a young forest 
covering an acre or 'two to be in charge of a ranger who will camp, on the 
ground. The exhibit will' show some ' representative phases of grazing activi- 
ties, a small burn surrounded by a fire line," and a plantation. In. a rustic 
cabin, will-be housed some miniature exhibits showing some phases of forest 
management- which cannot be shown out of doors owing to the size of the trees 
necessary. ... - - x - 

The Ford automobile factory will be represented on the ground by an 
exhibit costing some $600,000.' This will be near the Forest Service ex- 
hibit and presents remarkable opportunities for cooperation since they ex- 
pect to show a railroad, several small villages and an irrigated farm. 

The interest of the- Manager of the Pageant of Progress has led him 
to treat the Forest Service with unusual generosity, donating unrestricted 
space and helping in every way possible' by his influence and personal -inter- 


New Extension Forester : G. H. CollingvVOod 'is now attached to the Forest 
Service as Extension Specialist in Forestry, having been assigned to this 
work by the States Relations Service. Mr. Collingwood was formerly a Ranger 
in District 3, later becoming associated with Cornell University as Exten- 
sion Specialist in Forestry. Mr. Collingwood' 1 s principal duties with the 
Forest Service will be to deal with State extension directors, head-s of 
forestry departments, and fore stry extension' specialists as an advisor on 
forestry subjects and as an expert in forestry extension methods. The im- 
portance of Mr. Collingwood' s work is easily recognized when it is remem- 
bered that one -third of the forest land in the United States is owned by 

Paper Bags Used For Fire Publicity : The Conservation Commission of the 
State of New York has been successful in putting over some good publicity 
on fire prevention through the distribution of paper bags on which is 
printed fire propaganda and -rules for campers. These bags are being dis- 
tributed by the New York Sta^te Forestry Association", which organization 
secured a contribution' for the purpose. The idea held by the Conservation 
Commission of New York was to get a fire warning to picnic parties and other 
users of the Forests at a time when such parties are actually in the woods. 

- k - 

WASHINGTON NOffES (Concluded) 

. i . 

A Self -Explana tory Letter: ;.' " -—** V4 ' / 

International Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

. ':'r : "" May 2i, 1923 . 

"Hon. Henry C. Wallace, 
Secretary of Agriculture , v ' ■' 

Department of Agriculture , - I 

Washington, D . C. 

"My dear Mr. Secretary; • 


"In behalf of the producers, distributors and consumers of lumber 
represented through the Central Committee on Lumoer Standards in an effort 
to formulate standards that will promote maximum economy and convenience in 
the manufacture, distribution and utilization of lumber, may I express 
grateful appreciation of the services of the Forest Products Laooratory at 
recent national conferences held in Chicago, May 10 - 16 . 

"No important constructive undertaking in American industry has ever 
at any time received more timely or more practical technical assistance 
from the Government than has the lumber industry, through the Eorest Service 
and the Forest Products Laboratory. 

" ; Yours 'truly , 

• . *• . . 

■'. - ('Signed) Wilson Compton, 

Chairman, Consulting Committee." 

. . . . ,\\. s 


Larch Baking Powder Biscuits : Most tempting, beautifully browned biscuits 
on exhibition at the Lab-, during the visit of the Senate Forestry Committee 
aroused much interest. - This was increased when it was learned that the 
mucic acid used for the manufacture of the baking powder came from larch 
hutfcs . 

Large Attendance At May Instructional Courses : Sixty men, the greatest 
number assembled at one time for the Laboratory instructional courses, 'were 
enrolled as follows for the May series: kiln drying, 19; boxing ana crating, 
17; glue, l6; salesman, 8. 

Like their predecessors, these men came from various portions of the 
United States and represented many industries. 

Getting More and More Alcohol : Just soaking wood for an hour in a four per 
cent solution of sodium carbonate before distillation gave an average in- 
crease of over 30 per cent in methyl -alcoho 1 yields, it was learned in re- 
cent experiments. The Lab. is continually adding to its stock of alcohol; 
stock of information, we mean. 

Yellow Cabs Have All-Wood Bodies : > Is steel superseding wood in the manu- 
facture of auto bodies? Possibly with some makes, but the superintendent 
of body construction for the Yellow Cab Manufacturing Company thinks wood 
construction is far better. "The all-steel body," he said, in an article 
in the Hardwood. Record, "does not compare with the all-wood construction - 
not the way we use it. All-steel has a number of good arguments against 
it. First, it can't compare with all-.vood construction in the ease and 
speed with which repairs can be made. There is where the whole secret lies. 
The steel car, when it is damaged, must -be repaired by -welding in the new 
parts, and this is a slow process, requiring the better part of a day or 
longer to accomplish. With our woou. construction we can make repairs in 

- 5 - 


much less time There are other reasons, too, .why wood is preferred. 

An all-metal car rusts - say what you will - which adds much to repairs and 
upkeep. A metal car is also full of "drum," vibration, a disadvantage not 
to be found in a wooden car . " 


Rains Improve Ranges : Recent rains have taken place throughout the District 
and there are excellent prospects tor a good crop of grass, at least, auring 
the early part of the season. 

Those who think they know something about the cattle industry are 
prophesying a pretty fair market this fall, particularly on feeders, on ac- 
count of the good year that the feeders have had. Most of them have maae 
some money on their ventures during the past winter. 

Grazing Inspectors Rachford of the Washington Office and Douglas of the 
District Office are out on schedule of conference of the Forest Supervisors 
on range appraisal, which will Keep them engaged about a month in this Dis- 


Frooably some of Bunyan ' s Men : It is reported tnat archaeologists digging 
around in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado have found the petrified oodies 
of two men eleven feet in height. These giant human beings are said to oe 
of proportions similar to those of the people of today. Speculations are 
rife with scientists concerning the time when such mighty men lived in Ari- 
zona, but what is more natural than that a couple of Bunyan's loggers onoula 
have gone down the river when Paul attempted a drive on one of the upper 
forks of the Colorado? In that event there is no question concerning the 
period of their living-. It was contemporaneous with the formation of the 
Petrified Forest which, according to- Qudncy Randies' story in the April num- 
ber of the Forest Pioneer t occurred when the mud -covered logs were driven 
out of the Puerco onto the flats south of Holbrook for want of sufficient 
water to float the big season's cut. 

Good Adv ice : Supervisor Arthur, regards poor tools as worse than none and 
in the Lincoln Bulletin admonishes rangers not to depend on worn-out stuff. 
"Round up your old property, " says the paragraph, "and have it in shape so 
that when an officer who has the power to condemn property is on your Dis- 
trict, he can clean it up. Don't be charged with any old, worn-out stuff, 
as it looks from the Supervisor's Office that you have equipment when you 
really have worse than none. If you have no equipment you will not depend 
on i t and have it fail you. Condemn it. The Supervisor's Office cannot 
get new equipment like it. should be able to get as long as the records are 
cluttered with old junk that looks like equipment on paper. When a tool 
becomes worn out it is cast aside and if it is not condemned immediately, 
it will likely be lost and then someone, usually the fellow charged with it, 
pays. All equipment in serviceable condition should be the aim of every 
Ranger and the Property Custodian will -be of all assistance possible. 

Ranger Eri c koon a Ve t eran : Ranger Neil Erickson, now custodian of the Walnut 
Canyon National Monument on the Coconino, has a long record of service tc 
his creait. Prior to his transfer to the Coconino Erickson was a ranger fcr 
almost eighteen years on the Chiricahua-Corooado . During that time he worked 
under six different aupervioors. 

Second V. P. Scout Council : Supervisor Calkino of the Ccronado has oeen 
chosen Second Vice President of the Catalina Council of the Boy Sccuts cf 

- o - 

DISTRICT 3 (Concluded) 

America.- -Camp Lawton, the Scout outing place on the Coronaao National 
Forest, has been made the model scout camp for the state by the Arizona 
Boy Scout Conference . 


Girl Scouts Get Instruction s: The Girl Scouts of Ogden and vicinity re- 
cently held a training school in Ogden Canyon, f. S. Baker gave the girls 
instructions on how to know the trees, how to build camp fires that will 
not burn up the Forests, especially how to put them out, and how to draw 

No Loss 'Without Some Gain : The late spring which everybody is cursing is 
not without some favorable aspects. 

"Johnny" Raphael who has recently returned from the arid State of 
Nevada says that the cool weather and numerous storms are holding back the 
melting of the snow most excellently. These snows were lighter than usual 
and if spring had come on normally, the water would be all gone before it 
was time to use it for some of the crops. Farmers depending upon irriga- 
tion are therefore favored by the late spring. It also promises to make 
the spring range last well through the season and not dry up early in the 
year as is sometimes the case. 

While not due to the late spring, Mr. Raphael also reports an im- 
provement in the gold mining industry in the State of Nevada, and states 
that a new gold strike on the Santa Rosa Division of the Humboldt National 
Forest is causing considerable excitement." 

Red Cedar Chests Made by School : The Industrial Department of the Ogden 
Central Junior High School recently staged an exhibition, the feature of 
which was an extremely beautiful clothes chest made of the native red cedar 
( Juniperus Scopulorum ) . The wood for this chest was obtained near Ogden 
from a remarkably large juniper (in this particular region). The wood was 
of a deeper red than is seen in the chests made of eastern red cedar, and 
was more beautifully varigated and mottled. 


Siskiyou County Declares War on Incendiaries : A splendid address made by 
Supervisor Tom West of the Klamath before a meeting of the Associated Cham- 
bers of Commerce of Siskiyou County at Montague, evidently aroused these 
representative citizens to a sense of the dangers that are threatening 
them if the depletion of the forests is not promptly curbed. Mr. West pre- 
sented startling facts and figures to show that the sword of Damocles, in 
the shape of a timber famine, is hanging over our heads, and that the in- 
cendiary and the careless or malicious camper is doing his best to cut the 
slender thread by which it is suspended. As a result of this plea for the 
forests resolutions were adopted endorsing and commending the work of the 
Forest Service, and recommending that copies of the resolutions be published 
and a committee appointed "to do all within its power to advise the people 
of the County of the necessity of care to prevent fires." 

A few days later the committee held an earnest and enthusiastic meet- 
ing in Mr. West's office to formulate plans for this campaign. A remark- 
ably thorough and comprehensive plan of action was mapped out, which aims 
at enlisting the support of every citizen in the county, and in which the 
Service will of course participate to the extent of its powers. 

A Quiet Sunday : The following is a copy of a note written by Scaler Charles 
Bloom of the Eldorado: 

"Sunday, May 13 . - This is the end of a perfect day. Scaled the 
usual amount of logs. On looking over the sale area shortly after noon 
discovered a family of rattlesnakes; killed 2b all oy myself and saw lots 

- 7 - 

DISTRICT 5 (Concluded) 

more which am going to work on tomorrow, Expect to do better then, as I 
will take a few necessary implements of war with me. Had a very nice fire 
close to Government land this evening which furnished amusement for awhile, 
Hope to see you scon. 'Unclassified - 6 hours.'" 

New Forest Ser vice C amp on La ke Tahoe : The Board of Supervisors of Eldorado 
County recently purchased go acres of land on the shore of Lake Tahoe in 
order to secure a right of way for the State highway. The land -in excess of 
the needs for this purpose, with a shore line of a quarter of a mile, //ill 
be turned over to the Forest Service to be usea for a public camp ground. 
This area is situated next to the summer resort of Al Tahoe, and in case the 
plans go through will mean that at last we will have a camp ground on the 
Eldorado side of Lake Tahoe' with a decent shore line on the lake itself. 


Stock Associations Hold Meetings ; Sixteen stock association meetings have 
been held on the Whitman Forest during the past two month-s, with the District 
Ranger and at least one member of the Supervisor's office present at each. 
Supervisors Ramsdell and Irwin feel -well qualified for membership -in the 
circuit riders' club, particularly after trips to the various John Day and 
Burnt River Associations. 

Probably the banner meeting was with the Pine Valley Association at 
Halfway, with all officers and a total of 33 members present. Aoout ?Q per- 
mittees graze kjCQ head of cattle on this range . W-ith applications for u327 
head it is no small task to figure equitable allotments and, in turn, to 
supervise such a- range . Ask- Ranger ■ Foreman . ■ 

The Whitman is pleased to announce a cut of 2010 C. & H. and 16,^00 
S. & G, for the 1923 season, besides a two weeks' reduction in season for 
about bCffo of all stock. In fact we anticipate a display of real grass in 
the mountains after the middl6'of summer- in another year or two, and those 
wishing to take pack trips will not be asked to include baled hay with their 
supplies. At the same time, we aspire to turn off some first-class beef and 
mut ton , 

Matt s on Resigns . Another oldtimer is leaving the Whitman. Frank Matt son 
worked under appointment as Guard in 1°j10 and has been on the Forest almost 
continuously since that time as District Ranger, and later as Scaler.- He 
has been rated as one of the best scalers in D-b . Mattson has gone to Illi- 
nois, where he will probably realize an ambition of several years to operate 
a chicken ranch along scientific lines. 

That -Malheur Sale . The Whitman force is mighty tickled to see the big Mal- 
heur sale bid in at $2. SO, even if it does mean that our neighbor to the 
south -fti 11 soon be showing us-up in the timber business. It is going to 
make sales administration a lot easier with us after the trouble brewing 
over the slicing of six bits from the appraised price. Best of all, it vin- 
dicates the appraisal work of the logging engineers. 

I had six honest, serving men; 

(They taught me all I knew) 
Their names are WHAT and WHY and WHEN, 

And HOW and WHERE and WHO. 


- 6 - 

U. S. Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 

Vol. VII, No. 25 Washington, D, C. June IS, 1923- 


In the logging-camps of North America, strange legends are told of 
Paul Bunyan; of his huge size and daring, of his physical prowess, of his 
heroic and magnificent deeds, and of his famous Blue Ox that measured eleven 
axe-handles between the horns. Ttese legends have always been regarded as 
myths, invented by lumberjacks to while away long winter evenings. 

But recently an adventurous Ranger scaled the heights of Mt . McKinley 
and discovered some curious old documents from which it is possible to deter- 
mine not only that Paul Bunyan actually existed, but that he worked for many 
years in the Forest Service. It has been decided to piece together these 
fragments, interpret them, and give them to the world. 

By a rare good stroke of fortune and $1,000 ,000 the SERVICE BULLETIN 
secured the serial rights to these Paul Bunyan yarns, which by the way were 
written on the first paper pulp ever made. This issue contains the first 
chapter. The others will appear in successive issues. Order from your 
newsdealer today . Better yet, obey that impulse and send in your subscrip- 
tion (pine needles not accepted) to the nearest P. R. office'. 


Chapter I . 

Bunyan Was The First Ranger 

It is not generally known that Paul Bunyan was the first Ranger, 
That was long, long ago when the Forest Service was a small bureau in the 
Department of the Exterior. Paul's district was proportionate to his great 
size, being over 293 billion square axe -handles in area, and embracing in 
its northwestern extremity the present Chugach and Tongass Forests in Alaska. 
Here he had his summer headquarters; but as winter approached he rode south 
on his Blue Ox along the main crest of the Rockies, thence easterly to the 
mouth of Sour Dough Creek (later dubbed the Mississippi), where he had a 
winter camp. 

[To be continued] 

By Joe Kircher, D~3 

In spite of the fact that Brazil has vast virgin forests it has been 
a large purchaser of American pine. Before the European war Brazil was pur- 
chasing lumber from the United States at the rate of b0,000 M feet per year. 
This lumber was practically all southern yellow pine (mostly longleaf) and 
eastern white pine, both of which were used largely for constructive purposes. 

The reason why this lumber could compete with the native species was 
because the Brazilian lumber industry had never been well organized, was very 
small, and could not supply the demand. The Brazilian, who is fundamentally 
a landowner but not a manufacturer, probaoly preferred to buy his lumber from 
foreigners rather than to run the chances of losing money in cutting lumber, 
an operation of which he knew very little. 


The European war, however, changed everything. The American supply 
of lumber was practically cut off and the price of lumber in ?razilian mar- 
kets soared. Lumbering, therefore, became exceedingly profitable. Existing 
mills started to cut to capacity, and new mills sprang up. Slowly the native 
lumber replaced that which had formerly been imported. 

At the close of the war when American lumbermen tried again to sell 
to Brazil they found that they could not do so. They now had considerably 
more competition from native species, and exports from the United States to 
Brazil in 1921 fell to about 10,000 M feet. While the 1922 figures are not 
available, lumbermen say that they are considerably smaller, and during 1923 
Brazilian lumber dealers state that they, will purchase practically no Ameri- 
can pine . 

Much of the Brazilian market for American lumber- has been taken by 
Parana pine which, though inferior in quality, can be purchased in the Rio 
market for about $55- per thousand, while American pine cannot; be laid down 
for much less than $100 per thousand. In the Sao Paulo market, probably the 
largest in Brazil, American pine is still higher and Parana pine cheapsr. 

To add to the difficulty of American exporters the milreis, which 
before the war stood at about 3-l/2 to the dollar, has now fallen to 9-1/2 
per dollar. Should the milreis again rise, American lumber will become cor- 
respondingly cheaper.- Notwithstanding it' is hardly belirved possible that 
American lumber can again secure the market which it enjoyed before the war. 
Undoubtedly should it again enter into active competition with native lumber 
the Brazilian Government would raise import duties to a point high enough" 
to protect the local lumber- industry . . - : 

After a review of the. situation it is. believed, jthat the-' Brazilian 
lumber market is forever lost, to American lumbermen. Small quanti ties for ' 
special, .purposes .'will probably always be imported, but the .".importation 'of 
large quantities Cannot be looked for. 

This is a calamity from the viewpoint of the individual lumberman who 
used to sell much of his product to .Brazil, since "he must now look for new 
markets. But from a broad economic viewpoint may this not be a blessing for 
the United States? It is known that we are cutting our timber four times 
as fast as it grows. If some of our present markets are .lost to us it would 
naturally retard cutting and- make the Supply last longer. 

The quantity annually sold to Brazil before the war was not large . 
compared with the total cut of the' Unite d States, yet every little . 
saved for the future will help when' the pinch comes. 

Is it not rather comical to think of the United States sending a lo.t 
of lumber to Brazil now, only to be buying from the same country some fifty 
years from now? 

By R, G. Schreck, Michigan. 

We have had two occasions to experiment with the Graham Bros, truck 
on two large fires on the Michigan so far this season, and. .both times the 
truck proved of great value. 

On May h a large fire occurred near Loud Dam. A strong gale was clew- 
ing from the northeast at the time which drove the fire-, south onto the Forest 
at a remarkable rate. Ranger Groesbeek with twenty men . immediate ly left for 
the fire, and, in spite of the high wind and the rate the fire was traveling, 
succeeded in heading the fire off by plowing furrows and oac^f iring . The 
truck did very effective work in the quick transportation of men and being 
ready for plowing furrows on arrival. Traveling at the rate of five miles 
per hour, a furrow was thrown around the head of the fire and almost the en- 
tire crew of men followed with torches setting back fires. 

It is the first time in my .experience that I have seen a fire checked 
on 'the sand plains during the day when such a strong gale was blowing: If 
the truck had not been on the job there i s little douot but what the fire 
would have burned almost across the Tawas District, since it would have been 
'impossible to get teams and plows on the job in time to prevent the fire ob- 
taining large proportions. 

- p _ 


On May 5 another fire started riear'Sa'nd Lake, outside the Forest. 
The fire was spreading rapidly and endangering a large resort at Sand Lake. 
The State Fire Warden was informed and Ranger Groesbeck was advised to take 
the truck and what men he had available and assist the State in checking 
this fire. Here again the truck did very effective work in taking the haz- 
ardous part of the fire area and'with only -a. -handful of men checking the 
fire with one furrow and backfiring;' thus saving the cottages and, resort on 
the Lake and preventing the complete ruination of the lake for' future resort 

We are surely more than pleased with the track and the' work it has 
accomplished, and- I am in hopes that some time in the near future that each 
District can be supplied with similar' equipment. 


The boll-Weevil's advance in 1320 and 1921 into large areas of the 
cot ton- growing sections of the lower Piedmont region frcm the Carolinas to 
Alabama resulted in paralyzing farming and, in its stead, developing an ex- 
tensive timber industry. In scores of counties' in middle South Carolina and 
middle Georgia the humming of sawmills, the dragging of motor trucks of many 
kinds and sizes hauling bO-day seasoned lumber over country roads, and the 
purring, of planing mills located up and down tne railroads characterize prac- 
tically the only industry. 

"It is timber that kept us from starvation," said an oldtimer. "Timber 
is what's keepin 1 us together," said a rural store-keeper, "Our business 
wouldn't a counted fer nothin 1 if it want fer this lumber proposition," said 
a general merchant in a county seat town. 

The whole industry, with occasional exceptions, is being run by men 
green in the business - former farmers and farm laborers, the latter mostly 
negroes, of course. The great exodus to the North of negroes (mostly men 
adults) since 1921 has taken North over 50 per cent of the farm hands, and 
the remainder are mostly in the woods and at the mills where they are con- 
tented with $1.25 to $1.75 per day in cash paid every two, weeks for 10 to 
H-l/2 hours hard work five or six days in the week. 

Unwise cutting and waste are everywhere - high stumps and 3arge tops 
left in the woods, big slab piles, and careless sawing resulting in hugs 
shaving piles at the planing mills. What's more, between the almost complete ... 
lack of knowledge of timber values on the part of the farm owners - mostly 
men and women living in town who have tenanted their lands to negroes and 
have little knowledge of them in detail - and the prevailing high values of 
pine timber loaded on the cars, the big operators handling 95 P er cent of the 
business are making large "clean-ups" in profits. Or, in the mild words of 
Judge Purdy of Sumter, South Carolina, "the vigilant stinger wipes up the 
sluggish owner . 11 

It used to be this way years ago, and one wonders if somehow it always 
must be that the farmer - the grower of the timber crop-- is-'to get "but a 
very small fraction. of what his marketable commodity is worth, while the 
shrewd and not infrequently unscrupulous buyer and operator piles up large 
profits. It is wrong and the injustice of it all should stir the- State and 
Federal forces to effective action. In probably no other line is the farmer 
so badly beaten out of his rightful income. 

High stumps were mentioned as one form of waste. Accompanied, by 
County Agent Drexel, the writer recently measured a random acre in a repre- 
sentative cutting of shortleaf and loblolly pines in McDuffie County. 30 
miles west of Augusta, Georgia. Seventy-two trees had. been cut, leaving 
stumps measuring mostly from 12 to 20 inches in diameter inside bark (with 
a few up to 30 inches), and from 19 to 29 inches in height. The average 
stump was about 25 inches in height and contained 16 board feet above a. height 
of 12 inches from the ground, or a total volume of 11S2 board. feet per acre. 
The purchaser, thus, had gone away leaving the choicest and most valuable 
timber to waste - and more than a thousand feet of it per acre, worth to him 
not less than $10 a thousand feetl That would have paid for three -four ths 

- 3 - 


of the logging cost, or as one man put it, have "bought the land about three 
time s over . " 

The woods sawyers in parts of the South have little by little been 
brought to bend their backs and cut low stumps. The local assertion of the 
operators that the negroes cannot be made to cut low stumps is only an alibi 
for the fact that the operators are making such extravagant profits that a 
possible saving of this sort is considered not worth bothering about. The 
same wastefulness applies to the various other timber operations. 

Only slight concern is shown in regard to fire by the negroes and 
native white "crackers." In the towns and cities there is a latent and rap- 
idly growing public sentiment by the more progressive business men- that the 
curse of burning must be stopped. The law is there on the oooks - it is a 
matter of changing the public attitude toward its enforcement. The high 
value of standing timber is working effectively toward keeping out fire - 
because it pays. 


The Cape Cod region of Massachusetts was the scene of a Dad forest 
fire recently which burned over an area of more than 15,000 acres. State 
Fire Warden Hutchins characterized the fire as the worst individual fire that 
Massachusetts has had in years. 

The growth burned was mostly scrub oak and pitch pine, The big ob- 
stacle the authorities had to contend with was the back-firing by natives who 
stick to the old methods of fire fighting despite efforts to convert them to 
more modern plans. Being so near Boston the fire attracted more than ordinary 


Mr. Joseph C. Kircher of District 3 has returned from Rio de Janeiro, where 
he represented the Forest Service at the Brazilian Centennial Exposition. 
Mr. Kircher was in Brazil for nine months and while there learned many inter- 
esting things concerning the Brazilian lumber industry. One of his articles 
is appearing in this issue of the SERVICE BULLETIN . Mr. Kircher is again on 
duty at D-3 headquarters. 

Some Good P. R. Work , - District 2 furnished nearly all of the vacation and 
recreation material published in'the annual recreation issue of i the Pueblo, 
Colorado, Chieftain. Maps, pictures, and reading matter were combined to 
make an exceptionally attractive layout. Many good articles were also pub- 
lished in a recent issue of the Rocky Mountain News. 

Mattoon Studies Conditions in South : Mr. W. R. Mattoon of Forest Management 
has returned from Georgia and South Carolina where he was engaged in forestry 
extension work in six counties. 

Lots of Authors in the U. S. F. S . Have Forest Service folks been active 
recently in spreading the good word to all those who would read? Most em- 
phatically yes! Listen to this: In the June o issue of the OFFICIAL RECORD 
under the heading "Articles in Current Publications by Department Workers" 
27 articles were mentioned, lb of which were written by Forest Service people. 
That lb represents bO per cent . Not so bad for one bureau out of the entire 
Department. Why not keep the pot boiling? 

South Carolina Women Active in Forestry . --To paraphrase a great educator: 
"What you .vould have in the State you must first put into the -- women's cluos. 
As a result of the conference called by tne Governor in Octooer, the formation 
of a State Forestry Association, and the cooperation of the State Federation 
of Women's Clubs with the Forest Service representative sent to the State on 
the Governor's invitation last winter, a resolution endorsing forestry and 
forestry legislation for the State, presented to the annual convention of the 

- U - 


Federation in April, was unanimously adopted by that representative ana in- 
fluential body. The State Farm Woman's Council is now in correspondence 
with the Forest Service, looking toward cooperation, which seems to indicate 
that the women of the State are to play the game to a finish. D-S-E 


W, R. Mattoon, engaged in farm forestry extension work under Forest 
Management, has received a great many commendations by reason of his work in 
the preparation of popular forest tree manuals published by the State For- 
estry Departments of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Tennessee, by 
the State Department of Education for Delaware, and by the American Forestry 
Association for the District of Columbia. 

The manuals contain descriptive texts of the more common forest trees 
and are attractively illustrated by cuts, mostly from original drawings by 
Mrs. Annie Hoyle of Engineering, who has won considerable honor heretofore 
as an artist. 

A manual is expected soon for Kentucky, published by the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and others are in preparation for South Carolina and 
Georgia to be published in each case by the Agricultural Extension Services 
of the State Colleges of Agriculture. 


Sunken Logs Being Raised : Timber mining is generally a term of reproach, 
but under certain circumstances it may instead be one which the most ardent 
conservationist could use in praise. A latter-day t imber -mining business is 
that of raising sunken logs, and recent correspondence indicates that at least 
one Wisconsin firm expects to obtain timber oy reclaiming such material. 

Without doubt there are many millions of sound white pine logs in the 
log-driven streams of the Lake States. Other huge quantities of pine are in 
southern streams; one stream alone is estimated to contain over four billion 
feet, Much of this timber may finally find its way to market; it is known 
that one mill already gets a large share of its output of a day from 

this source. 

What is D&CM, or ECM, or E&CB1S ? What are the abbreviations of the ordinary 
terms used by the lumber industry? We probably know what SM-S means or Sel. 
or T&G, out could we tell what Ship, calls for or what is wanted when ESM or 
S2S&M appear in the specifications? 

These terms and l^O or more others are defined in Technical Note 192, 
Standard Abbreviations, which has just been issued by the Laboratory. This 
publication has aroused much interest in the lumber trade and several re- 
quests for large quantities of it have been received. 


Important Meeting of Montana Lumbermen and Foresters : Last week witnessed 
so far as is known the first congregation of lumbermen and foresters of Mon- 
tana for the purpose of discussing Montana Forestry problems. 

The meeting was attended by prominent lumbermen from the Kalispell and 
Missoula regions, representatives from the Forest Service, members of the 
Montana Forest School, the State Forester and E. T. Allen of the Western For- 
estry & Conservation Association. It lasted a day and a half, and some of 
the subjects discussed were Forest taxation, possible by-products from Mon- 
tana's lumber industry, Montana Forest Economics, State Legislation and the 
National Forestry situation. Out of the meeting grew a Forest Policy Com- 
mittee in which are represented the Forest Protective Associations and Lumber 
Manufacturing Associations of the State, the University and the State For- 
ester, and the Forest Service, also a committee representing these agencies 
for the purpose of carrying on necessary informational work along Forestry 

DISTRICT 1 - (Concluded) 

While the attendance was not large, all the big stumpage owners of 
the State were represented, and the standing committees are placed in good 
condition to do effective work for the future. 

White Pine Prices Way Up ; The Coeur d'Alene Forest is still getting record 
prices for white pine. A recent small sale of ?b M. feet was made at the 
rate of $14. 2j per M. Another recent sale of one million feet of white pine 
brought $9.50. 


Insect Control Operat i ons have been initiated, on the San Isabel Forest, this 
work to be done largely on the Greenhorn District. A year ago we had what 
appeared to be about the most serious infestation that we have had in the 
District in recent years, as many as 45 trees being killed in one group. It 
appears, however, that the damage is decreasing since the largest number of 
trees found killed this spring, in one group, is only 13 . With the effective 
control work which is being undertaken, the infestation should be reduced to 
normal this year. 

The Delta County Livestock Association recently held its annual meeting at 
Delta with a representative attendance of various livestock interests. That 
section of Colorado is probably in worse condition, from the livestock stand- 
point, than any other in the State, due to the fact that a good many stock- 
men have farms and last year made pretty heavy investments in the growing 
of potatoes. There was practically no market for them ana a great many under- 
took to feed them to cattle as a partial substitute for hay, which was a short 
crop last year, A great many car loads of potatoes were fed out in this way 
which cost the feeders 5^ to lOi per cwt. Incidentally, they found that po- 
tatoes made a very good substitute for hay and the cattle did well on them 
with one feeding of hay per day. The range, fruit and crop prospects, so 
far, are good in that locality for 1923- 


More Than Twice as Many : Ancient document discloses that Gila payroll had 
many more names in early days than now. A circular dated July 1, 1910, which 
has just been brought to light from the closed files according to the Gila 
Eulletin shows the forest organization as having at that time 29 members. 
W.H.B. Kent was Supervisor and Henry Woodrow was a Forest Guard. The super- 
visor's staff consisted of three men. There were three clerics, three rangers, 
nine assistant rangers, two forest guards, one laoorer, one janitress and 
six field assistants. The present permanent force of the Gila numbers eleven 
persons . 

Secretary's Visit Shown in Film : When Secretary Wallace visited Tucson, 
Arizona, during his southwestern trip, an honorary degree was bestowed upon 
him by the University of Arizona. The ceremony was filmed by a local motion 
picture photographer and the film has just been released. In addition to 
being shown in a motion picture house in Tucson it is expected that it will 
be included in some one of the national weekly news reels. 

N ew Stunt in Lightning : One evening last year Ranger Brown of the Coconine 
had a lightning storm. It was too late to detect any smokes but he was satis- 
fied that the storm had set a good many fires. So he saddled up and arranged 
for 20 men to be on deck at appointed places bright and. early next morning. 
And n ext morning there wer e 20 fires r e ported . All were held down to Class 
A as to a result of this well-timed and well-judged precaution. 


Photography As She Is Pictured : A short time ago we received a bunch of 
very fine pictures from the Uinta, One of them, according to the descrip- 
tion, represented Nebo Ranger Station. The picture, however, showed two 
very good looking young ladies on horseback, no Ranger Station being vis- 
ible. Maybe this was a mistake in describing the picture, and maybe it 
was another case of a peculiar thingv/we, find in our photographic work. 
No matter what a picture really shows,., we try to get an official sounding 
title for it. Don't be afraid of taking pictures of pretty girls on horse- 
back and calling the picture by its right title. You are supposed to take 
technical pictures of all kinds, and these really fall into the class of 
technical PR pictures. Consider their usefulness. Such pictures are fine 
for recreational talks when made into lantern slides. They lend a human 
touch to newspaper and magazine articles, and they make an excellent open- 
ing wedge for more serious picture^. While a man is hypnotized by the 
beautiful ladies you can soak him with a picture showing good brush dis- 
posal, erosion, or almost anything else, and catch him while he is still 
under the spell. 

Payette Ranger Meeting; : The Payette Ranger meeting held recently at Cas- 
cade was a very successful meeting and the results were so gratifying that 
it is hoped this will prove to be only the first of many similar meetings 
on other Forests. The first day was spent in the office in a general 
analysis of problems connected with fire and with grazing administration. 
The second day the Rangers were in the field. On the third day the entire 
party went into the west side timber where a sample plot was marked and 
estimated in the typical mixed stand of Douglas fir, larch, lowland fir, 
western yellow pine and Engelman spruce found in these mountains. The 
chief problem discussed was the removal of the white fir especially un- 
merchantable and diseased trees. On the fourth aajyou^a sample plot in 
lodgepole pine in Big Creek. 



Ranger Price of the Sierra £ills perhaps one of the most unique 
District Ranger jobs in the Service. His territory, the Pineridge District, 
has only 113,000 acres, but he has a volume of business that makes up for 
the difference. His headquarters is in the town of Big Creek, a year-round 
Special Use town of from 1500 to 2500 inhabitants. The town has department 
stores, pool halls, butcher shop, hotels, garages, art shop, lumber yard, 
school and power houses. In fact, it's a live town with all the frills. 
It has street lights, sewer and water system. The school has four teachers 
and about 100 pupils. It is the headquarters for the construction work of 
the Southern California Edison's Big Creek Project, on which about $15,000,- 
000 is spent annually, A railroad runs through the District, the terminus 
being at Big Creek. There are five sawmills operating on Government timber, 
beside the large amount cut by the Power Company for construction purposes. 
Beside the Special Uses at Big Creek, Price handles the Huntington Lake 
recreational area } which has about U00 summer homes, four resorts, one saw- 
mill, boat houses, Steele Normal School and three large public camps. Travel 
to this area is so heavy that at times Price has to put on a control between 
Big Creek and Huntington Lake. The Methodist Conference has a Special Use 
for a Chautauqua, where they entertain thousands of people every summer. 
Price is the Mayor and autocrat of this domain, and is called upon to settle 
all the ills of his people. 


The Los Angeles Playground Department has applied for a permit for 
a 200-acre Municipal Camp near Mammoth on the Inyo Forest, making the fourth 
camp established by Los Angeles - Z on the Angeles and one on Catalina 

- 7 - 

DISTRICT 5 (Concluded) 

Island. Incidentally this Inyo Forest Camp will De over 3°0 miles from 
Los Angeles, thus showing that in D-3 at least distance from a National 
Forest doesn't cut much figure when a municipality wants 'a good camp site. 


Technical Assistants Hold Successful C onfe rence at Portland . Called togethe 
by District 'Forester Cecil, the technical assistants from the 22 National 
Forests of Oregon and Washington, held a successful U-day conference in 
Portland, April 2-5, 1923, the first "meeting of its kind ever held in' the 
District, if not in the United States'. 

In his opening remarks the District Forester welcomed the men and 
expressed his appreciation of the work they are doing in the Di strict . The 
program for the four days was devoted to the consideration of technical' 
forestry problems, each member of the conference leading in the discussion 
cf one or more of the topics, which included the Wind River Experiment Sta- 
tion, planting, tree diseases, insect epidemics, timber surveys, management 
plans, appraisals, yellow pine and Douglas fir silviculture, National Forest 
policy and minimum si lvicultural requirements, and record of cut-over areas. 
The last day was devoted to land exchange topics. ' . 

Valuable as the more formal sessions of 'the conference we're, "it is 
believed that the best result of the' J conference came from the opportunity 
it offered for the men from different 4 parts of the District to rub shoulders 
and get better acquainted, see one another's problems, and realize the mag- 
nitude of the work on which they are engaged. How seriously the men take 
their work was shown by reading between the lines in the meeting when each 
member of the conference told his ideas of the technical man' s place : in ."'the 
Forest organization. : 

It is believed that occasional meetings of this sort will do much to 
awaken the zeal for service of the old fighting days, and develop an esprit 
de corps that will carry forestry .successfully ...through the. all important 
period during which the privately -owned timberlands are being 1 ' brought under 
scientific management. 


A New Forest Service Activity : On May Ik while the Forest Service Launch 
"Weepoose" was provisioning at Juneau, the Prohibition Enforcement Officer 
for Alaska, Mr. A. G. Means, was granted permission by District Forester 
Flory to use the launch in catching a liquor boat due to arrive that night. 
Under command of Captain Ed. Thompson and with the P.E.O'.''s on board, the 
Weepoose left for the entrance of Gastineau Channel during the evening, and 
there spent a long, tiresome night lying in. wait for the expected "rum- 
runner . " 

Before dawn the "Daisy" hove in sight towing a skiff, which was im- 
mediately cut loose as soon as the "Weepoose" searchlight was turned on her. 
After boarding the "Daisy, "the skiff was recovered and found to contain ; 
five kegs of moonshine. The three men' arrested on board are now in jail 
awaiting trial, while the' "Daisy" will probably be confiscated'. By captur- 
ing this boat the fox farmers of Southeastern Alaska have been greatly, 
benefited, as the boat's' history is notoriously one of modern pirating and 
poaching among the fox islands in this vicinity. - H.S. 

- S - 

Vol, VII, No, 26 Washington, D. C. ; June 25, 1923. 

C. R, Tillotson, Washington 

A short time ago the Washington Section of the Society of American 
Foresters listened to a very entertaining and instructive talk "by Assistant 
State Forester J. A. Cope of Maryland, Mr. Cope's subject was loblolly pine 
in Maryland and dealt with this tree in its aspects of growth, reproduction, 
and utilization. The story he told of growth, yields from thinnings and the 
like, was, to say the least, an eye-opener to most of the men in Washington 
in that it indicated that loblolly pine is a very exceptional tree upon good 
soil within its natural range. 

During the field trip which the Washington Section of the Society took 
on May 19, an opportunity was given the men to look over a loblolly pine planta- 
tion near Bowie, Maryland. This particular location is not within the optimum 
range of the species, but the site chosen for planting was rather good in so 
far as loblolly pine is. concerned in that it was flat, rather low, and in con- 
sequence moist. It is, in fact, a good red gum site, which indicates its 

In May, 1911, the State Forester planted 1500 loblolly pine plants 
spaced six feet apart in rows, and an equal number of scrub pine ( Pinus 
virginiana ) in alternate rows with the loblolly. The area planted was slightly 
over two acres. The loblolly was two years old when set out, When examined 
on May 19 the loblolly trees were 30 to Uo feet tall, and varied from about 
four to seven inches in diameter, Assistant State Forester Cope had made care- 
ful measurements of the plantation a year or so ago, and his figures indicated 
that the plantation had grown at an average of two cords per acre per year. 
The loblolly pine was about twice, the size of the scrub pine, and the latter 
species was badly overtopped and the trees are certain to die within the aaext 
few years. After seeing the plantation, anyone would feel just as sanguis® 
as Mr, Cope concerning the possibilities of loblolly pine ngxm mittaM© sites 
in Maryland, 


By L, A, Barrett .- D - 5 

Twelve years ago when I first visited the Laguna Mountains on the 
Cleveland National Forest, the wonderful recreation area now known all over 
Southern California was accessible only by trail and its many charms were 
practically unknown to even the residents of San Diego County. A big cattle 
company which owned most of the meadow land monopolized the entire mountain 
v/hile three settlers who had squatted on the land before its inclusion in the 
National Forest eked out a mere existence with a few stock and a little farming, 

At this time the privately owned land on the mountain was assessed at 
$1 per acre and Uncle Sara would have been lucky could he have sold his holdings 
here for an average of $10 per acre. 

But those were the days when automobiles were coming into use; people 
were getting out more into the mountains and gradually this region became 
known to the outside world. First a bunch of "would be" homesteaders attempted 

to acquire the land under the Forest Homestead Act, "but realizing even then 
its high recreation value the v/riter assisted in reporting upon the area and 
after taking care of the three squatters the rest of the Government land on 
the mountain was very properly classified as non-listable "because of its high 
value to the public for recreation purposes. Soon after this came an insistent I 
demand for a good road to the area, and some 5 years ago the entire mountain 
was made accessible "by a lU-mile Forest Service road which cost approximately 
$50,000, Following this was a topographic survey of all National Forest land; 
and 500 summer home sites, several public camps, sites for resorts, semi- 
public organizations, etc, , were laid out, and a definite plan of development 
put into effect, 

And what is the result of all this? Today there are 200,000 people 
who live within 100 miles of the Laguna Recreation Area. It is accessible 
over fine State, County and Forest Service roads. Last year 13,000 people 
camped here and there were. in addition the families and friends of 75 summer 
home permittees, To the people of Imperial Valley it is a haven of refuge 
during the hot months on the desert. And although used solely for recreation 
purposes, here is what the figures show on increase in value. 

Twelve years ago, Lee Morris (one of the squatters) could not have sold 
out for $10, an acre. Last January he sold his "ranch" for $100 an acre and he 
now says he made a mistake in not asking $125 an acre. This ranch is to be 
made into a big resort, Now Uncle Sara owns 3500 acres of this same kind of land 
in the recreation area and he could easily sell it for $100 or more an acre. 
Here is an increase in value of 1000$ in 12 years due to recreational develop- 
ment. Can any other Forest Use except water power show such a figure? 

Chapter II, 
Origin of Sour Dough Greek 

For the first time the origin of the name Sour Dough Creek as applied 
to the latter-day Mississippi is determined. Ranger Bunyan, being fond of 
sour dough biscuits, kept his batter in a wooden pail, made of a redwood silo 
with a bail at the top. 

Once while Paul was absent for twenty-seven days at a forest fire in 
Saskatchewan, one of his hungry cMckens, rustling for feed, upset the pail; 
and the dough, pouring forth in a torrent and ever rising, inundated the 
present Mississippi Basin from the Rockies eastward. It completely buried 
the immeasurable redwood forests that covered the entire basin and literally 
suffocated them, Hence the treeless plains. Paul, taking all small mishaps 
jovially, christened the main stream Sour Dough Creek, 

Chapter III. 
Paulas Unique Fire-Fighting Scheme , 

Ranger 'Bunyan • s chief duty in summer consisted of fire-patrol. He 
had made a unique device for extinguishing forest fires, the rude plan of 
which is among the documents recently found. Briefly, his method was to 
project a powerful stream of compressed air, which he carried in special 
kyacks, through a spiral tube straight upwards. The air, emerging, retained j 
its spiral direction and created a whirlwind, which drew all the flames and 
embers far up into the sky, where they raged harmlessly. 

Hence the northern lights, commonly known as the aurora borealis, which 
have never hitherto been adequately explained. With the progress of civiliza- 
tion, the atmosphere has lost this property of being projected as a spiral 
stream so as to form an artificial whirlwind. With the result that in later 
ages crude and laborious methods of fire-fighting have had to be adopted. 

[ To Be Continued ] 


The New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse University, in an 
announcement concerning the tree planting exercises held recently at East 
Aurora, New York, states: 


"It was the first time that farmers and the game clubs of any extensive 
community had cooperated in planting trees. These two interests have "been at 
least tacitly antagonistic in the Empire State, The farmer and the hunter, 
however, have a mutual interest, one in the growing of trees for the market 
on his woodlot, and the other for providing cover for game. These two in- 
terests have been focused at East Aurora on a large tree planting work. The 
game clubs obtained 25,000 tree,s from the State and offered to plant them free 
of charge, from 500 to 1,000 trees on the land of any farmer who would set 
aside such sufficient ground. 

The young people's organizations of the city did the planting, The 
work began at seven o'clock in the morning and was continued throughout the 
day until the 25,000 trees had "been placed in the ground, 2,000 trees were 
also planted on the city watershed. This was done in thirty minutes. Dean 
Franklin Moon of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse gave a 
short talk on forestry and helped supervise the planting. 

This innovation proved such a success that already applications have 
been filed thru the officials of the game club by the farmers who own woodlots 
and waste land in the vicinity of East Aurora, for 109»000 young trees to be 
planted next year. The success of this new scheme of cooperative planting 
Dean Moon believes will eventually reach other localities, 

'The ease and practicability of reforesting waste land under this plan', 
said Dean Moon, r ought to find general adoption throughout the country, and 
become a great stimulus to the reforestation movement."' 


F. B, Kellogg, -Snoqualmie, 

As a direct result of the Forestry Conference at Seattle, the nucleus 
of a real forest policy for the State of Washington has "been established and 
two very important laws enacted at the recient session of the legislature. 

The organization of the Forestry Conference is due to Dean Winkenwerder 
of the College of Forestry and the Resolutions Committee, chiefly responsible 
for the formulation of policies and drafting of laws, is composed of the follow- 
ing members. 

Chas. W. Saunders, Chairman, House of Representatives, B. P, Kirkland, 
Professor of Forestry, U, of W. , Henry Landes, Dean College of Science, U, of W. , 
G, C, Joy, Washington Forest Fire Assn. ,R. L. Frorame, Supervisor of the 
Olympic Forest, Frank B. Kellogg, Forest Examiner, U.S.F.S. , A. B, Nystrom, 
King County Agricultural Agent, Donald H, Clark, Secy. , Rite Grade Shingle Assn, 

The forest fire legislation recommended was passed with some amendments. 
It provides a penalty for the violation of any of the orders, rules, or regula- 
tions made for the purpose of forest protection by the State, It attempts to 
do away with the depredations done within recent years on young growth for 
Christmas tree purposes by providing a penalty for such cutting. It requires 
all railroads operating trains through forested districts to provide speeder 
patrol and requires every one operating a stationary engine to clear forest 
material around the setting and to take other specific precautions against the 
spread of fire, It also makes it a misdemeanor for any person during the closed 
season to throw away any lighted tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, matches, fire 
crackers, or other lighted material in any Forest region of the State. 

The Reforestation Bill provides for a State Forest Board to consist of 
the Governor, the State Land Commissioner, the Dean of the College of Forestry 
of the University of Washington, the Director of the Department of Conservation 
and Development and the State Forester, This 'board is authorized to issue 
Public Utility Bonds in a sum not to exceed $200,000 for the first biennium, 
for the purchase of logged off lands for reforestation purposes. It is also 
authorized to designate any of the present State owned lands more suitable for 
Forestry than for other purposes as State Forests, and to make rules and regu- 
lations for reforestation and continuous forest production. This will secure 
proper management of the State Forest which now amount to about a million acres 
of commercial mature forests. 


It was not possible to pass much in the matter of taxation except 
through the enactment of a constitutional amendment j as the Washington 
State Constitution is very restrictive, A "bill with which the conference 
was in accord, providing for a constitutional amendment, and for centralisa- 
tion of the authority in the State for purposes of supervising and equalizing 
the work of the County Assessors, was introduced, passing the House, but 
failing to pass the Senate. 

Other matters passed "by the Conference or its members include two 
Memorials to Congress. One of these petitions Congress to provide protection 
for 750,000 acres of the unreserved forest lands of the Public Domain in the 
State of Washington and better protection for the 1,250,000 acres cf Indian 
Reservation Forest land, which receives only inadequate protection at the 
present time. The other petitions Congress to continue the appropriations 
of 1921 and 1922, aiding the States in the construction and maintenance of 
roads and trails within and near the National Forests. 

By Jno. D. Guthrie, D-6, 

Interest in forestry in the British Isles has increased enormously 
since the war. The ancient Royal Forests of England, for centuries regarded 
as the hunting grounds of the King, contributed their share of necessary war 
material in the form of wood. The cutting of the ancient trees, many by 
American lumber-jacks (the New England Sawmill Units) served to bring home, 
as nothing else could, the fact that the British Isles could end should grow 
more timber; also, that the growing of wood crops was not inconsistent with 
the use of forests as parks and recreation grounds by the public, 

Mr. John P, Trant, the British Consul at Portland, has made a study 
of and report on the. use for recreation .purposes of the National Forests of 
the United States. He has been much .impressed by the fact that although the 
National Forests of the United States were set aside primarily for timber 
production and watershed protection that recreation use has been found to be 
entirely practicable and that such use has grown to large proportions. Due 
to the awakening of interest in forests and forestry in Great Britain, he 
feels that such a report should be most helpful to his home government as 
offering practical suggestions for making the forests (lands for which are 
now being acquired and afforested) of Great Britain not only produce wood but 
serve as recreation grounds for the British people. 

The Portland office of Public Relations has supplied him with typical 
specimens of the printed material issued by the Forest Service dealing with 
recreation on the National Forests as well as a large amount of data on forest 
conservation and protection. 


Boosting the Boosters: 

The following are extracts from letters received in Publication from 
school teachers who are cooperating in the use of lantern slides and school 

Vandergrift, Pa,, May 11, 1923. 

"We used them (wood exhibits) in a class of natural science which 
has become interested in tree life. As a result we planted six hundred young 
trees this spring." 

Ada M, Boyce, 

Burlington, II, J. , March 9, IQ23. 

"The slides have been so valuable, so interesting, and so enjoyable 
that I am constrained to thank the Department of Forestry for the service they 
have given ne , a public school teacher. They have brought into the life of 
the children, the fact that the United States Government is ready and willing j 
to help them learn the geography of their own country, so we all thank you for 
this opportunity to see, and for the pleasure of seeing the many sets of sliderf 
that have been sent to us, 

Sara S. Rainear. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., May S, 19 2 3» 

"We congratulate you on the splendid service which you are 
rendering the schools of the country through this material (slides and 
exhibits). " 

Edith M. Bader 

Flint Was Author of Article :- Authorship of the article in the SERVICE 
BULLETIN for May 28, "Relation of Improvement Crews to Cost of Held Line", 
was erroneously accredited to District Forester Morrell. Credit should 
have been given to Howard R. Flint, District Forester Inspector in charge 
of Fire Prevention. 


Is This the Kind of House We Must Use ? Under the title "More Help for Home 
Builders" a writer in the May 5 Collier's Weekly describes some small house 
innovations intended to save costs. He eliminates the attic and the cellar, 
and instead of a partition of ordinary construction recommends one constructed 
as follows: 

Along a beam where the partition is to go are hung lengths of jute 
scrim like the material of burlap bags. The edges are hasted together by 
twine with a bagging needle* At door openings and at walls, as well as at 
top and bottom, the scrim is attached with, ordinary staples. Thus a curtain 
is formed. How two plasterers, one on each side, go to work, facing each 
other, and put on the first rough coat, each working against the other. If 
only one plasterer is available, a laborer can hold a board up for him to 
work against. The curtain of plaster now must hang plumb, like a pendulum. 
The bottom hangs in the baseboard. When the first coat is dry ; two more are 
put on in the regular way. And that is all there is to the Flagg partition, - 
all lath and lumber and a great deal of labor are eliminated. 

He says that partitions like these have been used for several years 
in Hew York apartment houses. 

Laboratory engineers are inclined to question the strength of such a 
wall. As one said, "Wonder how long such walls would last where college 
students room and rough-house," 


Fires in Minnesota and Michigan were put under control out -side of the Forest 
boundaries early in June and practically extinguished within the Forests. 
The loss within the interior Forest boundaries will be particularly light 
as practically all of the serious fires were outside. However, in considera- 
tion of the size of the fires and the very unfavorable weather conditions, 
the danger for the period of a week or more was very grave.' Forest Inspector 
Kelley and District Forest Inspector McLaren were on the ground for some time 
and made a careful study of conditions with the hope of increasing the ef- 
ficiency of general preventive methods in the future. 

School Children Have Forest Float in Pageant : Early in June all the Parent- 
Teachers Associations of Denver held a rally day. One of the conspicuous 
features of the day was a pageant in which each school in the city represented 
some county of the State, 63 in all, One school had a float for the San 
Isabel Forest, The Forest Service decorated the float representing the 
San Isabel to illustrate the importance of care with fire. It is significant 
of progress that the school considered the Forest as representative of this 
County which is one of unusual size and wealth in Colorado. 

Drought in Nebraska Broken ; The drought on the Nebraska Forest was broken by 
a series of heavy rains the latter part of May, the precipitation on May 21, 
■ being 1,75, on the 22nd, I.30, on the 23rd. 2,lU and on the 27th, 1.00. The 
total up to May 29th. was 7*98 inches for May, which is a record breaker. 



Big Timber Sale : The largest sale in District 3 in many months was consummated 
June 1 when the District Office approved a contract with the Saginaw & Manistee 
Lumber Company for 15 million feet' mostly western yellow pine saw timber, at 
$3 per thousand. This timber is located on the Tusayan and Coconino Forests 
and is intermixed with some 4o million feet of stumpage owned by the Saginaw 
& Manistee Company. Cutting will proceed at a rapid rate and the entire unit 
will doubtless be cut out within two years. 

Detonating Ford : Ranger Warnock of the Manzano tells of one more use for a 
Ford in the "Ranger" the news letter of his forest and since Fords have a 
rather general distribution about the country if other methods fail it should 
still be possible to fire the blast. Says Warnock, n G- round one wire to the 
frame and touch the other to the magneto post of a running Ford motor. Bang.' 
That* s the way to set off shots electrically without a detonating machine." 

Contrast : Everywhere ahout the forests nowadays one meets forest officers in 
uniform. The uniform sets them out in an appearance that is both neat and dis- 
tinctive. It is a sharp contrast to the time a few years back when Assistant 
District Forester Waha attended a ranger meeting on the Alamo in uniform, Old 
timers tell about a certain ranger there who remarked that he wouldn't mind 
having a uniform so very much but he would hate to try to get around in those 
choke— bore breeches that ^ahoc" was wearing. 

The Sr>ell is Broken: There has been a more or less general feeling that it is 
difficult if not almost impossible to organize stock associations on Districts 
where the permittees largely consist of Spanish- speaking people. Supervieor 
Loveridge has put across in the last two months the organization of eleven 
stock associations adhering closely to allotment lines and pretty well scatter- 
ed over the Carson Forest. The mere fact that these associations are organized 
and beginning to do business is a step forward and should go a long way to • 
break the spell and encourage efforts for similar organizations wherever needed. 


Boise to the front : Two sales totaling 30,590 M B. M. , chiefly yellow pine, 
and located on Clear Creek drainage near Pioneerville , have just been advertised 
and sold to the Boise Payette Lumber Company. The stumpage rates received are: 
for yellow pine, $2.50; Douglas fir, $1.00; other species, $.75. 

Guard Training 

Mr, Raphael has just returned from the guard training school held at 
McCall, Idaho. While he was there he also went over the road and trail program 
of the Idaho Fores*t with Supervisor Watts. At the guard training school J>2 
Guards and 8 District Rangers were present. The training course was well 
planned and ran very smoothly. It opened up with talks by watts, French and 
Raphael, followed by a reading and careful explanation of the trail plan for 
the Forest, particularly emphasizing its connection with the fire plan. This 
was followed by a day of field work, in which the Guards were divided into 
four groups, each under a Ranger. One group studied fire detection from look- 
out points and the use of the compass; the second group studied methods of 
estimating the size of areas burned over; the third, the construction of fire 
lines; and the fourth, emergency telephone line construction and trouble shoot- 
ing on telephone lines. Later, Mr, Raphael talked about the proper attitude 
for Guards to take toward their work, and discussed trail work, including 
standards, location, and correlation with the fire plan. The course was some- 
what hampered by very bad weather, two inches of snow falling in McCall last 
Saturday, The men had lots of interest in their work, and looked like a fine 
bunch of men. 


Some Speedy Sherlock Holmes Stuff 

An automobile party, speeding joyously along the Mcntpelier-Af ton road 
late at night, failed to take a sharp turn, and the car went over the hank. 
In getting hack out of the mud they pulled up a Forest Service sign in order 
to use the post as a lever. After getting out they failed to put the post 
"back. Supervisor Sanford put Ranger Nelson on the trail. He found out who 
the culprits were. Today a draft for $10 has been received in the District 
Office as payment for property trespass in pulling up a Forest Service sign. 
The trespass occurred June 3i the payment was received here June S. 

Big Lumber Business 

The Monthly Review of Business Conditions in the Twelfth Federal Reserve 
District states that in April the lumber business in the District, which include' 
Arizona, California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Nevada, was the higher 
for any month in the past three years, and for the first time since November 
1922 the mills produced more lumber than they sold or shipped. Some stocks of 
^reen lumber have been accumulated on this account, although the holdings of the 
mills are still considerably below normal. The production amounted to about 6U6 
million BFt. The heaviest buying is reported from North Atlantic Coast markets, 
with South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin next in the order named. Who said 
inexhaustible timber supply in the Lake States? 


G overnor Signs Forestry Legislation 

That section of the State law relating to the setting of fires and the 
equipment to be used on engines operated on areas where there is danger of fire 
Was not changed during the last session of the California legislature. An 
additional section was added requiring certain equipment on all engines used 
in the woods. This provides that inflammable material, including snags, shall 
be cleared from an area at least 100 feet in radius around the engine, and that 
a pump and 200 feet of 1 1/4" hose, together with seven shovels and three axes, 
shall be kept on each engine for fire-fighting -ourposes. The section omits the 
redwood region. This measure will be of great value in preventing fires from 
logging equipment, as it requires essentially the Forest Service procedure upon 
privately-owned lands. This measure becomes a law about June 20, as it wa.s 
signed by the Governor a few days ago. 

Another bill provides that private individuals may give money to the 
State for the purchase of virgin redwood lands, and permits the condemnation 
of lands where the owner does not or will not sell. This will allow the ex- 
tension of the Humboldt Redwood Park by private purchase, as the State funds 
allotted two years ago have been practically exhausted. 

The Governor has also signed the insect control bill which, patterned 
after the Oregon law, will make possible compulsory cooperation of timberland 
owners to control the bark beetle. The work will probably be concentrated in 
the Modoc-Shaste region for the time being. 

King In All But Name 

Ranger Price of the Sierra fills perhaps one of the most unique District 
Ranger jobs in the Service. His territory, the Pineridge District, has only 
113*000 acres, but he has a volume of business that makes up for the difference. 
His headquarters is in the town of Big Creek, a year-round Special Use town of 
from I5OO to 25OO inhabitants. The town has department stores, pool halls, 
"butcher shop, hotels, garages, art shop, lumber yard, school and power houses. 
In fact, it's a live town with all the frills. It has street lights, sewer and 
water system. The school has four teachers and about 100 pipils. It is the 
headquarters for the construction work of the Southern California Edison's Big 
Creek Project, on which about $15,000,000 is spent annually. A railroad runs 
through the District, the terminus being at Big Creek. There are five sawmills 
operating on Government timber, beside the large amount cut by the Power Company 
for construction purposes. Beside the Special Uses at Big Creek, Price handles 
the Huntington Lake recreational area, which has about UOO summer homes, four 
resorts, one sawmill, boat houses, Steele Normal School and three large public 
camps. Travel to this area is fo heavy that at times Price has to pat on a 
Control between Big Creek and Hvntington Lake, The Methodist Conference has a 
Special Use for a Chautauqua, wl.ere they entertain thousands of people every 
m ner, 


Price is the Mayor and autocrat of this domain, and is called upon to 
settle all the ills of his people. The ordinary citizen does not realize that 
there is any legal limitation to a Ranger's authority. He is even called, upon 
to settle family disputes, and the kids are made to go to bed at night by 
threatening to call in the Ranger. Kis is an interesting and eventful life, and 
he is getting a good deal of joy out of it, 


Red and Black Signs . 

The new black and red cardboard signs (both slogan and wolf) have an 
appeal to auto material dealers, garages, filling stations, state stations, 
and even department stores, as has been learned by offering some to these 
agencies. The signs are new, flashy, and will attract attention to any window, 
hence the appeal. 

Radio Talks . 

District Officers have given a series of "Vacation Talks" during May and 
June in Portland over the Oregonian Radio Service, This service is estimated 
to reach 25,000 people, and have a radius of 1500 miles. During June, July, 
and August a series of fire prevention and outdoor talks by members of the 
District Office will be given. 

Doing Double Duty . 

Three Portland papers will soon begin series of vacation articles dealing 
with trips on the D-6 National Forests. The Morning Oregonian will run a series 
of three Sunday supplements using the material from the revised Oregon Road and 
Recreation Map, and descriptive matter. The Portland Telegram will start a 
series of "Where to Go" articles, using the revised material from "Vacation 
Land", and the Oregon Journal will use liberally Forest Service material for a 
new "Outdoor Activities Department". 


Management Plans for the Arkansas 

That the Arkansas has a practical management plan and is working it 
seems to have been effectively broadcasted throughout the surrounding region. 
In increasing numbers inquiries are being received from various parts of the 
State with regard to possibilities for timber purchase. 

Recently a Mr, England of Rison, Arkansas, called at the Hot Springs 
office, seeking a tract of timber containing 15,000,000 feet and bringing the 
information that his home county was entirely cut out. The Pioneer Cooperage 
Company of St, Louis has become very much interested in the purchase of some 
timber in the Mena working circle. This company is planning operations just 
outside of the Forest boundary. In the construction of their cooperage products 
they use material down to 8 inches in length. The representative of the 
company in discussing the Arkansas possibilities assured Supervisor Plymale 
that their conservative methods of timber operation would be sweet music to 
our ears. 

In the Arkansas Gazette 8,850,000 feet of timber is being advertised at 
a minimum rate of $6 per M and the Arkansas confidently expects that the bidding 
for this tract will be equally as spirited as on all of the sales made recently. 
Another inquiry regarding 3i000,000 feet of timber in the Hot Springs working 
circle is expected to result in selling at a good price. 

Resort Possibilities on the Pisgah Studied 

Col, J. H. Pratt and J, S. Holmes of the North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey, Forest Supervisor Rhoades, and Mr. F, A. Perley visited Mount 
Mitchell recently to discuss the best plans for resort development of the Mount 
Mitchell State Park and the Government land arotmd it. As a result Mr. Perley's 
company has applied for five acres on Commissary Ridge, below Mount Mitchell 
Peak, to be used for resort purposes. Five milos of the toll road have been 
macadamized this year. 



U. S. For est Service: 

(Contents Confidential ) 


Vol. VII, No. 27 

Washington, D. C. 

July 2, 1923. 

C. E, Dunston - Districts 

At last we are in a fair way to reach a determination as to whether 
or not a less expensive method of slash disposal than the usual practice of 
piling and burning it can be adopted safely and extensively on California 
timber sale areas. 

An experiment has been launched this season on the Standard Lumber 
Company's sale on the Stanislaus under which intensive fire protection will 
be substituted for brush piling and burning. 

If successful this experiment should result in: (l) a saving of re- 
production which is now destroyed by brush burning; (2) a saving in the cost 
of brush disposal on timber sale areas; (3) relieving the purchaser from 
the direct responsibility for the proper piling and disposal of the slash; 
and (4) the elimination of the difficulties of brush burning due to unfav- 
orable climatic conditions. 

The sale on which this experiment is being tried has been running 
since the summer of 1921 and will probably be completed in 1925. It is a 
donkey operation. This season there will be six sides and it is estimated 
that the cut will amount to 60.000,000 board feet. The type is yellow pine- 
sugar pine-white fir-incense cadar . The stand varies from 30 M to h<M feet 
per acre with a good representation of thrifty immature trees and reproduc- 
tion. The cost of brush piling and burning last season was about k^tf per M 
feet or from $10. to $18. per acre. 

Under a modification of the sale agreement the slash disposal section 
has been changed so as to provide that the purchaser will merely trim tops 
of limbs. In addition to making the regular payments for stumpage, the pur- 
chaser agrees to deposit from time to time such amounts as the Supervisor 
shall require to cover the cost of special fire protection measures on the 
sale area. These deposits may be required up to 1935, or ter ^ years after 
the close of the sale. By that time, it is confidently believed that the 
slaeh will have become so decomposed as to no longer constitute an abnormal 
fire hazard. 

This modification of the agreement provides that the total amount 
deposited on this account shall not exceed the sum derived by multiplying 
the total scale of the timber cut from the sale area, after this plan takes 
effect, by 30^ per M feet EM, and that not over two deposits not exceeding 
$4,000, each shall be required in any calendar year. In the event that the 
sums deposited exceed the cost of fire protective measures such excess shall 
be refunded to the purchaser at the end of the calendar year 1935. 

It also provides for a return to the original method of brush disposal 
at any time that the Forest Supervisor shall decide such procedure to be ad- 
visable. In such event, a joint estimate shall be made by the purchaser and 
the Forest Service of the timber cut on the area where slash has not been 
piled, and the purchaser shall make a full payment equal to the difference 
between this estimated cut multiplied by 30<^ per M fetet EM and the total of 
deposits made under this modification of the agreement. 

The purchaser will furnish an indemnity bond not later than July 1, 
192U, guaranteeing the payments for fire protection during the years 1924 to 
1935 inclusive. The bond in effect in connection with the timber sale agree- 
ment will insure compliance with the provisions of this modification until 
such time as logging operations are completed. 


The Forest Service will handle every detail of the protection work 
including the hiring of all labor and the purchasing of all equipment. The 
protection plan provides for the clearing of a primary fire line 100 feet 
wide along the right-of-way of the logging railroad. The brush will be 
piled and burned on this fire line. A 4-foot strip will be cleaned to min- 
eral soil along the outer edge of the 100-foot fire line. Secondary lines 
will consist of logging trails. At each donkey setting logging trails will 
be cleared of slash to a width cf 25 feet in such, a manner that the area 
will be divided into 4-acre blocks to a radius of 300 feet from the spar 
tree and 7~ a cre blocks for the remainder. The brush on these strips will 
be piled, as logging progresses and burned in the fall. 

Primary fire control for 1923 will be handled by five special mea 
under the direct supervision of the Forest officer in charge of the sale. 
A lookout will be stationed on a high point commanding an excellent vievs of 
the entire area. Two patrolmen will cover definite routes on a regular 
schedule. Two laborers will be employed to clear fire lines, pile brush 
and to attend to such other protection work as may be necessary. From 1924 
to 1929, inclusive, three patrolmen will be employed. From 1930 to 1935 it 
is believed that one patrolman will be sufficient. The plan covers in detail 
such matters as the construction of special telephone lines, the installa- 
tion of a "Klaxon" signal system, and the purchase of tools, Evinrude piimp, 
hose, and other special equipment. 

It is also planned to conduct a study on experimental plots to deter- 
mine: (l) the comparative rates of decay for piled and scattered slash under 
various conditions of exposure, soil moisture, size of branches, etc.; (2) 
the percentage of reproduction lost through burning of brush piles; (3) any 
other items which may arise during the progress of the experiment. 

C. R. Tillotson - frashingtcn 

In the development of nursery and planting technique in the United 
States the Forest Service is well to the front. There is a constant effort 
on the part of the nurserymen in charge of Forest Service nurseries to better 
the methods, and this has resulted in the development of many innovations in 
nursery practice. The planting program is getting upon a solid foundation, 
and constant progress is being made toward the solution of planting diffi- 
culties. Lest we get the idea, nowever, and such is likely to happen to men 
who are more or less isolated and not aware of what is going on in other 
places, that we are perhaps the big tent of the circus in such operations, 
a word as to what is happening in other sections will not be amiss. 

Tne largest strictly forest tree nursery in the United States to-day 
is maintained by New York State, near Saratoga Springs. In this nursery, 
and a couple of others of smaller size, the State of New Yor£ expects to 
produce within the course of the next year or two 15 to 20 million plants 
available for field planting annually. There will be no trouble in dispos- 
ing of these plants. A great deal of private planting is going on in the 
State, and the Conservation Commission itself will plant out on State lands 
any surplus which is not in demand by private planters. 

The State of Pennsylvania is in much the same situation. By 1925, 
Pennsylvania expects to produce 20 million forest trees annually for plant- 
ing within the State. As in the case of New York, there will oe no diffi- 
culty in disposing of this many plants each year. The growing of so many 
plants, their distribution, and their field planting means that in these 
States also nursery practice and field planting methods have been developed 
to a high degree. 

An article in a recent number of the "Indian Forester" as to afforesta- 
tion in Korea is illuminating. Upon the annexation of Korea by Japan in 
191C, the Japanese Government came into possession of about 35 million acres 
of hill lands. Earnest efforts are being made by the Government to reforest 
by planting such of these lands as are in need of it. About 600,000 acres 
have already been planted, one-half directly by the Government, and the other 


by private individuals to whom the land is rented. At the present time, 
about 150 million seedlings per year are being planted at the rate of 1200 
to 2000 per acre. Such figures as these, and even the efforts of Pennsyl- 
vania and New York, make the Forest Service planting program seem rather 
insignificant in comparison. 


Paul D. Kelleter, for nearly 20 years a member of the Forest Service, 
is now Director of Purchases and Sales of the Department of Agriculture, 
having assumed his new duties on July 1. 

In his new job Kelleter will be responsible for the general direc- 
tion and coordination of the purchases and sales of the Department both in 
Washington and in the field. He will also act as the Department's repre- 
sentative on the Federal Purchasing Board. 

Asking Kelleter for a little money to spend will be nothing new to 
Forest Service folks, for since 1920 he has been in the Washington office 
of the Branch of Operation. From 1913 to 1920 Kelleter was in Public Rela- 
tions. For 10 years prior to 1913 the Black Hills Forest was Kelleter' s 
stamping grounds, where he hailed to the title of Supervisor. Before his 
Black Hills sojourn California claimed his services following his graduation 
from the Yale Forest School in l^Ok, 

The very best wishes of the Forest Service go with Kelleter as he 
begins his new job as one of the Department's executive officers. - Editor. 

By W. N. Spar hawk, Washington. 

Two European Governments have recently adopted regulatory laws which 
make the Capper Bill seem mild in comparison. 

Meckienburg - Schwerin' s law of March 10, 1923, provides that cut-over 
land must be restocked within three years; land already denuded which is 
suitable for forest production must be replanted; no further forest destruc- 
tion is permitted; owners of less than 25 hectares (b2 acres) may manage 
their forests as they please, while the owner of a larger tract must obtain 
the approval of the authorities if he intends to cut over more than U per 
cent of the area in any one year. The owner of over 100 hectares (2^7 acres) 
must follow an approved working plan, under the guidance of a trained for- 
ester unless he himself can qualify as a forester. 

In Czecho Slovakia owners who are not -operating under an approved 
working plan must notify the proper authorities four weeks in advance of 
intended cutting. Cutting is not to be allowed in stands less than 60 years 
old in case of high forest, or 20 years for coppice and mixed. The area 
cut over yearly may not exceed l/ 60 of the total for tracts of high forest 
under 50 hectares (123 acres) in extent, or l/ 60 for larger tracts; for cop- 
pice the limits are l/20 and l/30. 

By W. C. Barnes, Washington 

There has always been considerable discussion among Forest officers 
as to the cannibalistic nature of the trout, Eastern brook trout being in- 
variably given a very hard name for their tendency to graze upon the young 
of other trout. 

This matter was recently taken up with the Bureau of Fisheries and 
the Forester was advised that: 

"Under equal conditions, the brook trout is no more cannibalistic 
than the rainbow and the black- spotted trouts. In some States, 
notably Montana, the Eastern brook trout spawns earlier in the 
year than do the others, and it i s possible that the one and two 
inch brook trout that are planted do prey to some extent on the 
black- spotted or the rainbow which are smaller in size at the 
time they are planted." 

- 3 - 


Chapter IV. 

Paul's Assistant Commits Slight Blunder . 

One day in the summer following the winter of the great freeze, 
Paul's chief fire lookout, Oliver Optic, reported a blaze covering some 
U3 townships on the head of Sour Dough Creek. Paul sent Oliver, telling 
him to come back for help if the flames threatened to get out of bounds 
and approach the proportions of a Class B fire, This youth, being from a 
great eastern university, traveled 5 miles due east toward the fire; 
thence turning- due south, traveled 14 days and I5 nights until one morning 
at dawn he struck the Prazos River in Texas. It was for this reason alone 
that the fire spread beyond control toward Hudson Bay and the Aleutian 
Islands, and was stopped only by a fire-line cut in the Arctic ice-pack. 
Paul threatened to discharge the youth, but upon reflecting that all mor- 
tals err at times, he forgave him. 

Chapter V. 

The E xtinction of the Mastodon . 

The year of the big fire on Sour Dough Creek was the year the polar 
bears, fleeing before the flames from their abode on that stream, turned 
white from fear, and never went south again. Another creature that inter- 
ested the entomologists of those times was the mastodon, which ourrowed in 
the ground. and formed great colonies, much as prairie-dogs do to-day. In- 
deed the Entomological Survey estimated that of those rodents consumed 
as much forage as an average cow in those days, and for this reason at- 
tempted to exterminate them. 

In vain, however. It was Paul Bunyan who devised the successful 
plan of scattering at the mouth of each burrow a handful of poisoned water- 
melons which the animals eagerly munched. Paul made a pet of the last sur- 
vivor, and the little animal trotted eagerly at his heels all day long, and 
was playful and affectionate, but died at an early age. 

This is the true account of how the mastodon became extinct - a 
phenomenon hitherto unaccounted for by science. Needless to say, this ex- 
ploit brought fame to the Forest Service, and Paul was well liked by the 
cattle -barons. 

[To be Continued] 

Australian Province To Develop School Forests . The Province of Victoria, 
Australia, has just approved of a project for developing school forests in 
connection with the public schools. Definite areas are to be set aside, 
upon which forests are to be planted by the pupils under supervision of an 
expert forester. Planting is to be done with pine at the rate of two acres 
a year for each tract, and it is expected that the two acres reaching matur- 
ity each year will yield returns of t 500 to be used for school purposes. 
Energetic steps are being taken to inaugurate the work. 

Mattoon Author of Southern Pine Article : The article entitled "Southern 
Pine - In the Wake of the Boll-Weevil," which appeared in the June 13 issue 
of the SERVICE BULLETIN, was written by W. R. Mattoon of the Washington 

office . 

In this same article a typographical error was made. At the end of 
the fourth paragraph the word "stinger" appeared for "stranger." As cor- 
rected the sentence should read: "the vigilant stranger wipes up the slug- 
gish owner . " 

- k - 


Lumberjacks Becoming Enthusiastic Foresters : There is a county in western 
Montana in which the old-time lumberjacks are gradually becoming enthusi- 
astic foresters. The county land appraiser in classifying lands talks of 
"timber culture" land and gives it a value which he says may seem low but 
is sound, since "one has to figure compound interest, 11 he says, on the costs 
of holding it for raising timber. This man is of the old type of timber 
cruiser. He says forestry is the salvation of the county. He mentions a 
tract of land that he cut over 15 years ago, cut clean, from which he now 
can cut 2,000 ties at a stumpage value of 25 cents each. He asserts that 
the Government should acquire all the June 11 claims it has listed in the 
past and plant them to trees, since there is more money in that than in hard 
scrabbled stump land ranching. 

The County Assessor speaks in high terms of the Land Exchange Act and 
is enthusiastic about the Forest Service acquiring land under that Act even 
though it might mean an immediate reduction in the assessable privately 
owned lands in the County. The financial future of the county he asserts, 
depends upon all its forest lands being kept productive. He i s anxious to 
get some forest tree seedlings to plant on his ranch on a piece of land 
which he states is low quality pasture. 

A banker at the county seat, who owns some timber land which was 
recently cut over, has asked the Supervisor to show him how to dispose of 
the slash so as to remove the fire danger and at the same time leave the 
land in a maximum state of productiveness. 

The Supervisor expects to advise several ranchers with small areas 
of timber land how to mark the stand for cutting, so as to provide for best 
continued growth on the areas. 

Here is a great opportunity for the Forest Service in a different 
line from that of National Forest administration. The usual departmental 
activity of giving technical advice is in demand. The chance is opportune 
also for the growing Forest Service function of extension of forestry to 
private lands. 

While there are in the County of Sanders with the county seat at 
Thompson Falls better than average forest growth conditions which have in 
one instance resulted in the Supervisor receiving a timber sale application 
for cutting a 35 year old stand; while in the county the residents recognize 
a loss in business due to there being little commercial cutting on a large 
scale and the loss of large amounts of timber as the result especially of the 
fires of 1910; nevertheless, considerable credit is due to the forest ad- 
ministration, past and present, which has properly taken advantage of these 
examples to put over the truth about forestry and help educate the people 
in the economics of forestry. 

Supervisor Organizes C ommuni ty Meetings . Beaverhead County has no County 
Agent, although it has a very great stock-raising industry and substantial 
agricultural interests. However, the Forest Service is one of the Bureaus 
of the Department of Agriculture you know, and this fact, and the evidence 
of the public spirit of the Forest Service, are shown by the results of the 
efforts of Forest Supervisor Somers of the Beaverhead Forest. 

With the cooperation of one or two of the prominent local citizens 
he arranged for several community gatherings at which members of the Boze- 
man Agricultural College faculty spoke and answered questions relating to 
the welfare of the chief activities of the people in the county. The Dean 
of the School of Animal Husbandry, the Federal cooperative instructor at- 
tached to the school, and the instructor in Dairying, discussed the stock- 
men's veterinary troubles, the essential factors for profitable dairying, 
feeds and feeding, breeds and breeding and besides covered a mi seel lane ous 
field as a result of questions asked. 

These meetings were great Successes, and the local people were en- 
thusiastic about them and expressed a desire to have them repeated. One of 
the stockmen remarked that they should have also discussed markets and mar- 
keting and in view of the kind of stockmen there are in Beaverhead County, 
have included "Beef and Beefing." 

- 5 - 


The Fed eral Field Club represented by the heads of offices in various 
Government Bureaus located in Denver was organized somewhat more than a 
year ago. A meeting has been held regularly on the first Tuesday of each 
month, with the exception of two months in the summer • season . The Forest 
Service naturally has a large representation at these meetings because it 
has a greater organization than any other Bureau in the city, 

Through the activities of this club, the Denver City Telephone 
Directory now has all Government Bureaus listed under U. S. Government 
with the Departments and Bureaus named in proper alphabetical order. This 
is a great improvement over the former method and overcomes former confu- 
sion that existed, and difficulty the public had in locating anyone em- 
ployed in the Government Service. 

At the last meeting a committee was appointed to prepare a directory 
containing the names of all the heads of Bureaus and chiefs of office with 
their assistants and a short statement as to the duties of the various of- 
fices. The Forest Service will do the work of mimeographing and the other 
Departments will furnish the paper. This will be of great assistance to 
everybody in the Government work: and the general public, for there are a 
great number of inquiries coming in to all Government offices as to where 
such and such an officer, or Bureau, is located and our information is 
really very meager on the matter. 


Do Mesquite Blooms Ind i cate Se a son ? Aged Indian named Antonio Lopez who 
lives near Tucson prophesies that southern Arizona may expect a season of 
plentiful rains this summer. He says all the mesquite trees are loaded 
with blooms and beans although in many of the localities there has been no 
rain for eight months. The heavy blooms, according to the Indian are a 
sure indication of good rains during the summer. 

Arizona Fire Law Now Operative : The effective date of the new Arizona fire 
law is June 10. According to the preamble it is an act "prohibiting any 
person wilfully or negligently to set fire, or cause or procure fire to be 
set, to any forest, brush or other inflammable vegetation growing or being 
on lands not his own, or to allow fire to escape from his control, or to 
burn brush, etc., on hi s own lands or lands of another, prohibiting any 
person to build a camp fire on lands not his own without proper precaution, 
or to leave on such lands a camp fire unattended, or to permit a camp fire 
to spread thereon, or in any manner to start a fire in forest material not 
his own and leave same unquenched; requiring the use of adequate spark 
arresters on locomotives or engines using fuel other than oil on or near 
forested lands; prescribing penalties or violation of the provisions hereof." 


Insect Control : For several years the bark beetle damage on the Kaibab and 
south Utah Forests has been increasing. It became serious enough on the 
Kaibab last year to make it necessary to put on a crew of men for extermi- 
nation work. They are also working this spring and expect to have the job 

completed soon. 

On the Dixie Forest the outbreak was less acute, but was nevertheless 
serious. Visiting these areas this spring, Assistant District Forester 
C. B. Morse noted an exceptionally large number of predatory beetles of two 
species, which appeared to be numerous enough to hold the outbreak on the 
Forest in check. They were less numerous on the Kaibab where extermination 
work i s in progress. 

Forest Examiner S. B. Locke will vouch for the fact that the beetles 
are in abundance on the Kaibab, especially a beautiful little beetle with 
a bright red abdomen. On a recent trip to the Kaibab he came into camp after 
dark and started to consume some stew which had been prepared in the morning 

- 6 - 

DISTRICT k (Concluded) 

by the dim light of a candle. Presently he detected a strange ingredient 
in the stew and found that it contained a liberal portion of these beetles. 
He said nothing to the other members of the party, who enjoyed the stew 
immensely. We trust that all the beetles did not crawl into the stew, and 
that there are many left to feed upon bark beetle larvae. 

Field Day at the Dubois Experiment Station : Each spring, the United States 
Sheep Experiment Station at Dubois has a Field Day, to which the public, 
especially stockmen and others interested in the sheep industry, are invited. 
Forsling and Winkler attended Field Day this year, and initiated work on 
the cooperative project with the Experiment Station, whereby the Forest 
Service will be able to learn facts about typical spring and fall range out- 
side the National Forests. Several quadrats were laid out and charted and 
the work will be continued later. 

Kill Him, Someone With The Magnetic Pole '. Extract from an application for 

and can read a Girlie compass." - 
"Huh 1 . *crabs the Sawtooth batchelor, 7that bird must be an expert in 
local attraction and 3&0 degrees of fickle, unfathomable variation." 


What's One Forest, More or Less, Between Friends ? 
"Editor, Service Bulletin: 

It gars us greet to find that you have summarily deprived us 
of our own beloved Mono Forest and given it to D-4, according to the SERVICE 
BULLETIN of June 4. Please let us have it back again 1 . PR, D-5" 

PR, D-5: 

Your simple request is granted. What else may we do for you? - 


A Miss is Better Than a Mile : A Ranger on the Shasta received a letter from 
a prospective lady lookout that read as follows: 

"I was told you need a lookout on Mt. this summer and that I could 

probably get the job. As I understand that you are in charge of this look- 
out I thought I would write you and ask what kind of climate you have there 
and what kind of clothes I ought to wear. Do I have to take my provisions 
or will someone bring them to me? Would I have to ride a horse? I have 
never been on a horse, but if necessary I think I could ride if you would 
teach me how. I hope you will tell me whatever you. can about what is ex- 
pected of a lookout, as I do not know anything about the mountains except 
around the Bay, and I suppose it is a lot different up where you are." 

After working all morning on an answer the Ranger turned out this gem, 
some of whose high lights are herewith presented: 

"Mt . has an elevation of 9100 feet and is rather a windy place. 

It would be necessary for you to go on horseback for about nine miles, but 
I would certainly be glad to teach you how to ride. I generally do all the 

packing of provisions to Mt. myself. The telephone on the lookout is 

connected with my office, and you are supposed to call me twice a day, at 
9 a.m. and k p.m. Most of the ladies in this country wear riding breeches 
with leggings and either a blouse or skirt. I would like to have some idea 
as to your age. If you are sensitive about giving it you may state under }0 
or over 30, or just say over 40, I will keep your application on file and 
do my best to get you a job if I find you are qualified after hearing from 
you further. " 

(Note: She must have been over U-0, for she never got the job'.) 

- 7 - 



Liberty Bonds Serve as Indemnity Bond : Mr . Fred Herrick has finally signed 
the Malheur sale contract and it was approved in Portland on Jme 15 . It 
was found that the cost of an indemnity bond from one of the surety com- 
panies was $26,000 per year. This high race is due to the fact that the 
premium is based on the total value of the timber rather than on the lia- 
bility involved. Since the amount of the bend was only $50,000 such an 
annual premium was exorbitant. Mr. Herrick finally produced Liberty Bonds 
to the amount of the bond demanded and deposited them as security. 

Rubber Fire Stamps fo r Hotel Stationery : The Cascade is going to supply 
three of their susomsr resorts with rubber stamps. The proprietors have 
agreed to use them on their paper and envelopes during the summer. The 
stamps read: "Prevent Forest Fires - It Pays." 

The Universal Car . 

My motor stalled along the road 
A jay screamed from a tree, 

The dazzling sun from high above 
Was burning holes in me. 

At eventide, the sun went down, 

The bee flew from the clover, 

And I was still beside the road 
A turnin' Henry over. 

— Any Driver Thereof. 


Ashe Presents Paper at Water Power Conference : Assistant District Forester 
W. W. Ashe represented the Forest Service at the Southern Water Power Con- 
ference at Asheville, North Carolina, June 26-28 and presented a paper on 
"Soil Erosion in Relation to Utilization of Storage Reservoirs." Mr. Ashe 
also examined the lands of the Stearns Lumber Company of Stearns, Kentucky, 
which company has requested that it be given advice as to methods of cutting 
its timber so as to secure a more valuable young stand. He also examined 
lands in eastern Kentucky which might be considered for a purchase unit 
under the Weeks Law for a National Forest in that State. 

Another Fish Story : The fishing season in the Pisgah Game Preserve opened 
this year on June 1. The weather has not been very favorable for trout 
fishing, but still the devotees of the rod and fly will not oe denied a 
trial of the alluring streams. Approximately $150 worth of fishing permits 
were sold during the first four days of the open season. 

- S - 

Vol. VII, No. 2g. Washington, D. C. July 9, 1923* 

By Howard R. Flint, District 1, 

The article entitled, "The_ Critical Point in the Fire Problem, " "by 
Mr. Shepard in the May 21 issue of the "Service Bulletin," invites further 
discussion of a topic v/hich is likely to he a "heated" one during the next 
three months. 

Probably most arguments and disagreements on subjects of this. kind 
are due to failure on the part of those taking part in the debate to see 
the entire field. It seems futile to argue whether fire protection is 5/6 
or Z% of the forestry problem. That questions is purely academic and the 
percentage can never be determined mathematically in any case. 

It certainly can be admitted by all that if fire could have been 
wholly excluded from all forest lands, cut-over or uncut, for all time, 
there would be almost no barren areas of real forest land in the United 
States. Probably there would be considerable areas growing what are now^ 
termed undesirable or inferior species, but barren areas under such conditions 
are almost' inconceivable. Certainly any observant son of the Lake States can 
recall areas of fine pine reproduction in slashings in that region there were 
not burned or that were burned over but once. 

Doubtless any forester who has studied the history of disastrous 
forest fires has been impressed by the fact that many of them have lagged 
a few years behind the early lumbering and agricultural development of the 
region in which they occurred* Without doubt many of the fires in the East 
and in the Lake States started in logging or agricultural slashings and were 
greatly intensified by them. To a less extent this is true in the West, 
Most assuredly any stand of timber opened by the axe is made more favorable 
to the spread of fire. This is true to a considerable extent, whether or not 
the resulting debris is disposed of, because opening the forest inevitably 
increases wind movement and decreases water content. Those are two of the 
most important factors in the spread of forest fires. 

In illustration of the danger of unqualified generalities in regard to 
the cause and prevention of forest fire losses it may be cited that while it 
is g enerally true that disastrous fires follow the axe, there are most notable 
exceptions. The Selway and Clearwater Forests in District One include a gross 
area of 2,710,000 acres. A large percentage of this area was heavily forested. 
There is not, nor has there ever been, an appreciable amount of logging or 
land clearing debris in or closely adjacent to this vast area because it has 
been virtually uninhabited and undeveloped. In the past 15 years this region 
has been visited by 20Ug forest fires of record. Only 13 per cent of these 
have been due to human agencies. The human agency fires in this -case have 
usually been least destructive because most readily accessible. A total 
area of 1, 593 i 000 acres has been burned orver in these fires without the 
aid of any lumbering debris whatever. There are thousands of areas of double 
burn, having burned in 1910 and again in 1919 • A little of this area has 
burned three times in 15 years. The double burn is as effectively devastated 
as any slashed area one can imagine, and there are very large areas with 



neither seed nor seed tree on land that 20 years ago carried a heavy stand 
of timber. What is strictly true of this vast area is almost as applicable 
on other great areas in the St. Joe, Coeur d'Alene, Flathead, Kootenai and 
Blackfeet Forests in D-l. 

Fire protection is by no means all of so broad a problem as our 
national timber land policy, nor is it all of forestry. It matters little 
■whether we call it S5 per cent of forestry or only 5 per cent. Probably it 
is quite safe to describe it as the one equation, the solution of which is 
absolutely essential before the practical solution of the others in the 
problem can become possible, What will it us to leave seed trees 
and seed, clean up debris, piano, or protect against insects, disease, or 
overgrazing, if the area over which we toil is burned over after five, ten 
or twenty years? Whatever percentage of the total problem we assigne to 
it, fire protection- must become an accomplished fact before we can hope to 
produce much timber through, the practice of forestry* 


By T. D. Woodbury, District 5, 

There are but few things a Forester can do that are more necessary, 
interesting and instructive than an examination of cut-over sale areas some 
years after cutting. Such examinations are to the silviculturalist what 
the post-mortem is to the physician - a check on the original diagnosis and 
a guide for future treatment. More time can profitably be devoted to this 
line of Tfo rk. 

Assistant Forester Carter and the writer recently devoted about a 
week to the inspection of old cuttings on the Sierra and Stanislaus Forests. 
The earliest cuttings seen were made in the yellow pine-sugar pine type on 
the Sierra Forest about 1906, The leaving of an adequate basis for an early 
second cut v/as the governing principle of the marking in those days. Appar- 
ently only 50 to 60fo of the merchantable timber was removed and the areas 
could be cut over again at any time opportunity offered. The. trees left, 
while large, are as a rule thrifty and although grov/ing slowly, will remain 
in good condition for another forty or fifty years. The ground was apparently 
well stocked with advance reproduction, a large amount of which escaped logging 
injury. This reproduction has made a remarkable recovery, frequently growing 
at the rate of thirty inches in height a year. On one area which was burned 
clean fourteen years ago, yellow pine saplings were found eight inches in diam- 
eter at breast height and from twenty to thirty feet tall. 

Only a moderate amount of subsequent reproduction has come in on 
these lightly cut areas. Where yellow pine is the key tree, a large amount 
of light is evidently needed to secure full stocking. 

In connection with working out sustained yield, it will often be 
desirable to leave a large base of thrifty-mature timber at the time of the 
first cut to insure a profitable second cut. The above observations seem 
to indicate that this can be done without any very serious silvicultural sacri- 
fice. The extreme value and importance of advance reproduction is also clearly 

Several cut-over areas were seen in the sugar pine-fir type which 
occurs at elevations of from ^00 to 65OO feet. This type is characterized 
by the absence of yellow pine and the presence of a large quantity of white 
or red fir. The growing season is short and there is generally a heavy layer 
of humus on the ground. Advance reproduction is not prevalent in this type, 
A considerable range of cutting practise has been experimented with but none 
have been successful in securing reproduction following cutting. White thorn 
(ceanothus sp.) is very prevalent both in virgin stands and after cutting. 
This slows down the growth of' reproduction, It has been the recent practise 
in this type to cut for increment principally which has resulted in relatively 
heavy cutting for the reason that these stands are largely made up of over- 
mature trees. 

In view of the negative results secured so far, rather more conser- 
vative cutting which will take the form of leaving at least one good seed tree 
per acre over twenty inches in diameter at breast height is indicated pending 
further intensive study of this type. 


It has been said many time 6 by both Grazing and Forest Management 
men that sheep grazing does not seriously injure reproduction in California. 
In a general sense this is probably true. From our observations, however, 
cut-over lands in the sugar pine-fa I type which are heavily grazed are suffer- 
ing severely through the repeated injury to the leaders of the advance growth. 
This damage is caused by the drift of ^heep from surrounding overgrazed 
patented range. This drift is difficult to control. Every effort should 
evidently be made to control, it, however, and no sheep grazing should be per- 
mitted on cut-over areas in this type pending further study, 

By Jno, D, Guthrie, District 6, 

Forest officers being either admittedly scientists or having scientific 
points of view imputed to- them, too often fail to realize news values in their 
daily work, • This is neither illogical nor unexpected, The essence of news 
is the unusual, the" dramatic, the picturesque, the human interest element. 
There has been no occasion heretofore for a Forest officer to be trained 
to look for these qualities. 

The average newspaper man or the reporter, however, is looking for 
just these things. The following quotation is given as rather a vivid 
exposition of this fact. It is a part of the instructions from a Portland 
city editor to a young lady reporter in assigning her to the "beat" of the 
Post Office building: 

"The New Postoffice building on lower Broadway. This includes the 
postmaster, the forest service, the army, the immigration service and all 
the other federal offices in the building,. I am sure you will have no 
difficulty in becoming familiar with the beat and with the people as well 
as with the character of news likely to develop in each department, 

"I am attaching a couple of cards showing who is who in the forest 
service. First of all, try to visualize what the national forests are — vast 
expanses of trees. Hiding among the trees, however, are thousands of stories- 
stories of new trails that lead into mysterious and interesting places; 
forest rangers who ride or walk daily along high ridges and dark canyons 
policing Uncle Sam's great woods for fire or vandals, 

"In the trees are millions of houses (potential) which some day will 
rise from the carcasses of today's firs and cedars and spruces, Through 
the woods rush mountain torrents oversplashing with fish. On their banks 
are eager anglers snapping 'em out with fine dash. Back of the anglers in 
the shade are tents, inhabited by Mary, Bobbie, Susie, Aunt Jennie and 
Grandpa. They are all having a holiday, while the Ford is resting nearby, 

"Some distance from the camp is a graveled road which leads up and 
down in and out, finally joining the main highway. 

"Imagine things like these when you go into one of the offices of 
the forest service and see a tired- looking bird thumbing some papers and 
trying to look busy. Look beyond the' walls into the great outdoors with all 
the possibilities of romance, comedy and tragedy." 


Chapter VI. 

The Explosion of Round River. 

It is well known to the antiquarians that in the winter of the Big 
Freeze the waters of Round River froze solid, exploded, and drifted away as 
fine powder on the breeze. The ancient legend that Paul Bunyan the next 
spring hauled a tank of water from Sour Dough Creek to replenish Round River 
is now proved to be entirely fictitious. Round River was never re-established. 
Up to the time of the explosion, it had flowed for a good share of its course 
alon^ the Continental Divide, for the laws of gravity were not strictly en- 
forced in those days. Beside, as is well known, it flowed in a circle. A 

- 3 - 

The Expl os ion of Round River t | ( continued) 

radical Secretary, a;or>ointed shortly after the explosion, decreed that 
hencef orvrard streams should he confined to the valleys and should no longer 
folio- a circular course. Although there is no definite proof of the 
pypothesis, it is supposed that the degree *7as made at the instance of the 
Bureau of Fisheries, -hose field agents through long observation had ascertain- 
ed that fishes, confused by the vertical sinuosities of the streams that 
folldrred the divides, "ere unable to fl,.d the stream-heads for sparming, and 
hence -".-ere on the --a,;- to race-suicide. Besides Round -River and other streams 
flowing in circl&s had neither head nor mouth, and so '--ere doubly confusing 1 
and doubly disastrous to the finng tribe. 

. Chapter VII, 

P aul Was Some File Clerk. 

Paul's files r^ere kept in a masonry bo:: pilose large size and varied 
colors have forced the Geological Survey to the conclusion that its materials 
*7ere quarried from '-.hat is no- the Grand Canyon. The Colorado River is be- 
lieved to have its source from a bottle of red ink r/hich Paul spilled one 
day rrhile rTiting his official diary at some as yet unexplored section of the 
Kaibab Forest. 

A cursory examination of the remnants of Paul's archives Trill r/ell 
repay the antiquarian. For guide cards he used rude slabs of blue limestone. 
The Forest Clerk having failed to fill his quarterly requisition for supplies, 
he invented the antiline for the manufacture of buff sandstone folders. The 
so-called "faults" of the neo-geologist are merely the irregularities in filing 
still inherent in all Forest Rangers, 'rhile the term "non-conformity" arose 
from Paul's failure to arrange his strata in strict conformity -1th the 
official filing system, Paul *?as a practical man, unversed in office methods. 

(To Be Continued) 


Since the "Hail To The Veterans" item appeared in the Service Bulletin 
for Hay 2S the records of several more veteran Rangers have been received. 
These records speak for themselves. Here the]' are: 

District 1, Ranger II. E. Wilkerson -rites: "0, You Freshmen i Speaking 
of old timers, the men mentioned ' in the Bulletin are only freshmen rath the 
exception of Ranger Farley a.nd he is a sophomore. On May 20, 1923, I 
finished 2U- years of service on the Bitter Root as a Ranger and am yet 
going strong. I have r/orn out five perfectly good Supervisors and have nor; 
tackled the sixth. I believe I am the oldest man in point of years of 
service in the Forest Service. If there are any *7ho have served longer let 
them speak up nor? or forever hold their peace I" 

Distric t 5 ~ P*R. -.rites : "According to the Service Bulletin there 
are three Rangers in the Service r/ho have worked, respectively, 15, 16, and 
20 years on the same Forest under the same Supervisor. Well, our Supervisors 
don't stay put long enough to give any of their Rangers a chance to equal that 
record, but just the same here are a couple of records that are hard to beat. 
Ranger Paderson Y. Lerds of the Stanislaus entered the Service in 1899 ^d 
is still going strong. Ranger Mainvraring and Forest Examiner Shinn of the 
Sierra entered in 1900 and 1902, respectively. Ranger Jacinto Reyes of the 
Santa Barbara entered in 1900 and has maintained the same headquarters during 
his rhole period of service. Ranger Searcy of the Cleveland completed 19 
years of service on May 15," 


Pennsylvania's erstvhile Department of Forestry has blossomed forth 
as the Department of Forests and '"raters, and Commissioner Stuart has become 
Secretary Stuart. "A rose by any other name ****", 

- k - 


The Service Letter of Pennsylvania's Department of Forests and 
T/aters says that early timber scalers wore full dress suits. The item 
states: "John 5. Quigley "began measuring trees at Chathams Run in 18H6 
with George A, Crawford (later Governor of Kansas) and Col, Newton C. Gross. 
They wore full dress suits, v/hite ties, and silk hats," 

All those in favor of adopting this unfirom in place of the cne now 
in use say "aye" 1 

The "noes" have it 1 


Members nat ional Hardwood Lumber Assn. Visit Laboratory; More than a 
hundred members of the National Hardwood Lumber Association came by special 
train from Chicago to see the Laboratory on June 16, following the annual 
meeting v/hich i?as held at Chicago, 

This association, which has approximately LUOO members, is now over 
25 years old, and ranks as one of the influential lumber associations of 
America, Anong the functions it performs for its members are inspection of 
lumber service, reporting of the demands and needs of the consumer, advertising 
and publicity service; fraternal and cooperative features also are enjoyed 
by the membership. 

Almost 100 men are in the inspection force which covers the United 
States and parts of Canada and thus enables hardwood buyers to have a 
guarantee of quality in all their purchases from manufacturers and wholesalers. 
Approximately 30,000,000 feet of hardwood lumber are inspected as to grade 
each month by this staff cf trained experts. 

Lab Helps Reduce Freight Loss and Damage: Instead of the $96,700,000 payment 
of freight claims for loss and damage in 1921, $Ug, 050,000 was paid during 1922, 

This. 50 per cent reduction was made possible through the educational 
bulletin service of the American Railway Association, which gives causes of 
losses and how they may be corrected or minimized. 

The Laboratory can claim credit for a share of these savings as these 
bulletins include a number of Laboratory instructions on boxing and crating. 

A special bulletin called the attention of railroads to the Forest 
Products Laboratory, and 100,000 copies of the circular on bo:: strapping 
were prepared for free distribution. 

A Russian Visitor: D, Kazakevitch, civil engineer of the former Russian 
state railways in Manchuria, China, was a recent visitor at the laboratory, 
"The impression I have," he wrote of his visit here, "will certainly be as 
one of the greatest and most interesting I saw in this country," 


Gr ain in Nu mbe r of Recreationists : Figures pertaining to the u#a of this 
National Forests in District I for recreational purposes during the calendar 
yeax 1922 show that some 1430,000 people used the Forests in this way, spending 
about 650,000 recreation days altogether. in the Forests. The 1921 figures 
are 2S0.000 people and 1+20,000 recreation days. Of the totals for 1922, 
230,000 people spending 210,000 days were automobile tourists-through travelers. 

It is expected that the year 1923 will show great increases in the 
amount of use, especially in regard to through tourists, many of -.horn headed 
Montana-ward for the Dempsey-Gibbons fight at Shelby, At the end of the 
calendar year 1922 there were on or near the Forests 12k auto camps, 52 hotels 
for recreation purposes, over 300 summer homes, and about 200 miles of roads 
or trails constructed by either private or State or Federal funds for recreation 
purposes primarily. 

During the year 1922 there were about 150 fires started by recreation, 
visitors, ^7hich cost almost $10,000 to fight. Recreation visitors reported 
27 fires. Their aid in fighting fires was negligible, scarcely • compensating 
for the fire troubles they caused, TJith the increase of recreational use 
which can be reasonably be ejected from year to year, the need of continued 
pressure in the prevention of forest fires caused by recreationists is readily 
ant>arent . 

- 5 - 


Another Toll Road? 

Another proposal has "been received for a toll road on the Pike 
National Forest, The old Short Line Railroad "between Colorado Springs and 
Cripple Creek has "been "bought and junked. The purcnaser nor/ desires to make 
use of the right of way as a scenic highway, There seems to be general 
endorsement of his plan on the part of Colorado Springs, but some objections 
are heard from the people of Cripple Creek who riant the road built as a 
public highway. The matter is not yet ready to be .passed upon by the 
Secretary and it is still uncertain what the outcome will be, 

The junking of the old Short Line is another of the railroad tragedies 
which have become so frequent in Colorado during recent years. This road, 
built at a total cost, it is understood, of over $3,000,000, served the 
mining camp of Cripple Creek at the height of its glory. The entire life 
of the railroad, however,' was only 20 years* 


Just Like Other Squatters; On the Apache they tell a story of an old timer 
who camped for two seasons on a spot near the Little Colorado. When- he 
arrived last Spring he "found a camping party already in full possession and 
kindly informed them that he guessed they would have to move on, since that 
was his camp ground, It so happened that there were numerous other spots 
equally attractive and an abundance of good springs near by, and the new 
comers readily yielded the right of possession. This little incident shows 
how the mere privilege of free ccaping carries with it a sense of possession. 
Undoubtedly, the old timer felt- perfectly sure that he was within his rights 
claiming that particular piece of ground by reason of prior occupancy. 

Waters hed Gon e, Also City Wa ter Su pply: The water situation in Silver City, 

New Mexico, is exceedingly critical;. According to newspaper articles on 
the subject the townspeople at last realise that overgrazing and destruc- 
tion of forest cover is the cause t Members of the Gila Forest force have 
been a'i armed about the impending misfortune for several years and have . :. 
endeavored to arouse the citizenry .to a course of action. New, however, 
requests for suggestions and direction are being urged upon Supervisor 
Winn, Conditions are so acute that water has to be shut off from the city 
mains every day from 2,00 P, M* until morning,. There is no water for gardens, 
lawns or trees, and only a limited amount for other domestic purposes. The 
chief difficulty with any remedy the Forest Service can suggest is that only 
a minor part of the ^/vatershed is within .the forest while the rest is privately 
owned. It is thought, however., that public sentiment is stirred to the point 
that steps will be taken regardless of ownership. 

Forest Ser vice Par ty: About a hundred people, members of the D.O. and 
Manzano offices and their families gathered in the Forest Service rooms in 
the Gas & Electric Building Friday night for a general good time. Motion 
pictures, "Building Forest Roads ,T , '"Wonderland of Canyons and peaks" and 
"Grazing Industry on the National Forests" were shewn and Assistant District 
Forester Kircher gave an address on Brazil, Sherbet and home made cake 
completed the program, 


Governor Signs Compulsory Fire Patrol Bill 

A compulsory fire patrol bill for California was approved by Governor 
Richardson on June 6, 1923 , This act requires forest land owners to provide 
a fire patrol equal to that maintained by forest owners who have cooperative 
agreements with the State Board of Forestry or the Forest Service or equal 
to that maintained by 50 per cent of the forest owners in the locality or in 
other localities with similar conditions. In the event of failure to provide 

- 6 - 


a fire patrol the State Board of Forestry is authorized to provide one at a 
cost not to exceed 3^ P er acre per annum, which may be exceeded in times 
and localities of unusual fire hazard up to the actual cost of the work. 
This cost becomes a lien upon the land if unpaid after thirty days* All 
money collected is deposited to the credit of the "State Board of Forestry 
Fire Prevention Fund, ; ' from which payments to carry out the provisions of 
this act are made. Forest land is defined as any land with enough forest 
growth standing or down or with sufficient inflammable debris to constitute 
a menace to adjoining land. Owners residing within 1-1 / 2 miles of the land 
are exempt. 

Recreation Busin e ss Booming: The recreation business is booming as never 
before, From January 1 to May 23 ^ inclusive, 2l6 special use permits were 
issued^ 175 of which were for summer homes* In addition to this ^0 summer home 
applications have been approved and permits are being issued as rapidly as 
notice of payment of rental is received. Since the recreation season is just 
starting, it is evident that the Angeles will this season exceed all former 
records, and that the special use receipts this year will be around $140,000* 
The picnic season is nov/ in full siring., if the number of visitors to 
the Arroyo Seco on Sunday, Hay 21, was any criterion. On this date Ranger . 
Mueller counted Q00 auto parties in the Canyon viaich, averaging 3-1/2 persons 
per auto, means over 3^00 people in the Canyon in one day. 

Japanese Tree s fo r California: TCe received a visit from Mr. Kenichiro 
Yamaguchi, of the Imperial Japanese Forest Service, last winter, and found 
him very interested in our native trees and vegetation, We sent him 
seeds of a few species of our Forest trees, and the Japanese foresters returned 
the compliment with seeds of twelve varieties of native species. This seed 
has been sown in the State Nursery at Davis, and a portion sent to the 
University of California and the various experiment stations for trial. 

State to Lease Summer Cabin Sites 

Following the example set by the Forest Service, the State of California 
is going into the business of leasing cabin building sites to those looking 
for a place to spend the summer. In Fish Canyon a number of squatters have 
built summer homes without cost to themselves, but a representative of the 
State government has informed them that hereafter they must pay a rental. 
There are 60 acres of land occupied by the cabins, and a considerable income 
will be realized from the leases. A law providing for the rental of State 
lands under certain circumstances was passed by the Legislature at its recent 

Radio on the S tani slaus: The City of Oakland Recreation Camp on the Stanislaus 
is the first cemp of this character to install radio for the entertainment of 
its guests., Every evening concerts are received from Portland, San Francisco, 
Oakland, Los Angeles, Salt Lake, and elsewhere, and by the use of a quarter- 
ampere power amplifier can be heard over the entire camp. 


Y/indshield Stickers Going Strong: In addition to a large number of the new D-6 
shield-shaped windshield sticker sent to field officers, a supply has been 
furnished upon request to the Oregon Tourist Bureau of the Chamber of 
Commerce, and the Oregon Automobile Association. 

Supervisor Rankin of the Crater has supplied 5000 to the Superintendent 
of the Crater Lake National park who will distribute them to tourists along 
with National Park literature, 

_ 7 ~ 


Road and Recreation Map: The allotment of 2000 copies of the new Washington 
Road and Recreation Map to the Snoqualraie Forest were distributed "by Forest 
Clerk Prasch within 10 days, and the names taken of several hundred more 
desiring this useful map were taken and later supplied, 

A Beauty Spot; A fifteen-year term permit was recently issued to B.W. Huntoon, 
et al, of Bellingham, Wash., for a resort in Austin Pass Meadows "between 
Mts, Baker and Shuksan, on the Washington Forest, This area is destined to 
be one of the show places of D-6, and will be opened to the public by the 
completion of the road from Glacier to the Meadows this year, 


Another Bear Story: The bears on the Shenandoah have been making quite a 
name for themselves lately. An old she-bear with cubs put a man up a tree 
on the North River District a few days ago and held him there for two hours* 
Believe it or not, another one attacked a 2-year-old steer and rode him down 
the mountain to a point near where some fishermen were camping. The cattle 
made such a disturbance that the fishermen decided to investigate the affair 
and found old bruin enjoying a piece of shoulder. When within about ten 
steps he backed off growling. The men were ^unarmed and it was dark so the 
case was closed, 


A Chance For An Argument; This is one time when District 8 makes a brag and 
at the same time probably starts a controversy. Here goes; Alaska claims 
to have the youngest Supervisor in captivity, and this means Supervisor not 
only in name but in fact. Incidently he is Supervisor of the largest Forest, 
namely - the Tongass, which has a net area of 15. ^3 » 900 acres. "Bob" Zeller 
was appointed Supervisor last November, just three months before his 29th 
birthday. Bring on your youngsters, you old-time districts "down below"J - H.S. 

By a D-6 Landlubber, 

Some may prefer to put their trust 

In an old "Tin Lizzie" that rolls in dust; 

But let me to sea, and to windward beat 

On the trim craft of the Forest Service Fleet, 

First the "Hiawatha" the flagship true, 

Leads the Fleet through waters blue, 

The stalwart "Tahn", and the "Weepoose", 

These beat any old galloping goose, 

There's "Ranger One", and "Ranger Two", 

Cutting along while their engines stew; 

And "Ranger Four" and "Ranger Five", 

All good boats for a man alive; 

And soon to be added to the galaxy 

The brand-new boat, "Ranger Three"; 

Good staunch craft in a stormy sea 

Even down to the "Nellie B" . 

All of them natty and trim and neat — 

Nine good ships of the Forest Service Fleet! 

U.S. Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 


Vol. VII, Ko. 29. 

Washington, D, C. 

July 16, 1923, 

By H. S. Lunlap, Forest Products Laboratory 

That a largo degree of fire hazard depends upon the inflammability of 
forost fire fuels and that the combustibility of forest duff fluctuates with 
weather changes have been determined by experience as well as research. 

Extensive studies of this kind have been carried on at the Priest River 
Experiment Station, but one phase of these studies, the relation b etween mois- 
ture content of forest duff and relative humidity, could not be carried on there 
with the equipment available. The aid of the Sorest Products Laboratory, there- 
fore, was enlisted, and for the past year the Laboratory has been cooperating 
with the Station in determining this relation. 

In the course of the Experiment Station studies, need arose for an in- 
strument v/hich would' show at any time the moisture condition of the duff. Evap- 
orators, balances, and other devices were tried, but they could not tell as com- 
plete a story as would scorn to be desirable. Here the similarity between the 
mois ture- humidity relations for wood and duff was considered , and the idea 
occurred that this fact might be used in the development of an instrument v/hich 
would show in a single reading just what conditions exist in the duff. Such a 
device would take into account the condition in the duff in its natural position 
on the floor of the forest and should reflect in one reading the influences of 
humidity, of the moisture content of the soil, and of the temperature. 

In wood, shrinking or swelling always takes place with moisture changes. 
This quality of wood was used in the development of these instruments. The first 
instrument consisted of a cylindrically- shaped device, pointed at one end to make 
insertion in the duff easy, and carrying a gauge reading to O.OOl inches to indi- 
cate the change in length of several small cylinders of wood placed along the 
barrel of the instrument. As it was unsatisfactory, to have so many sections of 
wood in the instrument, they were replaced by a perforated tube of compression 
wood, This peculiarity of wood structure is usually found on the under sidj of 
branches and leaning trees, and only in conifers is it characterized by wide 
annual rings with a large percentage of summerwood, which is not so dark and hard 
as in normal wood. The fact that this wood, unlike ordinary wood , shrinks appre- 
ciably longitudinally was used in the design of the instrument. 

The third instrument developed is one which is not only more sensitive but 
is also of a more practical construction. In the earlier instruments the wood is 
in compression, but in the new design the sensitive element is in tension which 
allows the use of a very small piece of wood or fiber, and thus insures greater 
sensitiveness. Rattan, which was found in experiments to be more serviceable 
than compression wood, is used in the latest developed instrument. This is more 
satisfactory than the compression wood because of greater strength, uniformity 
m size, properties, and availability. 

These instruments were calibrated and sent to Missoula, Montana, for tests 
during the month of April. If these preliminary tests indicate that the instru- 
ments are of value, a number will be made up for more thorough tests during the 
lire season. The complete instrument costs approximately |30. 

By Hoy Seadloy, Washington 

Along about 1911 a Sorest officor was bitten by th3 chemical firo ex- 
tinguisher bug and proceeded with certain experiments to determine whothor some 
radical departure from conventional firs suppression methods could not b3 substi- 
tuted for tho usual systems which had been found to bo sadly inadoquate. Specif- 
ically it was hoped that chemicals could be used with revolutionary effects on 
fire control . After such experiments as he was able to devise had been completed, 
this officer found that tho Pyrene liquid used in the Fyrene gun was just about 
equivalent to an equal quantity of wat3r used in the same instrument. 

A few years later another member of the same District was bitten by the 
same chemical fire extinguisher bug, and before District authorities were awarD 
of it, had purchased a number of the same Pyrene guns for use on motors, at 
Hanger stations, and on fires. This officor was unaware of the previous experi- 

In later years the development of aircraft and the use of bombs from air- 
craft suggested strongly to many men both in and out of the Service that it should 
be possible to use chemical fire extinguishers from airplanes. This was consid- 
ered by tho Madison Laboratory and the conclusion reached that nothing of any 
practical value could be derived from this method. 

A short time afterward a cooperative study of tho use of chemical ex- 
tinguishers in fighting forest firos was undertaken with the Chemical Warfaro 
Division of the Army. This study led to a consideration of the comparatively 
new principle embodied in the "frothy" extinguishers, for a time even some of 
the hard-boiled fire control men thought this method held promise of practical 
value for us, but the question fell into the hands of an investigator of a mathe- 
matical turn of mind. This officer proceoded to calculate the quantities of 
water which would be necessary to lay an effective trail of fire foam in front 
of a forest fire. The amount of water necessary, together with the obvious diffi- 
culty of transportation in ordinary circumstances, were so great that the fire 
foam bubble burstad also. 

The latest effort along this line is reported in a recent District firo 
review. After trying out a five-gallon Pyrene pump tank extinguisher a Ranger 
reports as follows: 

"I found that the liquid will immediately stop any blazo to which it is 
applied, but that where the fire has oaten into tho cracks or under the roots 
of stubs, too great an amount of the liquid is necessary to make its uso econom- 
ical. A largo stump which was apparently entirely extinguished began smoking 
three days later. There is no doubt that if there is a sufficient amour t of 
water available to recharge the tank several times, the tanks will be valuable in 
extinguishing burning spots in treos and snags, where they are too high to reach 
with an ax or a shovel full of dirt. To sum up: the pump tank with only one 
filling is of no uso on oven a small Class A fire. If supplemented with a re- 
serve supply of 50 to 250 gallons of water, it would be valuable in both Class A 
and B fires." 

Thus wo arrive by this latest experiment at about the same point reached 
in 1911, namely, that the Pyrone liquid is about equivalent to tho sane quantity 
of water used in suitable equipment. 

Who will be the next to take up this alluring idea? 

The amount of money which has been expended in experimental use of chemi- 
cal fire extinguishers would come in pretty handy if we could collect and invest 
it now in water-using equipment or other fire- fighting equipment of proven value. 
However, the attractiveness of the chemical fire extinguisher idea and the allur- 
ing advertisements of chemical apparatus are so great that it would be a rash man 
who would venture to assort that the forest Service will spend no more money try- 
ing to find an easy chemical road to the solution of our fire suppression problem. 
Perhaps also it would be unduly rash to assert that the duplication of experiments 
will never find any such method of practical value in forest fire control. 

To many men, it seems highly desirable to equip every Hanger station with 
a chemical fire extinguisher. A good many stations have been so equipped, but 
although we lose sovjral stations annually by fire, no case is kno^vn to the writer 
wherj a chemical extinguisher has saved a building. They occasionally burn up 
with the building. Can anyone report an instance where the presence of a chemical 
fire extinguisher has resulted in preserving a Hanger station building from fire? 


By l?c J- Jeff erson, Selway 

Bulletin readers, through the medium of the Service Directory, doubtless 
all know that there is somewhere in Idaho a Forest called the Selway. Since we 
break into the newspapers only when the Lord in righteous wrath showers us with 
large quantities of fire from the heavens, they may b3 axcusad for not fooling 
very well acquaint 3d with us. 

As may be surmised from the introduction, we ar3 xvhat is knov/n as a "Fire 
Forest." This classification, it is realized, may ljavj somj doubt as to whether 
our function is to provide a never failing supply of fire data for the statistical 
sharks, a practice field for fire- fighting exercises, or to serve as a sort of 
dumping ground for all the concentrated fury which the Idaho skies contain during 
July and August, thereby protecting our neighbors after the fashion of a safety 

As a matter of fact, we are a regular Forest with about 4 billion f3et of 
real timber which Nature, unfortunately, placed in the pa*h of the burning winds 
which develop in the Desert Forests of Northern California, Nevada, and Southern 
Oregon. These Forests have earned for themselves the title "Asbestos Forests" 
through their uncanny ability to pass on to us all the fires that they should 
have had. This is an unnoighborly performance and we haven't thought well of 
them ever since Lkjor Kelloy told us that this was what they were doing. We must, 
however, face the fact that we have a big risk and a high hazard and lay our plans 
to meet these conditions. 

Several years ago someone with a bug for mathematics or joy riding figured 
out the fact that wo were the most inaccessible Forest in District One. The basis 
for this statement is the fact that you can r t flit around among our trees with a 
flivver or a buggy as it is understood was the custom on the Forests that the 
mathematician was accustomed to. In fact, after you have flitted over our ten 
miles of road, you have to get acquainted with a saddle horse and a pack mule and 
enjoy their society many days if you visit much of our 1,80C ,000-acre woodlot. 

There are six Hanger districts within the Forest, all but one of which 
must depend entirely upon pack trains for supplies. A round trip from the road 
end to these district headquarters requires from four to nine days by pack train. 
Such time intervals as these make it impossible to draw on outside sources for 
temporary help in case of fire. Zach district starts the season with an organi- 
zation of from 25 to 30 trail and protection men and mist stay on top of its fire 
situations without thought of any additional assistance,, We average about 120 
fires per year, practically all of which are caused by lightning. When these 
come in groups of from 25 to 40 we have to "whip the devil around the stump" with 
exceeding rapidity. Firemen have been on continuous fire duly for 45 days with- 
out a day o>ff c Some of our country has such hea^y underbrush that it has re- 
quired 13 hours for a husky woo drxian to travel ni.e.j miles. 

Fourteen pack trains, totaling 125 head of mules, make up our transporta- 
tion system. These run on regular- schedules and move anything fromd elioate sci- 
entific instruments to heavy domestic ranges, lacking for the entire Forest is 
done from one central station located at the end of our road. Men familiar with 
the idiosyncracies of a pack mule are in charge of these trains and bring them 
through, rain or shine. 

We have a sales business, a grazing business, and a game country s econd to 
none in the West. We can therefore talk the same language as our neighbors, 
though possibly with an accent peculiar to ourselves. 

We have no modern Ranger Stations. In som3 cases our District Hangers are 
housed with canvas. The lim. : .tation on funds for administrative improvements hits 
us hard. ITo "back to Nature" stuff in ours. We never got away. 

Rangers in charge of Selway districts are as truly pioneers as the men who 
opened up the Idaho Territory So years ago. They must rely upon themselves and 
their own resources entirely when trouble strikes them. They must overcome the 
saae primitive conditions that confronted their pioneering fathers. To measure 
up to their job they must have moral courage, a cool, clear thinking head, and a 
spirit of loyalty to the Forest Service that carries them, rough shod, over the 
difficulties and discouragements that frequently face them in their work. To sus- 
tain thera in their work they must be able to feel and enjoy the primitive thrill 
that com3s from a single- hand led battle with natural forces fairly won. 


PAUL 3UNYAi\ T, S -EXPLOITS (Continued) 


A Bu m Deputy Ga me Wa rden 

Among Paul's archives may be found an old Deputy's Commission, signed 
by Hiawathia, who was than State Game Warden, Paul did not usually wink at vio- 
lations of the gane laws, but once he got into a jack pot. On a fine September 
morn in the early Pleistocene h3 cams upon Diana wading into a lake to take a 
pot shot at a flock of swans* The poor lady was not only unable to produce a 
hunting license, but it was the closed season on swans besides, the opening dat3 
being th3 early Carboniferous. For once Paul fail 3d in his duty. Muttering 
somjthing about th3 inefficiency of the local gam3 wardens, he ran away up the 
mountain side. The brush he knock3d down en rout3 has since bjen incorrectly 
termed a windfall, Paul was no ladies' man, 

Paul Ge ts a "Personal Letter" 

Paul Bunyan was a mighty hunter. Of course there were no automatics in 
those days, but when Paul rammed a meteorite down the muzzle of his 36-inch 
culv3rt-iron rifle, it aeant a dead dinosaur every shot, Paul invented th3 ivory 
bead when he attached a polished mastodon tusk to his front sight. 

Once upon a time Paul nearly got fired. A saber-toothed tiger had been 
raiding his hen roost, so he up and shot him and unwittingly present 3d the hide 
to the County Clerk and collected the regular bounty. The Supervisor heard of 
it and wrote him aporsojenol letter, reminding him that Regulation G-2S entirely 
prohibits a Forest officer from collecting bounties. As a further punishment the 
Secretary cut off his July I raise. AIL. succeeding secretaries have inflicted 
the same penalty on all Paul's successors until it has now become a geological 

(To be Continued) 


Mr, Sherman Writes on Light Burning; The July 4 issue of TH3 OUTLOOK contains 
an article by Mr, Sherman which gives very interesting and timely facts on light 
burning. The article is entitled "Playing With Fire" and is primarily designed 
as an answer to an article by Capt. 3. C. Crossman printed in the June Z7j8^^R2 
OUTLOOK which argued in favor of light burning. 

Lie*. Sherman's concluding paragraphs read: "Fire everywhere in the for3Sts 
of the United States i6 the great menace against our future timber supply. Fires 
annually burn 10,000,000 acres of our forest land. Fires not only destroy im- 
mense quantities of timber ready for the saw, but — even worse — they destroy 
the young trees from which the future forests, if there are to be any, must come. 

"Captain Crossman, like most other people, falls into the error of confus- 
ing these young trees with worthless underbrush. Twenty years of protection have 
encouraged billions of young trees to spring up in the national Forests. Shall 
we burn them now to prevent the clanger of their burning in the future, as one 
might burn down his house to prevent its catching fire? 

"This is the gist of all the arguments in favor of forest fires: Burn down 
the forest to prevent the forest from burning down," 

Office of Ebrest Experiment Stations Cr eated; The Office of Forest Investigations 
in the Branch of Research has beon changod to the Office of Forest Experiment Sta- 
tions, Ihis is partly because the old nar.e is somewhat ambiguous, since "forest 
investigations" covers all branches of forest research, whether in silviculture, 
products, or economics, whereas the Office in reality deals with silvicultural 
research only. 

Moreover, the now name is especially appropriate because of the recent 
advances in forest experiment station work. With four stations in the last and 
with the probable building up of the existing -western stations, silvicultural re- 
search has pretty definitely crystallized round the experiment stations. 



Book on Chairs ard Forestry: That the use of small-sized material in tho manu- 
facture of chair stock v;ill permit far greater utilisation of limited hardwood 
supplies is one of the conclusions brought out in the book," Chair Dimension 
Stock," prepared by the Forest Products Laboratory of the Forest Service and 
published by the Association of Wood Using Industries, 531 Monadnock Building, 
Chicago (Price $2.00) . 

Of the 320,000,000 board feet of lumber annually used by tho regular 
chair industry only 16 per cent is ready cut small dimension stock, whereas the 
actual needs for 250,000,000 feet, or almost 80 per cent, could bo met by wood 
stock in small sizes. 

The results of these extensive studies are of use in determining the most 
economical method of converting thj log intc the product required, not alone by 
this industry but by othsrs whoso small v/ood stock requirements are similar in 
size, quality, and species to those of the chair industry. 

Paul Bunyan Writ es to the Lab; That Paul Bunyan is not a myth is attested by 
the following letter which came to the Lab: 

"Members of the Forest Products Lab: On account of the extremely hot 
weather, I request that on Saturday forenoon, June 23, you shall not attempt to 
do any work, but simply remain around the building and try to keep cool. I am 
ordering 170 gallons of ice cold punch for each section, and it should be deliv- 
ered early in the forenoon. You can also draw on my account at the Badger for 
all the ice cream sodas and other hot waather necessities you may desire. Go 
as far as you like! I should like to be present in person and help you enjoy 
the forenoon, but I must stick to my' job here of getting out cordwood so the 
people in Superior won't freeze to death this summer." 

(Signed) Paul Bunyan, In Charge, 

All Forest Activities. 

ITorth Woods, June 22, 1923. . 


Now It Ma y Be gold : We wonder whether that article of Schrock's, "Auto Trucks 
in Fire Fighting," in Bulletin of June 18, was censored by Fire Chief McLaren 
before publication! Some time ago there appeared in the Bulletin some costs 
of "held line" in different districts accompanied by some observations of the 
author as to costs in Districts 1 and 2„ Our industrious fire chief immediate- 
ly went into an analysis of figures. He also went into an explosion of words, but 
didn't seem to be able to put his finger exactly, on the right explanation. How, 
since allotments are settled and all is peaceful for another season, this man 
Schreck has let the cat out of the bag. 

We want to call attention to the cat because it seemingly is a big one, 
and, it is suspected, may burrow itself in the Michigan or Minnesota sands and 
hibernate over the winter period of cost figures and comparisons. Tho trouble 
with District 1 seems to be that Supervisors have never been ingenious enough to 
think of hitching up a plow behind a truck and make fire lines at the rate of 
five miles per hour in the white pine type. Although the cost of gasoline is 
probably higher, the expedient would doubtless result in a material reduction in 
cost of "held line," provided, of course, that the driver held to the truck and 
held it along the desired route of the fire line and the truck hold to the plow, 
and the plow held to the desired depth in Mother Earth,', It is obvious that such 
a combination would stop any fire that ever got started and that costs would be 
stopped far below where they have stopped in the past. — F,M. 

Ssa^X-Ralr^all^as; Prevented FiraS' The unusual rainfall in District 1 this sea- 
son has sr. far made it unnecessary to place lookout men and smoke chasers at 
their stao? o::.s , but the rain iaas also made necessary an unusual amount of work 
in the maintenance of trails, telephone linos, and roads. The ground has been 
soaked up to such an extent that only a moderate wind is required to blow down 
dead and decadent trees, and the protection forces have been mere than busy try- 
ing to keep lines of communication open. Time after time trails and telephone 
lines have been cut out only to have more trees across them in a few days than 


were there at tho first spring clearing. This has boon exasperating to the pro- 
tection forces, but they console themselves with the observation that it is bet- 
ter than fighting fires. 


^g^gMachj^atts^Jpres try Association is putting on a tour covering the National 
Forests and National Parks again this year. A party of 20 wont through Denver 
to Bstes Park through tha Colorado National Forest. They were addressed by ;.r. 
Wheeler at Fort Collins on the night of June. 27, and plans have been perfsctod 
for them to meet other Forest officers while in the District. 

Br&Jfeai &l.t by Spri ng, Mr eSi It was with a great deal of regret that D-2 broke the big league this spring with a real fire situation on tho Superior For- 
est. It cost about $2o,000 to handlo the fires on tho Forest during May and 
Jun3, which resulted larg3ly from slash burning on privat3ly owned lands and a 
late, dry, windy spring. Most of tho fires started outside the Forest boundary. 

jjjr., 0. M. Grander has boon d3tailed to Washington for six months commencing July 
1 to help on r 3-classification. While it is hard to loso our Chief of Operation 
for such a long period, at the same tim3 it is a pleasure to be able to help on 
the vitally important job of reclassification. 


iew^Pire Law at Work. Th3 Arizona Fire Law of 1923 became effective June 10. 
Reports are coming in that show convictions undsr its provisions on various for- 
ests. It is apparently a good law and simple in its operation. Ranger Bruhl cf 
the Tonto secured the first conviction for his forest. A party of New York to 
Los Angeles tourists on the morning of June 19 made a larg3 camp fire at the 
public camp ground near Pine and l3ft it burning. Cther campers watched it but 
let it biirn to see what the Forest Service would do about it. They saw whon Bruhl 
happened along. He got a description of the party and th3 direction of travel 
and telephoned Ranger Stewart of the Coconino to watch for and to apprehend the 
offenders. Confident of success Bruhl then got the Judge and took him to the 
scene of the fire. The other campers gave informal evidence. Stewart intercepted 
the party and took its members to the Bly Ranger Station whore a telephone trial 
was held and a fine of $10 assessed and collected. 

Eb rests Gan Be Us.^d Without ftTan- Caused Fl rasi The Famous Blayors-Laskey Corpora- 
tion recently filmed Zane Grey's book, "To the Last Zlan," The picture was made 
on the Tonto Fbrest in the vicinity of Payson in the same region in which the 
plot was laid and where Grey actually wrote the story. Many people were used in 
the work and there was much running about with trucks and horses. The season was 
dry and hazardous yet not a single fire accident occurred. The Tonto gives credit 
for this to Ranger James and to the guide, Mr. A. L. Haught. The picture people 
were told that if they did not use every precaution they would find themselves 
fighting forest fires instead of making motion pictures. They preferred to make 


fc^^rcokjamb^rJ^Ld.: On June 18 bids were opened for approximately 10 million 
feet of timber in the Goose Creek Chance on the Idaho Forest. Hoff & Brown Tie 
& Lumber Company of McCall, Idaho, was tho successful bidder. This firm ha« ^een 
cutting rapidly on the area for tho last month under a^van-io cutting procedure-. 
Tho, stand BonsUts. chiefly. of Western yellow pine, with Douglas fir, larch, 
spruce, lodgepole pino and white fir (lowland fir) in mixture. The stand is 
.'athor overmature and the Forest Service has wished to have this area cut. over 
cor many years. 

jhort Cuts_; The following letter was received from a permittee; 

"Mr, Johnson: I am writing for a crossing permit to cross the Fbrest. 
L havjn' t time to wait for a reply to this letter, so I hope that it will be all 
•eight if I cross." 


pi jTrL ct _G_^„ mmi laciffr c_: ;i j'^i ;i 

gront.Bafi'o Stuff; Tho Cascade got on the front page of th-e Portland Orogonian 
rocontly with Ranger :,;c Far land's auto registering device at oaisri&g®. It also 
has boon receiving cpn'gidorablo publicity over th3 biggest Douglas fir sale 3Vor 
advertised. I'hon thvj Sbrostor, Assistant POroster Carter, and Assistant District 
Bbrestor Ames camo along and it got in the press again, 

Douglas. . Fir , as a. Pulpwoofl! Douglas fir because of its pitch content is not con- 
sidered suitable for tha manufac tur j of either a high grade of ground wood or 
sulpha to pulp. Characterized by a long but coars 3 fiber, it is suitable- for the 
manufacture of ordinary wrapping paper, high test container board, or any un- 
bleached paper - this by the sulphate or soda process. Onj mill in the State of 
Washington is using it in the manufacture of book, writing, and wrapping paper. 

Of the 334,000 cords of pulpwood (spruce, hemlock, whits fir, eottonwood, 
and Douglas fir) consumed in Oregon, Washington, and California, largely in the 
two former, in 1920, only 8,000 cords were Douglas fir. In this year 16,000 
cords of cottenwood wore consumed. — W= H.G, 

I^din£_the_Jasts A Portland representative of the Beta The ta Pi College fra- 
ternity called at the District office on June 2o and asked for a supply of D-6 
recreation foldors end publicity material. He stated he wanted those to dis- 
tribute among the 2,000 djlegates of the fraternity at their National Convention 

at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. , in the latter part of June. He was supplied 

with samples of all of D-6 material, as well as publications on general forestry. 

A year age another Beta from Portland likewise went Cast loaded with the "gospel" 

of Western outdoors, 

ffright Right on thi Jnb« Supervisor Wright of the Columbia Forest was the prin- 
cipal speaker at the recent got-tegjther meeting of Hood River, Ore., and White 
Salmon, Wash., boosters and business men. 3?ho meeting was h.ld on tho Washing- 
ton side of the Columbia River at"thj Dyrie," Wright told of the read and trail 
development work buing carried on by the Per est Service in tho 1ft. Adams region 
and what this will mean as added attraetions to tourists, campjrs and others. 

F, hi in "Life" of April 5 

V/e hav„ to have chairs, 
Ion" t we, 

And houses and footstools? 

'Vh.n you think of it that way 
It makes the thing right ... 
Laboring, I moan, 
Slitting down trees in th^ir prime; 

I ?uess, in the night, 
Zkj whisper their fear 
So the stars; 

Eha man-moth, 

"it> the Saw-tooth blight 

II tare; 
t'o next! 

»'ra only sixty years ..... 
»'iSt in the height 

my us efulness .... 
^OoTs at ay girth I 
^3 Jfoth says I'm worth 
>vthing as I am .... 
*ttt a great deal uo Grand Rapid si 

fain w. are struck down, pronounced dead, 
*" s it because some angel needs a now bed? 


pisrai.vff y - ms i i>i strut 

S£ra, jfraw aaforcoiBonf c c the OheroixQO' giro law enforcement on tha Cherokee 
means a ,1tb rerletu -vi th thrilie; In this particular s action of tho south- 
ern- AtpalaUMaSif derails a sweat littl; crowd of illiterate mountaineers who 
habitually, pa 'Seyoringly, and, sand to say, r.ore or lass affectively "burn 
the • '. ads. " J.ceai prosecuting attorneys, sheriffs, and other representa- 
tives of law and order sacra to have no great eagerness for nixing i&with 
these people on anything so seemingly trivial as violations of forast fire 
laws and regulations. Local Sorest officers arc at times inclined to loss 
faith in all tho acceptable means thus far davisod for bringing about ade- 
quate protection. For ins tanca, on I 'ay 3, Ebmar Gooch sat out a little fir a. 
On :;iy ll Hangar Woody and Guard Andersen brought him in and ha was bound 
cv ar to the Federal Court under $5Q(j bond. A few days aftar the hearing 
Homer his brother called at the home of Sam Waters, witness for the prose- 
cutior and told Mrs. Waters that their father, Joe Gooch, had said that if 
Sara 7a tars want to federal Court and testified as ha did before the Commis- 
sioner, x-Irs. Waters would See her husband no core. Homer told Mrs. Waters 
with an oath that Sam Waters would get enough fire before he was through. 

On the night of June 4 the Waters home and nearly ail of be- 
longings were destroyed by fire of incendiary origin. The family narrowly 
escaped burring to death. Joe Gcoch also threatened Ranger Woody ana stated 
that the prosecution 1 s witnesses would never get to Federal Court. The For- 
est Service at this point asked the arrest of the parties threatening and in- 
timidating witness as, and, further, that the defendant, Homer Gooch, be im- 
prisoned until his trial. This is the status of tha case at this writing. 
Verily it is loaded with possibilities of succeeding thrills - and it is by 
no means an exceptional case for this particular section. 

{Written by Bob Adams) 

Arbor. Jay, 

Soon as ha landed from the seas and limbered up his pious knees, tha 
Pilgrim fall to chopping trees; and whan he died he left his son an ax, a 
Bible and a gun. The forest furnished beam and rafter to him and all his 
children after. They swung the ax with mighty strokes and hacked down hick- 
ories, pines and oaks. They needed wood for house and barn, for spinning 
wheels to twist their yarn. They needed wood and trees were plenty, where 
ten would do they cut down twenty. Yet these old boys we should not scorn; 
they wanted land to plant their corn. They had to break the forast screens 
to raise a crop of Boston b^ans. Though in the boughs the birds sang sweet, 
thj wooded land could grow no -/.heat. Also their sons have formed the habit, 
and ^ when they see a tree they grab it, then haul it off to saw and slab it. 
So in our day the trees are few on many hills where once they grew. The 
dryads all h&Vo left their places - at 1-east we seldom sac their faces. 0, 
if you have soma steep hillside where useless ferns are spr eading wide and 
par, aura grass hps mostly cied, I pray you give it back to wood and set in 
trees o» or many a rood. You may not li^a to chop the same, but future folks 
will bless your name. The fledgeling birds in many a nest by your wise kind- 
ness will be blest. We also ought in clays and loams to set out maples 
'round our homes. A tree, it is a pleasant thing in winter, fumreer, fall or 
spring, and we should learn and often quote the vers, on trees that Kilmer 
wrote before he left his poet wife and gave in war his good young life. In 
heaven I hope ne sings and sees, more tuneful songs and lovelier trees. 


U. S. Forest Service 

(Contents Confidential) 

Vol. VII, No. 30. Washington,- D. G* July 23, . 1923. 

■■■ " By 'To Di Woodbury, D-5' 

Th3 local rop'r esentative of th3 ; 3vinrude Motor Company informs us 
that they a-re variously investigating the possibility of developing a com- 
plete, series of pumps.' The first pump of the series would be much larger 
than their present two-cycle engine which we have already tried out and 
; reported upon. The next of the series would be, the present pump, and the 
third a one-cylinder pump which the company already has on hand. 

, The idea they have -in mind is to work out a relay, securing water 
with the larger pump and redistributing it to the fire with the smaller 
pumps. -Thsy.have asked for cur suggestions which we have promised to give 
to them later in 'the season. , 

■'.73 hav .= tried out" the '3vinrudo pump on actual fires on the Plumas 
and in the two instances in which it was used it paid for itself by saving 
an enormous bill in suppression and patrol. One of these fires started in 
the center of a bad sawdust pile, surrounded by refuse, debris, and waste 
1 timber from an abandoned sawmill site. Adjacent to this sawdust pile was a 
slash area of many standing, snags. : ' . ■ 

With four hours pumping we were able to completely put out this fire 
which covered about three-fourths of an acre. The sawdust in places had 
already burned down eight to ten inches. In handling the sawdust we prac- 
tically sluiced out the burned portions. Another fire which occurred on a 
sawdust pile was likewise handled. 

The surprising development in California in connection with the pump 
is the intjrest taken by a good many operators. We are" informed that ten 
of the 3vinrude pumps have been sold to the redwood operators. Two outfits 
on the Plumas who have seen the pump in operation are also contemplating 
installing this equipment on their operations. 

As Banger Kiopperiburg of the Plumas expressed it : "This was the first 
pleasurable, fire-fighting r have ever had," after we had completely 'extin- 
guished the sawdust fire. • - • . ••• 

... By 0. R. Tillotson, Washington 

The Conservation Commission of New York State has recently added nine 
gasoline forest xire- pumps to its equipment for forest fire . fighting in the 
Adirondacks. Ten of these pumps were already in use so that' the Stats now 
has nineteen in that region. Sach of these pumps is said to bo equal to a 
crew of 50 to 75 men using the old-time fire fighting tools. They are 
equipped with 1,200 feet of hose, giving them an effective fire fighting 
radius of about a quarter of a mile, which can be doubled by connecting two 
pumps . 

Daring the spring just past one of these pumps was in continuous oper 
ation from 3 ; 30 p, m. in the afternoon to 7 : 3o a. m. the following morning. ■ 
The Conservation Commission requires the rangers to make semi-monthly tests 
of the pumps throughout the fire season. Records are kept of the time Con- 
sumed in getting the pump to a given locality and in operation, time being 

TSfusst aiEA'fa sold ok gasolik5 roBasg sxhs hmk} { :onciuded) 

counted from the start to the delivery of water at the nozzle. There is keen 
rivalry among ths rangers in charge of the pumps to make a good showing and the 
effect of the test is steadily to raise the standard of efficiency. 

By T7. 3c Chapline, Y/ashington 

In a recent test given to a number of students in a western university, 
a question was asked concerning the points which should be avoided in selecting 
sheep range. A great many of the answers to this question gave the reply that 
a grass range is to be avoided; and a number of the men, though they had had 
considerable experience on the range, gave this as about the only important 
feature to be avoided. 

During the last ten years or so there has been a material decrease in the 
number of sheep in the Western States, and at the same time a material increase 
in the number of cattle. In many places the substitution of cattle for sheep 
has resulted in turning over to cattle range that is better suited to sheep. 
Therefore a discussion as to use of grass range by sheep seems timely. 

Many grass ranges - especially where grama, bluegrass and even some of 
the bromo grasses apredominate - are probably just as well suited to sheep as 
to cattle, all factors considered, while some are better suited to sheep. 3ven 
on those bunchgrass ranges where the forage is not so well suited to sheep as to 
cattle, topography, lack of adequate watering facilities, animal pests, or other 
factors may in many cases be the determining elements and make a change from 
she^p to cattle inadvisable- Pbr all practical purposes the utilization of such 
grass- ranges is fully as satisfactory with sheep as with cattle. A certain 
amount of palatable grass is highly desirable on lambing range and also is im- 
portant in the development of milk production throughout the entire summer. 
Jail use of grass range with sheep is important for hardening the fat of iambs, 
and for this purpose the seeds of many grasses practically provide a grain ra- 
tion on many western ranges. 

No attempt has been made in this brief statement to outline all the de- 
sirable features of a sheep range, but it does seem advisable to have more 
thought spent on suggested changes from sheep to cattle, especially when we con- 
sider that sheep generally have been pro fitable, while for a number of years, and 
particularly in some parts of the Y/est, many cattle owners have had difficulty 
making a satisfactory profit from their livestock. 

By J. 3. Scott, District 7 

"Me and my family have gathered 946,000 Galax leaves this year," said a 
mountaineer in Lenoir, North Carolina, recently. 

Between November and March each year the Pisgah National Pbrest is astir 
with a unique industry.. The men, women, and children of the mountains are abroad 
early and late in search of the perennial Galax, the broad evergreen or bronze 
leaves of which are gathered in unreadable numbers and shipped to every part of 
the world for decorative uses. The Pisgah POrest is, doubtless, the principal 
source of the world's supply, as Galax is very largely confined in its range to 
the mountains of western North Carolina. 

The pickers market their harvest for cash or in barter to dealers in 
Lenoir, Johnson City, Ashevilie, and other surrounding towns at from 30^ to 50^ 
per thousand leaves. The experienced mountain woman will readily pick 10,001' 
leaves in a 10-hour day, so that the addition to the family income from this 
source is a noteworthy one, even wh en due allowance is made for sorting over 
the day's collection and discarding the specimens unfit for market. 

The Galax pickers are in the -./oods during parts of both the spring and 
fail fire seasons, and because of their resulting availability for service in 
suppression crews and their active direct interest in preventing fires, no at- 
trmpt has been made to impose fees for the removal of this forest product. The 
pickers constitute a 7alued supplementary protection force. 

Regulation of the picking season may yet become necessary. The season of 
greatest demand for Galax is just before Christmas when the bronze tinge is in 
tha leaves and when the dealers are in eager competition for the available supply. 

One hustling firm in a nearby town now contemplates the installation of cold 
$'< . 0 :.i«ie3 and a yearlong buying season which might temporarily give 

them the jump on their competitors in the fall selling market, but which would 
Certainly encourage yearlong and probably excessive picking and eventual destruc- 
- t: ;• o ' >:>ri ;;:><.:• se that lays this golden egg. If, to maintain the industry on a 
permanent sustained yield basis, proscription of opening and closing dates for 
the picking season within the National Forest becomes necessary - leave it to 
Supervisor Rhoades. 

P AUL BUN YAiT'S 5XPL01C3 (Continued) 

Chapter JC. 

Petrified Forests and Alaskan Coal 

Paul Bunyan never smoked cigarettes, but he was very fond of his pipe, 
v one day he sat on the top of the San Francisco Peaks looking for fires, smoking 
his pip j the while. The wind blew out several of his matches, which he care- 
fully broke in many pieces and tossed down onto the plains where there was noth- 
ing to burn. These old matches of Paul's are now being exhibited to unsuspect- 
ing tourists as the Petrified Forest, 

Later on that day Paul spied a smoke in the northwest. He immediately' 
set out to extinguish the blaze. Stepping down off the Peaks, he tapped his pipe 
on Lit. McKinley, carefully covering the charred tobacco with earth- A chap named 
Guggenheim recently discovered these remains and claimed them as coal fields. 

Chap te r XI . 

Paul a Good Ci vil E ngineer 

Modern civil engineers have unblushingly appropriated the credit for dis- 
covering that great principle of topographic mapping - the contour. Without 
malice and only from a sense of justice and fair play it must be emphatically 
stated that .Paul Bunyan was thj real discoverer. It came about in this way. 
Paul was a keen hunter; but as game protection in his day had never passed the 
crude State license system, the larger game animals, such as the dinosaur, the 
megatherium, the pterodactyl and other waterfowl, had become well-nigh extinct. 
So Paul had to content himself largely with the sidehill gouger, that curious 
little animal whose legs were shorter on the off side than on the hear. 

This personal idiosyncrasy made it necessary for the gouger to travel 
parallel to the hillsides on a perfectly horizontal line, a whence the epithet 
"sidehill." One day while chasing a gouger Paul suddenly noticed with amazement 
how this horizontal line, so accurately pursued by the little animal, followed 
the contour of the hills, bending with each dip and rise and fold. Henceforth 
he used these imaginary lines in making his crude topographic maps; but as, in 
mapping, he used the arduous method of actually following each contour on the 
ground, the work was slow and tedious, and carried him to many strange corners of 
the globe. 

unce in making a topographic map he followed a contour clear to Tierra del 
Puego and did not return for 18 months. It must be admitted that the method had 
its merits, since it brought Paul into touch with many curious tribes and customs; 
but it has been displaced in later ages by a more efficient, if less romantic, 

(To be Continued) 

Mention has been made in the District 2 Service Bulletin of the age and 
importance of the Massachusetts Forestry Association. This mention brings to 
aind a number of facts regarding the Colorado Forestry Association which place it 
in a unique position with regard to age and early activities. 

In the early eighties the need for such an organization was keenly felt by 
a small group of public spirited citizens in and near Golorado Springs, led by 
3ol. i&gar T. 3nsign. Y/eekly articles were published in the Gazette under a spe- 
cial heading, "Forestry in Colorado," for. the purpose of stirring up a wider in- 
terest in the subject. In November, 1684, a forestry convention was called in the 



State House in Denver. The efforts and purpose of this convention and the 
association formed at that time ware to secure adequate and proper legislation 
and to mould a body of public opinion among the more indifferent citizens of 
the State. Although the usual factors which stand in the way of such pioneer 
enterprises militated very strorgly against the realization of the work of 
this small group, yet many things have been accomplished which have affected 
forestry in the State very strongly ever since. 

The subject of forestry was taken up in the State Constitution and un- 
der the provision mad3, opportunity was given for greater development than was 
possible owing to the usual lethargy with which such matters are consic'srod in 
a new country. The Bill introduced by the infant association called for three 
State Commissioners, later reduced to one, and carried a $6,000 appropriation. 
This appropriation was eliminated leaving the matter hardly more than perfunc- 
torily taken care of. The association, however, continued with its work, hold- 
ing annual meetings lasting two days. Delegates came from all over the State 
and read papers on various related subjects; committees were appointed which 
had in charge special study courses, the preparation of magazine articles and 
the publication of addresses and scientific papers. The matter was also agi- 
tated of a Government forestry farm which, in a very small way, anticipated 
the present National Forests. 

Although these efforts bore no immediate results, at the present time 
when forest conservation is a more popularly recognized matter of importance, 
the early activities and. records of this association give it a background 
which enables it to be a public factor of unusual value. 


Forestry Positions Opsn in Texas: State Forester 3.G.3iecke, College Station, 
Texas, has notified the Fbrest Service that positions for two technical men in 
his department are open, namely, those of Assistant State Forester and Farm 
Forestry Extension Specialist. Information with reference to these positions 
may be obtained from Mr. Sieeke. Forestry in Texas has shown marked develop- 
ment in the past two years, and it is believed that these positions offer prom- 
i s ing oppor tuni ties. 

Off, for South,, America ; Dr. James R, Y/eir of Forest Pathology, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, formerly of District 1, lias gone to Brazil with a party of Govern- 
ment 3xperts from the Departments of Agriculture and Commerce to study the 
rubber industry. Dr. Weir is to report on the pathology of the rubber tree. 
The expedition is to last six months the first trip and is to be followed by a 
second expedition a few months later. The route is through the Amazon Valley 
into the heart of the tropical forests. 

Laborato ry's Repo rt on Aircraft, Mate rials Receive s High Praise; The following 
is taken from a letter from Prof. A. P. Warner of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, an authority on airplane design, to Mr. G, 17. Lewis of the Na- 
tional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; 

"I enclose herewith the Fbrest Products Laboratory report which you sent 
to me for comment, I can not praise it too highly. It se^ms to me one of the 
most important works that has ever been done on aircraft materials and the 
sooner you get it into print the better. The only comments which I really have 
to make deal with minor points of arrangement, and I have indicated some of 
them in red-penciled notes on the margins. 

"In the first place, I think the two parts should be published as sep- 
arate reports. They deal with quite distinct subjects, the first of which is 
of comparatively littls direct interest to most airplane designers. It is 
very seldom that the designer of aircraft has to calculate deflections accu- 
rately enough or to dial with beams short enough so that sheer deflection be- 
comes a serious factor in this work. That section of the investigation is of 
interest primarily to those who specialize in timber and its properties or 

• ft The second part of the work dsals with form factors which ara of vital 
importance to ev^ry aeronautical engineer. The value of that work can not be 


emphasized too highly. It is monumental in its character and revolutionary 
in its effect, and, strange as it may s;;em, this appears to be the first pub- 
lication of any real value on form factors in wood. Indeed, in most parts 
of the world where airplanes are being designed the very existence of such 
factors appears to bs unsuspected. I hav3 searched the works of Pippard and 
Pritchard and of Bolieve without finding the slightest allusion to this sub- 
j3ct, and I believe that the " Flugzeugstatik" of Van Gries also pays no atten- 
tion to the relation between the form of a beam and its strength. The Brit- 
ish have long recognized th3 importance of the work of the Forest Products 
Laboratory, but that remarkable institution has never done anything more im- 
portant than this." 


Laboratory. Man. R3C gives Patent for Glu,e: Patent for a blood glue which may be 
applisd without a hot press and which has greater water resistance than any 
casein or blood glue hitherto tested at the Forest Products Laboratory has 
recently been received by Mr. A. C. Lindauer. The new glue, which is granted 
for the free use of the public, will find considerable value in the commercial 
production of water-resistant plywood. 

Perh aps On e of Our Tree Lookout s Gould Answ er Th is: "I want to know how to get 
up into the top of a seventy- five foot loblolly pine tree - how to get a half 
dozen ladies and gentlemen up and by some perfectly safe and simple means for 
the purpose of taking tea on a little platform to be constructed in the branches 
and for th3 purpose of obsarvation. Of course some device must be suggested 
that is as stat3d free from danger and one that does not require skill in its 
use. .^levators of various kinds have been suggested, but I am now turning to 
som3 form of ladder or spiral stairway of very light construction. While the 
tres might support such a structure, tha tree itself must not be injured." 

( From a Georgia lawyer. ) 


Fire,. Loss o n the C oeur d'Alene: Supervisor McHarg estimates the cut from the 
Co3ur d'Alen3 for 1924 at 50,500- M at an average price per M of $8.46 and a 
total income of £426,665. This is not just a pipe dream of McHarg' s, but is 
bas3d on sales now under contract and the amount of cut required by the con- 
tracts. Unless business conditions occasion a serious depression in lumber 
production, the cut should be realized. 

In an articls written by McBarg and publishod in the 1923 "Idaho For- 
ester," the stat3ment is made that fires in the Coeur d'Alene in 1889 and 1910 
reduced the allowable cut during the present rotation by from SO to 40 million 
feet annually. At present prices, and taking 35 million as the reduction fig- 
ure, th3 loss in income from^fftfi < fore^£fwill amount to about $300,000 annually. 
In terms of manufactured product, using a conservative mill run price, the loss 
is in the neighborhood of $1,000,000 annually to the community. 

The sales on the forest have equaled the allowable cut for several years. 
The only reason that more timb3r has not been removed and can not be removed in 
the future is that it is not there to sell. A lot of timber has been burned 
in this district and elsewhere, the worth of which was problematical because of 
inaccessibility or low intrinsic value. But this is not true of th3 Coeur 
d'Aljne losses. There is no doubt that intensive protection and management on 
this Forest will pay, and along this lins it may be interesting to state that 
ilcHarg is now making it a condition of timber sale contracts that employees be 
forbidden to smoke in the woods. — Fred Morrell. 

yhereJJill..V;'hite Pina Stumpaga_Stnp_? As an indication of possible future stump- 
agj values for white pine favorably located, a recent Coeur d'Alene appraisal 
submitted in connection with a trespass case offers food for thought. The tim- 
ber amounted to 132 M feet, located within skidding distance of a drivable 
stream. An overrun of 17 per C3nt is us3d in the appraisal, and lumber selling 
values for white pine for th3 last quarter of 1922, which averaged $46.97. Here 
is the appraisal, based on thsse premises; 


Appr aisal; - 

Lodging costs 

Manufacturing costs, log sea 
Total costs and margin — 

Selling value, log scale 

Stumpage indicated 

There seems no reason why white pine lumber values in the future should 
not settle down at around this figure, and it certainly looks as though white 
pine second growth 30 or 40 years old which could be picked up at a r^'/^Is 
figure might be a pretty good investment, even with th3 present high ths and 
fire protection costs. 


More Favorable Se ntim ent Among Stockman; A memorandum just received from the 
Gunnison recites that a resolution was introduced and passed at the meeting 
of the Advisory Board of the Gunnison County Livestock Association June 16, 
at Gunnison, favoring the addition of all the territory lying between the Con- 
tinental Divide on the east, Soap Creek, and Lake Fork on the west now con- 
tained between the Cochetopa Forest and the Gunnison Forest. 

This association was formerly one of the strongest in its opposition to 
the Service and its policies, and the present resolution is an index of the 
general change in sentiment occurring throughout the V/est. 

A committee was appointed to draft a resolution and present it to the 
general meeting of the association to be held there. This committee was in- 
structed to wire the Commissioner of the General Land Office, requesting an 
immediate examination and report of modifications and additions of stock drive- 
ways leading to the Forest and an additional resolution requesting that rigid 
inspection be made on all stock raising homesteads on which final proof is 
submitted, the claim being made that many of these homesteads are going to 
patent without compliance with the law. 

P lanting o n. th e Pike; A total of 765 acres, consisting mostly of Douglas fir 
and Sngelmann spruce, was planted on the Pike Forest during the past spring. 
There were planted 605,880 trees, or an average of 792 per acre. The aver- 
age cost per acre amounted to $17.72, which is higher than the average for the 
Pike Forest. This high cost is due to the heavy transportation charges in- 
curred in hiring special trains on the Pike's Peak Cog Road to take the trees 
and equipment to the area. The cost was also increased because of the very 
rough and brushy areas planted. This completes the planting on the east face 
of Pike's Peak. 


Large Sale on Cocpnino ; The Fbrester has approved the advertisement of 
81,000,000 feet of timber on the Coconino National Fbrest. The advertisement 
is to be run for a period of 60 days in local papers and trade journals. The 
advertised price is $2.25. The feature of the sale is the proposed cooperative 
deposit for intensive fire patrol in lieu of brush disposal. This will be the 
first experiment of this kind Vidertaken in the District. 

<&P.P«E a .ti_on on Wildca t Fire; Dr. 3- 3arl Taylor of Holbrook, Arizona, accord- 
ing to the Sitgreaves Bulletin, furnished a truck for hauling supplies to the 
'.ildcat Pire and when asked to present his bill replied in part as follows: 
"Tie are very glad indeed to be of any passible service to your department in 
connection with this fire and I personally have such a high appreciation of 
./hat you and others are doing for conserving the forests of the nation that I 
very much prefer not to present any bill. Unless, therefore, there is some 
x eason from a departmental standpoint why you prefer to have a bill presented, 
I wish you would consider the use of our truck as a very willing contribution 
our part toward the work for preserving the magnificent forests of Arizona." 
upervisor Roberts, however, later discharged the obligation in proper manner 
.ithout hurting the feelings of this splendid cooperator and so remains in posi 
tion tc call upon him again in case of need. 





DISTRICT 3 ( Continuad ) 

Indian Lor a and Curios : The Coconino reports a new kind of use. An Apache 
Indian known as Indian Miller, has a camp near Walnut Canyon. "He has an 
Indian tepee and has collected quite; a bunch of curios, including different 
species of horned toads, snakes, a Gila monster, etc., etc. He lectures to 
the tourists on the fauna of the Southwest, and also gives a very interesting 
talk on the cliff dwellers and prehistoric settlers in general. Many people 
consider him of more interest than the cliff dwellings themselves. He takes 
an offering of 25^ per head from those who visit his Indian museum and listen 
to his talk. In case people are unable to pay he does not protest." Since 
this is a business project it will be covered by a charge permit. 


A Tale with a Moral : On a recent timber sale inspection on application for 
cancellation of agreement, it developed that the sale could be cancelled on 
the application of the purchaser without damage except an amount necessary to 
cover the cost of re-sale. The reason for this condition was that the officer 
in charge of the sale had so kept up his current administration that there was 
good utilization, the brush was completely disposed of, all marked trees had 
boon cut, no unmarked trees had been cut and the logging had progressed reg- 
ularly from the creek bottom to the tops of the ridges and with the improve- 
ments made in road construction, the remaining timber is at least as valuable 
and as salable as was the original stand of timber. Moral; current sale ad- 
ministration beats all of our penalty contract clauses a thousand ways from 

The Outlook for Delong' s Child ren: Ranger Belong of the Kaibab, or more partic- 
ularly Sanger Delong' s children, featured in an article which appeared in the 
last issue of the Outlook magazine. The article was by Dr. Prank V/augh, 
Hacreational 3ngineer who visited the Kaibab last summer. It pictures Delong' s 
children being deprived of the wonderful advantages of the movies, but at the 
same time they are living a life among deer, white tailed squirrels and wild 
horses, that in itself makes a movie. 

On Being a Ranger : Supervisor Clsen caught his boys smoking, or trying to 
smoke, some cigarettes that they had picked up at a neighbor's house. "Hoys," 
he warned them, "if you smoke those things you will never be great big smart 
men, and you cannot learn as fast as the boys that don't smoke when you go to 
school.' 1 

"That's all right, dad," the boys answered, "We're not going to school, 
we're just going to grow up and be Forest Rangers." 


Another Jolt for Hora tio: Mr. R. T7. Ayres, who was in the office yesterday, 
vouches for a most remarkable incident which was called to his attention by one 
of the loggers of the Fruit Growers' Supply Qompany, and which he at once per- 
sonally investigatedc On June 25, 1923, a 110- foot broken-top white fir tree 
was felled which appeared to have been fire-killed, as it was standing in a 
burnt-over area. Uhen it fell, there was a solid butt log 20 feet long and 
about 5 feet in diameter, and above that the whole tree simply split into 
strips. Upon investigation it was found that the 90-foot upper section of the 
tree was nothing but a hollow cylinder with walls about 4 inches thick, and 
that the heart had been entirely consumed by fire, which was still burning at f 
the bottom of this natural chimney. There were no lightning scars and no sign 
of rot, and the tree- stood at least 600 feet from any road or railroad; the 
only solution of the mystery therefore seemed to be that at the time this area 
was burned over, September 3, 1922, fire had lodged in the broken top and had 
Si-owly eaten its way downward, taking nearly ten months to consume the 9o-foot 
column. Shortly after observing this phenomenon Mr. Ayres heard of a similar 
occurrence, and has come to the conclusion that this may explain some of the 
unaccountable fires that have puzzled woodsmen in the past. A tree burned in 
this manner could easily be blown down by a high wind and thus set fire to the 
surrounding forest. 


DISTRICT 5 ( Continued) 

High Vol ta g e Lines on the Si grra; The transmission lines of the Southern Caj, . 
ifornia Edison Company from the Pineridgs District carry the highest voltage 
in the world - 230,000. 

Packers* A ssociation O rganized: The Huntington Lake Packers' Association to 
recently organises to "guard, promote, and protect the interests of those on- 
gaged in the business of packing and horse transportation." This is th3 firs 
packers* association to be organized in this district and probably in the sa. 
tire S3rvice. If any field officers are interested they can obtain further 
information by writing to the District Iforester. 


Heavy Stuff: Element & Kennedy, op3rating on their sale of timber on the 
Snogualmie rbrest, have installed one of the largest Lidgerwood outfits in 
the country. The weight of the machine is 110,000 pounds. The wire to rig 
the machine weighs 90,000 pounds, and is 40,200 feet in length. It is esti- 
mated that this rig will skid 2,000,000 feet of logs per month when hauling 
from 1,500 to 2,000 feet, and three to three and a half million when hauling 
from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. The machine is made of cast steel throughout with 
structural steel bed frame, Siic drums are used. The boiler is said to be tin 
largest ever put on a donkey engine. It is 76 in, by 144 in., and oblong in 
shape. — V/.A.S. 

Bpy Sc out C ontacts; Forest Examiner A. A. Griffin of the Rainier has been des- 
ignated as expert examiner in Conservation and POrestry for the Tacoma Council 
of the Boy Scouts of America. Be will give the quizzes and issue certificatss 
to the candidates for these two Merit Badges. 


flevbitt Bulletin 

U. S. For est Service: 

(Contents Confidential) 

■ m 

5 1^ i sag ,, ...... . HS 

Vol. 711, No. 31. Washington, D. 0. July 30, 1923. 

By Hermann Krauch, Tort Falley Experiment Station 

In making stmp analyses of old trees it is generally very difficult 
to count the rings on "the outer side of the stump*..' To do so it" is necessary 
to prepare a perfectly smooth surface and this takes considerable time. 
Moreover, making counts of rings on a pitchy stump or in the glaring sun is 
not a very agreeable job. It has therefore occurred to the -writer that a 
core could be extracted from the outer part of the stump by means of an 
accretion borer and the rings of that portion counted at any convenient 
place. I do not- know whether some one has already hit on this simple scheme 
or not, but it seems well worth while to call attention to it. 

We have' lately been informed that an accretion borer 14 inches to 16 
inches long can be secured. Such an instrument will enable us to secure 
cores which reach to the center of many stumps. This, however, v/ill probably 
not prove to be a practical plan so long as the inner rings of the stumps 
can be counted with ease. 

By Leland S.- Smith, Modoc 

The dictionary defines palatability as: Agreeable to the palate or 
taste; savory. 

As there is considerable difference of opinion among Pores t Officers 
on the question of palatability of browse species for various classes of 
stock, the following is being sent in for comment. 

There are several species of brush on the Modoc - Cercocarpus and 
.Amelanchier , which on certain Ebrests are considered as excellent browse. 
Amelanchier, or serviceberry , is considered on the "East Side" Torests of 
D-5 especially as"good to excellent" browse, depending on locality and class 
of stock, and mahogany, particularly the broadleaf species, Cercocarpus parvi- 
fbiius, is considered excellent browse and "highly palatable" or "relished by 
stock and eaten closely." 

In this region the question arises, "Is everything eaten by stock to 
be considered palatable?" 

In 1917-18 considerable value was given to Cercocarpus lsdifolius and 
Amelanchier alnifolia. Since then, however, this value has been reduced to 
the point where, if the main species is mahogany in a browse type or service- 
berry in a timber-browse type, very small value is given, or none at all, 
for summer range, which is the only season we are concerned with. 

V/hile it is known, of course, that in California horses have been 
wintered and pulled through in fair shape on mahogany, and, due to lack of 
hay, cattle have been fed on chopped mahogany boughs in winter, such a fact 
is not considered sufficient evidence to warrant giving it much value for 
summer grazing. 

In arriving at a palatability factor applicable to grazing reconnais- 
sance where the figures are to be applied' to summer grazing, it is felt that 
no browse should be given a .high figure where it is fed only in winter, or 
only when other forage is lacking, since to do so would lead to overstocking. 

PALATA3IL1TY - WM IS IT? (Concluded) 

In case of browse species classed as good to excellent forage for any 
stock, we have on the Modoc bitterbrush, wild plum and others, which are con- 
sistently cropped close on all ranges generally in the fall, but to some ex- 
tent in the spring. It is seldom that they attain much height growth except 
in more or lass inaccessible localities or regions far from water, where it 
is found higher than a man on horseback. Cn the other hand, in all parts 
of th3 forest we find both mahogany and service, from low bushes a foot or 
more to 16 feet high and 2" to 4" in diameter, with no evidence of cropping. 
It -'ould seem that where a country is as fully stocked as this region is and 
has been that were these species as palatable as formerly considered, they 
would not have been able to reach such growth. Cn all but a few allotments 
these species are not only ungraded, but are hardly touched. The stock do 
not crop such browse species as a rule till there is a lack of all other 
forage, then they have to.' 

The question to my mind is, "Are we justified in allowing for this 
forced or possible utilization in arriving at the grazing capacity of a range?" 

It has been said that as yet we know very little about the value and 
capacity of brush land for C&JL Do we want to carry our capacity studies so 
far that we can say that stock can be fo rce d to eat such and such browse? 

Do we want to stock a browse range composed of such species of low 
palatability to a carrying capacity which was based on such conclusions? 

IT f 'S - TIM S POR A m/ "SUHGH 1 » 
' • By M. A.' Benedict, Sierra 

The bast thought and effort of every Forest officer in the Service has 
been directed to the cutting down of our losses from fire, and while we have 
some distance yet , to go to satisfy ourselves that the protection we are de- 
livering is adequate, yet I do not believe there will be any startling in- 
crease in suppression efficiency. It has largely settled down to a question 
of personnel. Personally, I feel that we can never attain a high degree of 
efficiency when we must depend as we do upon a constantly changing short-term 
force. It stands to reason that in a highly specialized work no organization 
can be consistently effective when the District Hanger or his protective force 
are new to their job. Via can develop the most detailed plans on earth, but 
back of all plans we must have some one who has training and experience to 
put them into effect. : 

Can anyone imagine a city fire department hiring a chief or a fireman 
without previous training, or without giving him training and a lot of it? 
Can you imagine them hiring a man for four months of the year and expecting 
the underwriters to give them the rating of an efficient organization? "7s 
do it and more, for our firemen are widely scattered and "on their own" in 
many suppression jobs. The wonder of it is that we get by at all. 

Fire is -a spectacular thing and the losses are like a wart on your 
hose - ycu can't help seeing them. Pbr that reason I believe we are over- 
looking another cause of loss simply because it doesn* t hit us hard enough 
to make an impression. I refer to our losses from bugs. In all our yellow 
pine stands we find the work of the Dendr oc t onus brev icomis . or pine beetle, 
and he is a persistent worker even when 'he is not present in epidemic numbers. 
It is estimated that under normal conditions he inflicts a loss of perhaps 
50 M feet per section in timber that runs 10 or 12 million to that unit. 
That means only 10 or 20 trees per section," and the forest officer who has not 
had much experience in "bug" work will hardly notice it. If they, the bugs, 
get on the rampage and reach the epidemic stage, the losses will run up to 
40 (bo 50 or more trees per section, and then vie commence to take notice. 
Visualize, if you will, the endemic loss grouped in a single place, as you 
see it in a fire. Imagine every section in your yellow pine type having about 
2 acres swept clean every year. You certainly wouldn't ask the District For- 
ester to hang any fire medals on you for such a record, but that is what is 
happening* I venture to say the California Forest lost more from bugs in fhe 
Upper Lake District last year than they have lost from fire in the last ten 
years , t including the Grindstone fire. On tho Sierra we have lost more from 
bugs on the Chiquito project alone in the last four years than we have from 
fire over the entire Forest for ten years. 


IT'S £11,13 FCR JJiM JKsSSS' ' ( -one luded ) 

Can we expect to raise timber with, a loss like this eating into our 
forest capital? On a hundred year rotation it probably means a loss of 25 
per cent. That means that one-fourth of our yellow pine type is idle be- 
cause of this one menace. What' s the answer? 

By P. 17. Cleator, P-6 

"Short skirts" is what the ranger proffered when I asked what he thought 
about the grove of little treos on the camping ground, all carefully limbed, 
each surmounted with its little tuft of foliage. 

Are wa to follow the style of women's dress in trimming trees on camp- 
ing grounds and ranger stations'' I have reason to believe that there is some 
disposition to copy the female vogue of the past few seasons from observa- 
tions made on a r-eent field trip of two months on three forests. 

The particular forester who named the style admitted that he was not 
responsible for the trimming and didn't exactly admire the looks of it, and 
believed that skirts were coming down anyway. Passing the buck, of course, 
yet neither of us could suggest a practical remedy for replacing the branches. 

A solitary example of this kind of treatment would call for little core 
than some casual advice or a m2mo. to the surgeon who had performed the oper- 
ation, but there were so many places with similar appearances that I began to 
figujps that some Pbrests must be specializing in it, and to wonder how far 
the infection had spread outside* 

I noticed that resort areas and summer home areas in the same region 
were treated similarly, or even more so. A natural grouping of brush and re- 
production, untouched, is a very beautiful and attractive asset. Mature does 
it about ss nearly correct as it can be done. 

What is the result of the "high skirt" method? Crooked. boles , knotty, 
gnarling, twisted effects, much like it may be with some women. In other 
cases we do. get a geometrically perfect pattern, a fine tooth harrow upside 
down - good silviculture probably, but poor landscaping. 

Here is a good, safe, general rul3 to follow: V/hen you stand with ax 
in hand, appraising the seedling, sapling, or brush, either trim it off at the 
££CHiid_level_ or let it a lone, In is does not refer to larger trees which must 
be trimmed to allow people to congregate underneath. 

Another suggestion is to leave some natural screens and barriers or 
hedges on a camping ground. Perhaps a large, mossy log will help to serve the 
purpose. It is much- better than to open it all into one large chamber. Camp- 
ers make of the camp ground th3ir temporary home. Vie all like a measure of 
seclusion wherever we are. In town we enjoy going -in a big mob to a picture 
show or to a funeral or a wedding, but we wouldn't care to sleep there even 
if they furnished tents. Sometimes two or three families, or the Ladi2s' Aid, 
would like to camp together. All right, we* II have one or more clearings for 
larger parties. T/e can not guarantee to suit any and every crowd and every 
occasion, but we can bat a good a?3rage by careful planning. If father can't 
go barefoot, or mother can't kick the dog and the children without being seen 
by the public they are going to move on to a cozy little nook somewhere, close 
to a heck of a big fire menace. . . 

PAUL IggAjTS EXPLOITS (Continued) 

Chapter XII. 

Cl iff Dw ellings wer e Chuck Boxes 

Archaeologists have long raised a hubbub ever what they call "cliff 
dwellings" and "ancient rains," and have advanced quaint hypotheses to ex- 
plain their origin. This mystery is nov/ cleared up, Maps aid. documents left 
by Range.,- 3.;rvan conclusively prove that these houses and caves were chuck 
boxes, wherein he stored emergency rations for his flying squadrons of husky 
fire fighters. 

We will admit - as a sop to the archaeologists and other pseudo-scien- 
tists - that these chuck boxes were perhaps later occupied by men of the stone 


PAUL BU-TYA I'T'S Iftffl^ (Continued) 

age,- hence the remnants of stone implements and pottery; but it is hoped that 
these revelations will forever end the volumes of drivel that have been heaped 
upon the world's bookshelves about a subject that is really very simple, if 
these yarns are to be believed. . " ; 

Chapter XIII. 

The First Bone Dry ?dict 

The cause of the semiaridity of th? southwestern climate is one of 
those scientific puzzles that has at once fascinated and baffled the greatest 
savants. It is for this reason that we take a special pleasure in unravelling 
the mystery and imputing the effect to its real cause - Ranger Bunyan. 

Erom his fragmentary di3ry it can be deduced that in the era of his 
Rangership there arose a great world war which was caused primarily by the 
efforts of a remote ancestor of Senacherib I to spread Assyrian kultur among 
the Aztecs. 

During this war the North American continent was swept by a wave of 
moral reform, and an edict broadcast to the effect that "the country must b;- 
bone dry. " 

Now Paul liked his mug of ale. Besides he was a clever fellow. He 
succeeded in intercepting this message, which was destined for the police, ard 
roguishly delivered it to a guileless old climatologist who was in charge of 
the U. S. Weather Bureau at Tezcucazcopopocatapetl (now Yuma, Arizona). The 
old fellow interpreted the message literally, and the resultant drouth was 
appalling. In a year the magnificent forests of the region were blackened 
skeletons, and in a few years had almost totally disappeared except on the 
mountain tops. It was only when Paul, backed by a committee of the £attle 
Barons' Union, threatened physical violence that the old man relented and 
permitted those slight showers that still fall in alternate years on most of 
the mountains and some of the plains of Arizona and New Mexico. 

(To Be Continued) 


The first legislation against forest fir3S in California was in the 
form of a proclamation issued by Governor Jose Joaquin Arrillaga, undor date 
of May 31, 1793, from Santa Barbara. It was enclosed in a letter which he 
sent father Presidenta Lasuen, who was stationed at Mission San Carlos, and 
as the successor of Father Junipera Serra was the head of the California 

It appears that in the early days Indians, Christians and Gentiles had 
been careless in starting fires. Part of Governor Arrillaga' s letter to 
Father Lasuen is as follows: 

"About the serious damages that result from fires which every year the 
Indians, Christians and Gentiles start in the fields, etc., I have taken 
steps to publish the following proclamation. I forward it to your reverence 
with the petition and request that you be pleased to make it known to all the 
Reverend Missionaries, in order that on their part they contribute to this 
just measure, and that th3y threaten the Christian Indians with rigors of 
justice in case fires ar3 started, etc." 

According to Father laglehardt' s history, Father Lasuen accordingly 
Sent a circular to all the missionaries with instructions to publish the 
proclamation, to place a copy in the archives and to republish it annually. 

This proclamation is said by Father 3nglehardt to have been published 
or read ^ach year by the missionaries up to 18C4, the year that Governor Jose 
Joaquin Arrillaga died. 

No penalties were fixed in thj proclamation, but punishment was threat- 
ened for violation of the executive order. 

Prom the Santa Barbara Morning Press. 



Snring Sp CQS.. in , Pennsylvania: That eastern States have fire troubles of no 
small proportion, and that fires during the spring of 1923 were of more than 
ordinary severity, are two facts brought out by the fire statistics for Penn- 
sylvania, That State had 2,766 fires during the period from January 1 to 
June 1. The area burned totaled 321,085 acres, of which 9,258 acres belonged 
to the State. The damage is placed at $667,372 and the cost of fighting the 
fires at f 107,687. 

Tree -pla nting Records Broken in New York State: All previous records in plant- 
ing forest trees on private land in New York State were eclipsed during the 
spring season just passed, according to an announcement by the New York State 
College of Forestry. The increase in reforestation by individuals and cor- 
porations is proof of a growing conviction on the part of landowners of the 
necessity for planting forest trees on idle land to provide future timber. 
It is also an indication that the profits to bo derived from reforestation 
are appealing more and more to the people. 

A record of trees planted in New York since 1911 on public and private 
land is interesting in that it shows the active and inactive localities in 
this conservation work. The total number of trees planted in the State of 
New York since 1911, as far as it is possible to tabulate them, is 56,691,691. 
During the war, reforestation fell off perceptibly but has recovered, and this 
spring broke all records with regard to private land. The addition of trees 
to be set out this fall v/ill undoubtedly bring the total for the year beyond 
all previous planting operations on both public and private holdings, 

Lumbermen Han to Eight Blister Bust; The Northwestern Lumbermen's Association 
has mailed letters to 4,200 retail lumber dealers in Minnesota, North Dakota, 
South Dakota and Iowa, asking for a contribution of $5 from each of them for 
the purpose of conducting a campaign against blister rust. 

— From the Pennsylvania Service Letter. 

A_New_Bo ok. on th eJWorld' s Fores t_Resgu rc os by Zpn.and.Spa rhavjk ; A new for- 
estry book entitled "Forest Resources of the World-," by Raphael 2on and William 
I. Sparhawk of the Washington office, with an introduction by Gifford Pinchot, 
is ready for distribution. It is published in two volumes by McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Penn Terminal Building, New York City. It contains 997 pages 
(size 6x9) and 16 colored maps. The price is $12. It can be ordered through 
any bookstore. The next Service Bulletin will contain a review of the two vol- 

Whg the BulleUn_G^t^Tjvis^ed_As_to Dates: No doubt everyone noticed that the 
July 16 issue of the Service Bulletin was distributed ahead of the July 9 
issue and marveled thereat. However, there is no mystery about it. It's 
simply another case of Forest Service proficiency. The mimeograph work on 
the July 9 issue was performed at the Division of Publications and was sub- 
jected to numerous delays, whereas the July 16 issue was mimeographed by the 
regular, highly- talented, and industrious Fbrcst Service force, consisting of 
Miss Selma Hadden and Mr. Joe Santucci, and consequently was ready for mail- 
ing at the usual time. 

feJteagGr^Cjfe A new ranger school, a branch of the New York 

State College of Forestry at Syracuse, is to be located near the side of the 
old building at Cranberry Lake in the Adirondacks. 

The ranger school is designed to furnish a preliminary forestry educa- 
tion to qualify one for forest ranger, or forest guard and other positions in 
thi management of forests. The course covers a period without any vacations 
from March to December, thus giving the student forest experience in all sea- 
sons of the year. Some students take this training before entering the reg- 
ular professional courses at the College of Forestry, Syracuse. 

Let*s Malco Iff ion P^ r Cent', rbrest officers are still obeying the urge to 
write. Twenty-seven of the 34 articles by Department workers listed in The 
Official Record of July 11 as appearing in current periodicals are by members 
of the Service. This is nearly a perfect score! 


Rugs? saumors xabqhasosx 

U ni v arsity. Authorit i :-s A utboriz ed to Deed Land for Laboratory: A bill wh arc- 
by the regents of the University of Wisconsin are authorized to give land 
for the Forest Products Laboratory to the Government was recently enacted by 
the State legislature. This provides that land adjudged suitable for the 
Laboratory, by the .Forest Service and the university, shall be deeded to the 
Government whenever the Federal authorities shall have available funds for 
the erection of such laboratories and shall have decided to locate them at 

Nation-wide. Test of Use of Paint on Wood : To determine the relative durabil- 
ity of common paints on different Kinds of wood and how best to paint the 
different species, fences are to be erected at almost a dozen different places 
throughout the United States by the Forest Service in cooperation with the 
Paint Llanuf ac tur ers ' Association and several large paint companies, according 
to a working plan just made. Fences will probably be used or erected at Madi- 
son, Milwaukee, Sayville, Long Island, Seattle, Denver, and Fargo, North Dakota. 
While the chief object of this test is to study the behavior of paint on the 
different woods, this will also be the first time a nation-wide test has been 
made which will show the influence of different climates on the durability of 

Lumber jack Ta lk: Sere is the way an injured woodsman explained how the accident 
in which he was hurt took place: "Oh, I was sky-hooking for old Simpson up the 
line, and I had a ground pig that was no good. He sent up a schoolma'am and 
she gunned, and 1 told him to throw a sag into her, but instead he gave her a 
St. Croix and could not hold her, I glomued for her and missed and fell across 
a log and cracked two of my slats." 

> 'Saj;e_th^_5urface ii and Yo_u_Sja 73 jiii" : a painted surface covering seemingly 
sound wood in one step of a ladder in our yard apparently proves that when 
'•you save the surface" you don't always "save all." Hot >6nly is the wood in 
part of the step spongy and without strength, but the fruiting body of the 
fungus is actually growing right through the painted surface. 


Who Says That Sheejemen ._e^e_jleaxtless? The following notice was posted by sheep 
permittees on the Colorado national Forest: 






Treating Plant Proposed on Cochetopa; The Trinchera Timber Company, operating 
on the Cochetopa Forest, is planning on the construction of a treating plant, 
probably at Salida, for the treatment of posts and poles for use in the Rocky 
fountain region and some of the immediately eastern States. If this is estab- 
lished as planned, it will be the first treating plant of this character in the 
region and may mark the beginning of an increased use of local timber for poles 
£.nd posts. 



Ca ll Him Smith; Sew Pbrest Assistant came out some tima ago to inspect fire 
situation. While at station fire reported on Squaw Peak. In making one of 
those Paul Revere starts Mr. Smith forgot to shake his saddle blankets, and 
about the time Mr. Smith hit the saddle a scorpion under the blankets started 
to work on old pinto. In falling, Mr. Smith's canteen also dislodged and hit 
him on the back of the head. When Smith came to (he being one of our best 
pencil artists) he entered on his inspection sheet under condition of horses - 
D fast on the get away but A - L - of a long way from being standardized. 

Forest Se r vice Gets Honor s in Parade : A Forest Service float designed by Mr. 
Cook of the District Office of Public Relations and built by him for the 
Santa Fe with the assistance of Forest .assistant Fred H. Miller and Ranger 
T. J. Ground was entered in the big parade at the Ninth Annual Cowboys* Re- 
union at Las Vegas, Hew Mexico, July 2. Three prizes v/ere offered by the 
Reunion Association for best floats. The Forest Service did not, of course, 
compete for a money prize, but the judges awarded second place to the float 
and complimented the Service on the clear-cut message conveyed by the make-up. 
First honor was taken by a float entered by the Montezuma College. It is un- 
derstood the award earned by the Forest Service float was carried on down to 
the contestant next in line. 

Senora Plans for F orestry Service; According to advice received hero, Mexican 
officials are planning to organize a forestry service to preserve the timber 
areas and to fight destructive fires. This information was received by the 
Sbgales Chamber of Commerce from General Iduardo Garcia, commander of the 
Sonora Fiscal Guards, who stated that government interests in Mexico were look- 
ing into the matter thoroughly and that organized protection of the forests 
could be expected at an early date. All members of the Fiscales have been 
ordered to cooperate with the United States forestry service in every possible 

3rush_p_ispos al Expe riments: In addition to the standard practice of piling 
and burning, lopping and scattering and pulling, with fire lines piled and 
burned, the following experiments are either under way or contemplated in the 
near x'uture. 1. Piling and burning through cooperative deposits where the 
Service does the actual work. Z. What may be termed "protective burning" 
where the brush is piled for a distance of 50 feet around all standing trees 
and clumps of reproduction, the actual work to be done by the Service through 
cooperative deposits. 3. Intensive fire patrol in lieu of brush disposal. 
Under this plan standard fire lines will be constructed and an intensive fire 
patrol will be maintained for a number of years by cooperative deposits for 
the operator. With the result of these experimsnts known and analyzed, we 
should be in a fair way to solve the brush disposal problem in this District. 


Cla use Concerning Sand ing of Locomo tive Flues Inserted in Timber Sale Contract; 
The Acting District Forester recently approved a timber sale contract with 
the Swayne Lumber Company, involving 167,000,000 feet b. m. , to be cut before 
December 31, 1938, About 50 per cent of the stumpage involved is white and 
red fir and the logging conditions are difficult. This is reflected in the 
stumpage rates, which are as follows; yellow, Jeffrey and white pine, $3 per M; 
sugar pine &3.50 per M; white fir, lodgepole pine, Douglas fir and incense 
cedar, $1 per M. The following conditions, which were somewhat of an innova- 
tion, were inserted in this contract; 

"The purchaser shall designate definite points on his main line and 
spur tracks where the sanding of locomotive boiler flues shall be done. At 
such points the purchaser shall construct and keep clear fire lines on each 
side of the track, such lines to be at least 3 feet wide and located approx- 
imately 50 feet from the center line of the track. The area between the track 
and fire lines shall be cleared of inflammable material by burning in a man- 
ner and at a time satisfactory to the Forest officer in charge. 


II STRICT 5 ( Cont. ) 

"The- purchaser further agrees that if, in ths judgment of ths 5brest 
Supervisor, ths plan for sanding of flues as outlined proves inadequate to 
prevent the setting out of fires a] ong his railroad track as a result of his 
railroad operations, he will construct such fire lines and clear his right 
of way of all inflammable material at such points as may be designated by 
the Forest officer in charge on or near Government land." 

The system of clearing definite points for sanding locomotive flues 
along logging railroad tracks has been experimented with in the Pacific Forth- 
west and is recognized there as a very valuable fire prevention measure. It 
seems desirable for other Forests to consider the use of this clause in con- 
nection with contracts involving logging railroads, particularly where consid- 
erable t